Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT


vers 1.
These things (tauta). Read touto this.

Holding (kratountav). Holding fast or firmly. See on Mark vii. 3; Acts iii. 11.

vers 2.
East (anatolhv hliou). Rev., more literally, the sunrising. See on Matt. ii. 2; Luke i. 78. Compare Ezek. xliii. 2.

The four angels. Compare Matt. xxiv. 31.

vers 3.
In their foreheads. Compare Exod. xxviii. 3; 6-38; Ezek. ix. 4.

vers 4.
An hundred and forty and four thousand. Not literally, but the number symbolical of fixedness and full completion (12 x 12). The interpretations, as usual, vary greatly, dividing generally into two great classes: one holding that only Jews are meant, the other including the whole number of the elect both Jew and Gentile. Of the former class some regard the sealed as representing Jewish believers chosen out of the literal Israel. Others add to this the idea of these as forming the nucleus of glorified humanity to which the Gentiles are joined. Others again regard them as Jews reserved by God until Antichrist comes, to maintain in the bosom of their nation a true belief in Jehovah and His law, like the seven thousand in the days of Elijah.

The interpretation of the latter class seems entitled to the greater weight. According to the Apocalyptic usage, Jewish terms are "christianized and heightened in their meaning, and the word "Israel" is to be understood of all Christians, the blessed company of all faithful people, the true Israel of God." See Rom. ii. 28, 29; ix. 6, 7; Gal. vi. 16; Philip. iii. 3. The city of God, which includes all believers, is designated by the Jewish name, New Jerusalem. In verse 3, the sealed are designated generally as the servants of God. In chapter 14 the one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed are mentioned after the description of the enemies of Christ, who have reference to the whole Church of Christ; and the mention of the sealed is followed by the world-wide harvest and vintage of the earth. The one hundred and forty-four thousand in chapter 14., have the Father's name written in their foreheads; and in chapter xxii. 4, all the inhabitants of the New Jerusalem are so marked. In chapter xxi. 12, the twelve tribes include all believers. The mark of Satan which is in the forehead, is set upon all his servants without distinction of race. See chapter xiii. 16, 17; xiv. 9; xvi. 2; xix. 20; xx. 4. The plagues threaten both Jews and Gentiles, as the sealing protects all.

vers 9.
I saw. This vision belongs to heaven, while the sealing took place on earth.

Arrayed (peribeblhmenoi). See on chapter iii. 5.

Robes. See on chapter vi. 11.

"The ancient scriptures and the new The mark establish, and this shows it me, Of all the souls whom God hath made His friends. Isaiah saith that each one garmented In His own land shall be with twofold garments, 81 And his own land is this delightful life. Thy brother, too, 82 far more explicitly, There where he treateth of the robes of white, This revelation manifests to us." Dante, "Paradiso," xxv., 88-96.

Palms (foinikev). Properly, palm-trees, but used here of palm-branches. Not a heathen but a Jewish image drawn probably from the Feast of Tabernacles. See on John vii. 2.

vers 10.
Cried. The correct reading is krazousin they cry. So Rev.

Salvation. The praise of salvation, ascribing salvation to God.

vers 11.
Stood (esthkesan). Rev., more correctly, were standing. The tense is the pluperfect, used in this verb as an imperfect.

vers 12.
Blessing, etc. On the doxologies, see on chapter i. 6.

vers 13.
Answered. In the sense of taking up speech in connection with some given occasion, as Matt. xi. 25. See also on John ii. 18.

What are these, etc. The Rev., properly, follows the Greek order, which places first "These which are arrayed in the white robes, who are they?" emphatic and indicating the natural order of the thought as it presents itself to the inquirer. For what, render who, as Rev.

vers 14.
I said (eirhka). Lit., I have said. Rev., renders by the present, I say. See on cried. John i. 15.

Sir (kurie). Add mou my, and render, as Rev., my Lord. An address of reverence as to a heavenly being. See on Matt. xxi. 3.

Which came (oi ercomenoi). The present participle. Hence, as Rev., which come.

Out of great tribulation (ek thv qliyewv thv megalhv). Lit., out of the tribulation, the great (tribulation). Rev., properly, gives the force of the article, "the great." See on Matt. xiii. 21.

Have washed (eplunan). The aorist tense. Rev., correctly, they washed. Only here and Luke v. 2, on which see note. For the New Testament words for washing, see on Acts xvi. 33.

Made them white. Compare Isa. i. 18; Ps. li. 7; Mark ix. 3. Milligan remarks that robes are the expression of character, and compares the word habit used of dress.

vers 15.
Therefore. Because of this washing.

Before the throne. Compare Eph. v. 27.

Serve (latreuousin). See on Luke i. 74. In scripture the verb never expresses any other service but that of the true God, or of the gods of heathenism.

Temple (naw). Or sanctuary. See on Matt. iv. 5.

Dwell (skhnwsei). From skhnh a tent or tabernacle. Hence better, as Rev., shall spread His tabernacle. See on John i. 14, and compare Lev. xxvi. 11; Isa. iv. 5, 6; Ezek. xxxvii. 27.

vers 16.
They shall hunger no more, etc. Compare Isa. xlix. 10.

Heat (kauma). In Isa. xlix. 10, the word kauswn the scorching wind or sirocco is used. See on Matt. xx. 12; Jas. i. 11.

vers 17.
In the midst (ana meson). See on chapter v. 6.

Shall feed (poimanei). See on shall be shepherd of, Matt. ii. 6; Acts xx. 28; 1 Pet. v. 2. Compare Ps. xxiii. 1.

Shall lead (odhghsei). See on Luke vi. 39.

Living fountains of waters (zwsav phgav udatwn). For the participle living, read zwhv of life, and render as Rev., fountains of waters of life. Compare Ps. xxiii. 2. In the Greek order, of life stands first as emphatic. All tears (pan dakruon). Rev., correctly, every tear. (Compare Isaiah xxv. 8.

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