Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT


vers 2.
Defiled (koinaiv). Lit., common; and so Rev. in margin, Wyc., and Tynd.

That is. Added by way of explanation to Gentile readers.

Oft (pugmh). Rev., diligently. A word which has given critics much difficulty, and on which it is impossible to speak decisively. The Rev. gives in the margin the simplest meaning, the literal one, with the fist; that is, rubbing the uncleansed hand with the other doubled. This would be satisfactory if there were any evidence that such was the custom in washing; but there is none. Edersheim (" Life and Times of Jesus," ii., 11, note) says "the custom is not in accordance with Jewish law." But he elsewhere says ("The Temple," 206, note), " For when water was poured upon the hands they had to be lifted, yet so that the water should neither run up above the wrist, nor back again upon the hand; best, therefore, by doubling the fingers into a fist. Hence (as Lightfoot rightly remarks) Mark vii. 3, should be translated except they wash their hands with the fist." Tischendorf, in his eighth edition, retains an ancient reading, pukna, frequently or diligently, which may go to explain this translation in so man;y of the versions (Gothic, Vulgate, Syriac). Meyer, with his usual literalism gives with the fist, which I am inclined to adopt.

Holding (kratountev). Strictly, holding, firmly or fast. So Heb. iv. 14; Apoc. ii. 25; denoting obstinate adherence to the tradition.

vers 4.
Wash themselves (baptiswntai). Two of the most important manuscripts, however, read rJantiswntai, sprinkled themselves. See Rev., in margin. This reading is adopted by Westcott and Hort. The American Revisers insist on bathe, instead of wash, already used as a translation of niywntai (verse 3). The scope of this work does not admit of our going into the endless controversy to which this word has given rise. It will be sufficient to give the principal facts concerning its meaning and usage.

In classical Greek the primary meaning is to merse. Thus Polybius (i., 51, 6), describing a naval battle of the Romans and Carthaginians, says, "They sank (ebaptizon) many of the ships." Josephos ("Jewish War," iv., 3, 3), says of the crowds which flocked into Jerusalem at the time of the siege, " They overwhelmed (ebaptisan) the city." In a metaphorical sense Plato uses it of drunkenness: drowned in drink (bebaptismenoi, "Symposium," 176); of a youth overwhelmed (baptizomenon) with the argument of his adversary ("Euthydemus," 277).

In the Septuagint the verb occurs four times: Isa. xxi. 4, Terror hath frighted me. Septuagint, Iniquity baptizes me (baptizei); 2 Kings v. 15, of Naaman's dipping himself in Jordan (ebaptisato); Judith xii. 7, Judith washing herself (ebaptizeto) at the fountain; Sirach xxxi. 25, being baptized (baptizomenov) from a dead body.

The New Testament use of the word to denote submersion for a religious purpose, may be traced back to the Levitical washings. See Lev. xi. 32 (of vessels); xi. 40 (of clothes); Num. viii. 6, 7 (sprinkling with purifying water); Exod. xxx. 19, 21 (of washing hands and feet). The word appears to have been at that time the technical term for such washings (compare Luke xi. 38; Heb. ix. 10; Mark vii. 4), and could not therefore have been limited to the meaning immerse. Thus the washing of pots and vessels for ceremonial purification could not have been by plunging them in water, which would have rendered impure the whole body of purifying water. The word may be taken in the sense of washing or sprinkling.

"The Teaching of the Apostles" (see on Matt. x. 10) throws light on the elastic interpretation of the term, in its directions for baptism. "Baptize - in living (i.e., running) water. But if thou hast not living water, baptize in other water; and if thou canst not in cold, then in warm. But if thou hast neither, pour water upon the head thrice into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit " (Chapter 7.). Pots (xestwn). Another of Mark's Latin words, adapted from the Latin sextarius, a pint measure. Wyc., cruets. Tynd., cruses.

Brazen vessels (calkiwn). More literally, copper.

