VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
1 PETER 3
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Be in subjection (upotassomenai). Lit., being in subjection, or submitting yourselves; the same word which is used of the submission of servants (ch. ii. 18).
Be won (kerdhqhsontai). Rev., be gained. The word used by Christ, Matt. xviii. 15: "gained thy brother."
Coupled with fear (en fobw). Lit., in fear.
Putting on (endusewv). Only here in New Testament. Female extravagance in dress in the days of the empire reached an alarming pitch.
Of great price (polutelev). The word used to describe costly raiment, 1 Timothy ii. 9.
The woman (tw gunaikeiw). Not a noun, however, as would appear from the ordinary rendering, but an adjective, agreeing with skeuei, vessel, as does also ajsqenesterw, weaker. Both are attributes of vessel; the female vessel as weaker. So Rev., in margin.
Vessel (skeuei). Compare 1 Thess. iv. 4. The primary idea of vessel, which is formed from the Latin vasellum, the diminutive of vas, a vase, is that of the receptacle which covers and contains; the case or protecting cover. Hence it is allied, etymologically, with vest, vestment, and wear. It is used in the New Testament
(1) in the sense of a cup or dish (Luke viii. 16; John xix. 29; 2 Timothy ii. 20; Apoc. ii. 27; xviii. 12).
(2) Of the man, as containing the divine energy, or as a subject of divine mercy or wrath, and hence becoming a divine instrument. Thus Paul is a chosen vessel to bear God's name (Acts ix. 15). Vessels of wrath (Rom. ix. 22); of mercy (Rom. ix. 23). So of the woman, as God's instrument, along with man, for his service in the family and in society.
(3) Collectively, in the plural, of all the implements of any particular economy, as a house, or a ship. Matt. xii. 29, goods; Acts xxvii. 17, the tackling or gear of a ship.
Giving (aponemontev). Only here in New Testament. The word means, literally, to portion out, and is appropriate to the husband as controlling what is to be meted out to the wife.
Hindered (egkoptesqai). So A.V. and Rev., and the best texts, and the majority of commentators. The word means, literally, to knock in; make an incision into; and hence, generally, to hinder or thwart (Gal. v. 7; 1 Thessalonians ii. 18). Some, however, read ejkkoptesqai, to cut off or destroy.
Having compassion one of another (sumpaqeiv). Only here in New Testament, though the kindred verb is found Heb. iv. 15; x. 34. The rendering is needlessly diffuse. Rev., much better, compassionate; sympathetic, in margin. Interchange of fellow-feeling in joy or sorrow. Our popular usage errs in limiting sympathy to sorrow.
Love as brethren (filadelfoi). Rev., more strictly, loving as brethren. Only here in New Testament.
Pitiful (eusplagcnoi). Only here and Eph. iv. 32. Rev., better, tender-hearted. From eu, well, and splagcna, the nobler entrails, which are regarded as the seat of the affections, and hence equivalent to our popular use of heart. The original sense has given rise to the unfortunate translation bowels in the A.V., which occurs in its literal meaning only at Acts i. 18.
Courteous. The A.V. has here followed the reading of the Tex. Rec., filofronev. But the best texts read tapeinofronev, humble-minded. So Rev. This occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, though the kindred noun tapeinofrosunh, humility, is found often. See on tapeinov, lowly, notes on Matt. xi. 29.
Blessing (eulogountev). Not a noun governed by rendering, but a participle. Be not rendering evil, but be blessing.
Be troubled (taracqhte). The word used of Herod's trouble (Matthew ii. 3); of the agitation of the pool of Bethesda (John v. 4); of Christ's troubled spirit (John xii. 27).
Ready to give an answer (etoimoi prov apologian). Lit., ready for an answer. Answer is our word apology, not in the popular sense of excuse, but in the more radical sense of defence. So it is translated Acts xxii. 1; Philip. i. 7, 16. Clearing of yourselves, 2 Cor. vii. 11. Meekness. See on Matt. v. 5.
