The Berean Expositor
Volume 21 - Page 150 of 202
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"I had not known sin (ginosko, a personal knowledge that influences one), but by the
law, for I had not known (eideo, known anything of, perceived) lust, except the law had
said, Thou shalt not covet."
While faith is most intimately connected with salvation (Rom. 1: 16, 10: 10), and
righteousness  (Rom. 1: 17,  3: 22)  in the inner section,  perception, knowledge,
reckoning and yielding take the place of faith and believing. In Rom. 4: God alone
does the "reckoning", "imputing" and "counting", whereas in Rom. 6: 11 it is the
believer himself who is exhorted to "reckon" himself dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto
God through Christ. Rom. 6: 13 speaks of "yielding",  7: 6 speaks of "serving",
which yielding and serving are foreign to the earlier portion of the epistle. We must
allow these facts place, our understanding must be governed by them, and not by what we
think, feel or expect.
Let us now return to Rom. 5: to learn a little more of its teaching. Verses 13-17 form
a parenthesis, and we must see to it that we do not miss its lesson. The parenthesis is in
two parts, each part being subdivided into three sections, and each corresponding section
commencing with the same words. Surely we ought to praise God for so graciously
placing these guides in His Word where at first the difficulties seem overwhelming.
Rom. 5: 15-17.
d | 15. "But not as" (All'ouch hos).
e | 15. "For if by the (fall) of one" (Ei gar to tou henos).
f | 15. "Much more" (Pollo mallon).
d | 16. "And not as" (Kai ouch hos).
e | 17. "For if by the (fall) of one" (Ei gar to tou henos).
f | 17. "Much more" (Pollo mallon).
"But not as the offence, so also is the free gift."
"And not as it was by one that sinned so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to
condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification."
THE OFFENCE (paraptoma).--This word is used as an equivalent or variant of
hamartia, "sin" in verse 12. It is sin given a further definition. Hamartia, like the
Hebrew chattah, means  "to miss the mark",  "to come short".  This is called a
"transgression" in verse 14, because it was not a sin of ignorance.  This word
transgression is parabasis from parabaino, "to go beside", "to deviate". It is called an
"offence" (paraptoma) in verse 15. This word is sometimes translated "sin" (Eph. 1: 7,
2: 5; Col. 2: 13), "trespass" (Eph. 2: 1; Col. 2: 13), "fault" (Gal. 6: 1; James 5: 16),
and "fall" (Rom. 11: 11, 12).
Parapipto, the verb from which "offence" comes, is found in Heb. 6: 6, "fall away",
and in the LXX it sometimes has the meaning of apostacy. Pipto means "to fall".
To fall, as a house (Matt. 7: 27). To fall, as a seed sown (Matt. 13: 4, 7, 8). To fall, as
crumbs (Matt. 15: 27). To fall on one's face as a suppliant (Luke 5: 12). To fall into a
ditch (Luke 6: 39). To fall after stumbling (Rom. 11: 11). To fall, in contrast with
standing (Rom. 14: 4). The word is sometimes translated "to fail" (Luke 16: 17). In