Tables (klinwn). Omitted in some of the best manuscripts and texts, and by Rev. The A.V. is a mistranslation, the word meaning couches. If this belongs in the text, we certainly cannot explain baptismouv as immersion.

vers 6.
Well (kalwv). Finely, beautifully. Ironical.

vers 10.
Honor. Wyc. has worship. Compare his rendering of Matt. vi. 2, "That they be worshipped of men;" xiii. 57, "A prophet is not without worship but in his own country; " and especially John xii. 26, If any man serve me, my Father shall worship him."

Die the death (qanatw teleutatw). Lit., come to an end by death. See on Matt. xv. 4.

vers 11.
Corban. Mark only gives the original word, and then translates. See on Matt. xv. 5.

vers 13.
Making of none effect. Rev., making void. See on Matt. xv. 6. Ye handed down. Note the past tense, identifying them for the moment with their forefathers. Compare Matt. xiii. 35, Ye slew. Christ views the Jewish persecutors and bigots, ancient and modern, as a whole, actuated by one spirit, and ascribes to one section what was done by another.

vers 17.
The disciples. Matthew says Peter. There is no discrepancy. Peter spoke for the band.

vers 18.
So. So unintelligent as not to understand what I uttered to the crowd.

vers 19.
Draught (afedrwna). Liddell and Scott give only one definition - a privy, cloaca; and derive from edra, seat, breech, fundament. Compare English stool. The word does not refer to a part of the body.

Purging all meats (kaqarizwn panta ta brwmata). According to the A.V. these words are in apposition with draught: the draught which makes pure the whole of the food, since it is the place designed for receiving the impure excrements.

Christ was enforcing the truth that all defilement comes from within. This was in the face of the Rabbinic distinctions between clean and unclean meats. Christ asserts that Levitical uncleanness, such as eating with unwashed hands, is of small importance compared with moral uncleanness. Peter, still under the influence of the old ideas, cannot understand the saying and asks an explanation (Matt. xv. 15), which Christ gives in verses 18-23. The words purging all meats (Rev., making all meats clean) are not Christ's, but the Evangelist's, explaining the bearing of Christ's words; and therefore the Rev. properly renders, this he said (italics), making all meats clean. This was the interpretation of Chrysostom, who says in his homily on Matthew: "But Mark says that he said these things making all meats pure." Canon Farrar refers to a passage cited from Gregory Thaumaturgus: "And the Savior, who purifies all meats, says." This rendering is significant in the light of Peter's vision of the great sheet, and of the words, " What God hath cleansed " (ekaqarise), in which Peter probably realized for the first time the import of the Lord's words on this occasion. Canon Farrar remarks: "It is doubtless due to the fact that St. Peter, the informant of St. Mark, in writing his Gospel, and as the sole ultimate authority for this vision in the Acts is the source of both narratives, - that we owe the hitherto unnoticed circumstance that the two verbs, cleanse and profane (or defile), both in a peculiarly pregnant sense, are the two most prominent words in the narrative of both events " (" Life and Work of Paul," i., 276-7).

vers 21.
Evil Thoughts (dialogismoi oi kakoi). Thoughts, those which are evil. So Rev., in margin. Thoughts that are evil. The word dialogismoi, thoughts, does not in itself convey a bad sense; and hence the addition of adjectives denoting evil, as here and Jas. ii. 4. Radically, it carries the idea of discussion or debate, with an under-thought of suspicion or doubt, either with one's own mind, as Luke v. 22; vi. 8; or with another, Luke ix. 46; Philip. ii. 14; Rom. xiv. 1.