Conscience is a faculty. The mind may "possess reason and distinguish between the true and the false, and yet be incapable of distinguishing between virtue and vice. We are entitled, therefore, to hold that the drawing of moral distinctions is not comprehended in the simple exercise of the reason. The conscience, in short, is a different faculty of the mind from the mere understanding. We must hold it to be simple and unresolvable till we fall in with a successful decomposition of it into its elements. In the absence of any such decomposition we hold that there are no simpler elements in the human mind which will yield us the ideas of the morally good and evil, of moral obligation and guilt, of merit and demerit. Compound and decompound all other ideas as you please, associate them together as you may, they will never give us the ideas referred to, so peculiar and full of meaning, without a faculty implanted in the mind for this very purpose" (McCosh, "Divine Government, Physical and Moral"). Conscience is a sentiment: i.e., it contains and implies conscious emotions which arise on the discernment of an object as good or bad. The judgment formed by conscience awakens sensibility. When the judicial faculty pronounces a thing to be lovable, it awakens love. When it pronounces it to be noble or honorable, it awakens respect and admiration. When it pronounces it to be cruel or vile, it awakens disgust and abhorrence. In scripture we are to view conscience, as Bishop Ellicott remarks, not in its abstract nature, but in its practical manifestations. Hence it may be weak (1 Cor. viii. 7, 12), unauthoritative, and awakening only the feeblest emotion. It may be evil or defiled (Heb. x. 22; Tit. i. 15), through consciousness of evil practice. It may be seared (1 Tim. iv. 2), branded by its own testimony to evil practice, hardened and insensible to the appeal of good. On the other hand, it may be pure (2 Tim. i. 3), unveiled, and giving honest and clear moral testimony. It may be void of offense (Acts xxiv. 16), unconscious of evil intent or act; good, as here, or honorable (Heb. xiii. 18). The expression and the idea, in the full Christian sense, are foreign to the Old Testament, where the testimony to the character of moral action and character is born by external revelation rather than by the inward moral consciousness.
Falsely accuse (ephreazontev). Compare Luke vi. 28; the only other passage where the word occurs, Matt. v. 44, being rejected from the best texts. The word means to threaten abusively; to act despitefully. Rev., revile.
In the flesh. The Greek omits the article. Read in flesh, the material form assumed in his incarnation.
In the spirit. Also without the article, in spirit; not as A.V., by the Spirit, meaning the Holy Ghost, but referring to his spiritual, incorporeal life. The words connect themselves with the death-cry on the cross: "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." Huther observes, "Flesh is that side of the man's being by which he belongs to earth, is therefore a creature of earth, and accordingly perishable like everything earthy. Spirit, on the other hand, is that side of his being according to which he belongs to a supernal sphere of being, and is therefore not merely a creature of earth, and is destined to an immortal existence."
Thus we must be careful and not understand spirit here of the Spirit of God, as distinguished from the flesh of Christ, but of the spiritual nature of Christ; "the higher spiritual nature which belonged to the integrity of his humanity" (Cook).
Went and preached (poreuqeiv ekhruxen). The word went, employed as usual of a personal act; and preached, in its ordinary New-Testament sense of proclaiming the Gospel.
To the spirits (pneumasin). As in Heb. xii. 23, of disembodied spirits, though the word yucai, souls, is used elsewhere (Apoc. vi. 9; xx. 4).
In prison (en fulakh). Authorities differ, some explaining by 2 Peter ii. 4; Jude 6; Apoc. xx. 7, as the final abode of the lost. Excepting in the last passage, the word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament in a metaphorical sense. It is often translated watch (Matt. xiv. 25; Luke ii. 8); hold and cage (Apoc. xviii. 2). Other explain as Hades, the kingdom of the dead generally.
By water (dia). Rev., through. Some take this as instrumental, by means of water; other as local, by passing through the water, or being brought safely through the water into the ark. Rev., in margin, were brought safely through water.
Putting away (apoqesiv). Peculiar to Peter. Here and 2 Pet. i. 14. Filth (rupou). Only here in New Testament. In classical Greek signifying especially dry dirt, as on the person.
Answer (eperwthma). Only here in New Testament. In classical Greek the word means a question and nothing else. The meaning here is much disputed, and can hardly be settled satisfactorily. The rendering answer has no warrant. The meaning seems to be (as Alford), "the seeking after God of a good and pure conscience, which is the aim and end of the Christian baptismal life." So Lange: "The thing asked may be conceived as follows: 'How shall I rid myself of an evil conscience? Wilt thou, most holy God, again accept me, a sinner? Wilt thou, Lord Jesus, grant me the communion of thy death and life? Wilt thou, O Holy Spirit, assure me of grace and adoption, and dwell in my heart?' To these questions the triune Jehovah answers in baptism, 'Yea!' Now is laid the solid foundation for a good conscience. The conscience is not only purified from its guilt, but it receives new vital power by means of the resurrection of Jesus Christ." This is the sense of ejperwtan eijv, in the only place where it occurs in scripture, 2 Sam. xi. 7 (Sept.): "David asked of him how Joab did (eperwthsen eiv eirhnhn Iwab)." Lit., with reference to the peace of Joab. Rev. renders, the interrogation, and puts inquiry, appeal, in margin.