VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
PREVIOUS - NEXT CHAPTER - INDEX
Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Holding (kratountav). Holding fast or firmly. See on Mark vii. 3; Acts iii. 11.
The four angels. Compare Matt. xxiv. 31.
The interpretation of the latter class seems entitled to the greater weight. According to the Apocalyptic usage, Jewish terms are "christianized and heightened in their meaning, and the word "Israel" is to be understood of all Christians, the blessed company of all faithful people, the true Israel of God." See Rom. ii. 28, 29; ix. 6, 7; Gal. vi. 16; Philip. iii. 3. The city of God, which includes all believers, is designated by the Jewish name, New Jerusalem. In verse 3, the sealed are designated generally as the servants of God. In chapter 14 the one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed are mentioned after the description of the enemies of Christ, who have reference to the whole Church of Christ; and the mention of the sealed is followed by the world-wide harvest and vintage of the earth. The one hundred and forty-four thousand in chapter 14., have the Father's name written in their foreheads; and in chapter xxii. 4, all the inhabitants of the New Jerusalem are so marked. In chapter xxi. 12, the twelve tribes include all believers. The mark of Satan which is in the forehead, is set upon all his servants without distinction of race. See chapter xiii. 16, 17; xiv. 9; xvi. 2; xix. 20; xx. 4. The plagues threaten both Jews and Gentiles, as the sealing protects all.
Arrayed (peribeblhmenoi). See on chapter iii. 5.
Robes. See on chapter vi. 11.
"The ancient scriptures and the new The mark establish, and this shows it me, Of all the souls whom God hath made His friends. Isaiah saith that each one garmented In His own land shall be with twofold garments, 81 And his own land is this delightful life. Thy brother, too, 82 far more explicitly, There where he treateth of the robes of white, This revelation manifests to us." Dante, "Paradiso," xxv., 88-96.
Palms (foinikev). Properly, palm-trees, but used here of palm-branches. Not a heathen but a Jewish image drawn probably from the Feast of Tabernacles. See on John vii. 2.
Salvation. The praise of salvation, ascribing salvation to God.
What are these, etc. The Rev., properly, follows the Greek order, which places first "These which are arrayed in the white robes, who are they?" emphatic and indicating the natural order of the thought as it presents itself to the inquirer. For what, render who, as Rev.
Sir (kurie). Add mou my, and render, as Rev., my Lord. An address of reverence as to a heavenly being. See on Matt. xxi. 3.
Which came (oi ercomenoi). The present participle. Hence, as Rev., which come.
Out of great tribulation (ek thv qliyewv thv megalhv). Lit., out of the tribulation, the great (tribulation). Rev., properly, gives the force of the article, "the great." See on Matt. xiii. 21.
Have washed (eplunan). The aorist tense. Rev., correctly, they washed. Only here and Luke v. 2, on which see note. For the New Testament words for washing, see on Acts xvi. 33.
Made them white. Compare Isa. i. 18; Ps. li. 7; Mark ix. 3. Milligan remarks that robes are the expression of character, and compares the word habit used of dress.
Before the throne. Compare Eph. v. 27.
Serve (latreuousin). See on Luke i. 74. In scripture the verb never expresses any other service but that of the true God, or of the gods of heathenism.
Temple (naw). Or sanctuary. See on Matt. iv. 5.
Dwell (skhnwsei). From skhnh a tent or tabernacle. Hence better, as Rev., shall spread His tabernacle. See on John i. 14, and compare Lev. xxvi. 11; Isa. iv. 5, 6; Ezek. xxxvii. 27.
Heat (kauma). In Isa. xlix. 10, the word kauswn the scorching wind or sirocco is used. See on Matt. xx. 12; Jas. i. 11.
Shall feed (poimanei). See on shall be shepherd of, Matt. ii. 6; Acts xx. 28; 1 Pet. v. 2. Compare Ps. xxiii. 1.
Shall lead (odhghsei). See on Luke vi. 39.
Living fountains of waters (zwsav phgav udatwn). For the participle living, read zwhv of life, and render as Rev., fountains of waters of life. Compare Ps. xxiii. 2. In the Greek order, of life stands first as emphatic. All tears (pan dakruon). Rev., correctly, every tear. (Compare Isaiah xxv. 8.