vers 22.
Wickedness (ponhriai). Plural. Rev., wickednesses. From ponein, to toil. The adjective ponhrov means, first, oppressed by toils; then in bad case or plight, from which it runs into the sense of morally bad. This conception seems to have been associated by the high-born with the life of the lower, laboring, slavish class; just as our word knave (like the German knabe from which it is derived) originally meant simply a boy or a servant-lad. As ponov means hard, vigorous labor, battle for instance, so the adjective ponhrov, in a moral sense, indicates active wickedness. So Jeremy Taylor: "Aptness to do shrewd turns, to delight in mischiefs and tragedies; a loving to trouble one's neighbor and do him ill offices." Ponhrov, therefore, is dangerous, destructive. Satan is called oJ ponhrov, the wicked one. Kakov, evil (see evil thoughts, verse 21), characterizes evil rather as defect: " That which is not such as, according to its nature, destination, and idea it might be or ought to be" (Cremer). Hence of incapacity in war; of cowardice (kakia). Kakov doulov, the evil servant, in Matt. xxiv. 48, is a servant wanting in proper fidelity and diligence. Thus the thoughts are styled evil, as being that which, in their nature and purpose, they ought not to be. Matthew, however (xv. 19), calls these thoughts ponhroi, the thoughts in action, taking shape in purpose. Both adjectives occur in Apoc. xvi. 2.

Lasciviousness (aselgeia). Derivation unknown. It includes lasciviousness, and may well mean that here; but is often used without this notion. In classical Greek it is defined as violence, with spiteful treatment and audacity. As in this passage its exact meaning is not implied by its being classed with other kindred terms, it would seem better to take it in as wide a sense as possible - that of lawless insolence and wanton caprice, and to render, with Trench, wantonness, since that word, as he remarks, "stands in remarkable ethical connection with ajselgeia, and has the same duplicity of meaning" ("Synonyms of the New Testament"). At Romans xiii. 13, where lasciviousness seems to be the probable meaning, from its association with chambering (koitaiv), it is rendered wantonness in A.V. and Rev., as also at 2 Pet. ii. 18.

Evil eye (ofqalmov ponhrov). A malicious, mischief-working eye, with the meaning of positive, injurious activity. See on wickednesses.

Blasphemy (blasfhmia). The word does not necessarily imply blasphemy against God. It is used of reviling, calumny, evil-speaking in general. See Matt. xxvii. 39; Rom. iii. 8; xiv. 16; 1 Pet. iv. 4, etc. Hence Rev. renders railing.

Pride (uperhfania). From uJper, above, and fainesqai, to show one's self. The picture in the word is that of a man with his head held high above others. It is the sin of an uplifted heart against God and man. Compare Prov. xvi. 5; Rom. xii. 16 (mind not high things); 1 Tim. iii. 6.

vers 24.
Went away. See on chapter vi. 31. The entering into the house and the wish to be secluded are peculiar to Mark.

vers 25.
Daughter (qugatrion). Diminutive. Rev., little daughter. See on chapter v. 23.

vers 26.
Syro-Phoenician. Phoenician of Syria, as distinguished from a Libyo-Phoenician of North Africa, Libya being often used for Africa.

vers 27.
Let the children first be filled. Peculiar to Mark.

The dogs. Diminutive. See on Matt. xv. 26.

vers 28.
Mark adds under the table.

The children's crumbs. See on Matt. xv. 26. This would indicate that the little dogs were pet dogs of the children, their masters.

29, 30. Peculiar to Mark.

Laid (beblhmenon). Lit., thrown. She had probably experienced some fearful convulsion when the demon departed. Compare Mark ix. 22, of the demon which possessed the boy: "It hath cast him, etc. (ebalen)." See also Mark i. 26; ix. 26.

32-37. A narrative peculiar to Mark.

vers 32.
Deaf (kwfon). See on Matt. ix. 32.

Had an impediment in his speech (mogilalon). Mogiv, with difficulty; lalov, speaking. Not absolutely dumb. Compare he spake plain, verse 35.

vers 33.
Put (ebalen). Lit., threw: thrust.

vers 35.
Plain (orqwv). Lit., rightly. So Wyc.

vers 36.
Charged (diesteilato). The verb means, first, to separate; then to define or distinguish; and as that which is separated and distinguished is emphasized, to command or straitly charge.

vers 37.
Astonished. See on Matt. vii. 28.

To speak (lalein). See on Matt. xxviii. 18. The emphasis is not on the matter, but on the fact of speech.

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