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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 3)



3:1 {In like manner} (homoi“s). Adverb closely connected with hupotassomenoi, for which see 2:18.
{Ye wives} (gunaikes). Without article. About wives see also Col 3:18; Eph 5:22; Tit 2:4.
{To your own husbands} (tois idiois andrasin). Idiois occurs also in Ephesians and Titus, but not in Colossians. It strengthens the idea of possession in the article tois. Wives are not enjoined to be in subjection to the husbands of other women, as some think it fine to be (affinities!) {Even if any obey not the word} (kai ei tines apeithousin t“i log“i). Condition of first class and dative case of logos (1:23,25; 2:8), that is, remain heathen.
{That they be gained} (hina kerdˆthˆsontai). Purpose clause with hina and first future passive indicative of kerdain“, old verb, to gain (from kerdos, gain, interest) as in Mt 18:15. See the future with hina also in Lu 20:10; Re 3:9.
{Without the word} (aneu logou). Probably here "word from their wives" (Hart), the other sense of logos (talk, not technical "word of God").
{By the behaviour of their wives} (dia tˆs t“n gunaik“n anastrophˆs). Won by pious living, not by nagging. Many a wife has had this blessed victory of grace.

3:2 {Beholding} (epopteusantes). First aorist active participle of epopteu“, for which see 2:12. See 2:12 also for anastrophˆn manner of life).
{Chaste} (hagnˆn). Pure because "in fear" (en phob“i), no word in the Greek for "coupled," fear of God, though in Eph 5:33 fear (reverence for) of the husband is urged.

3:3 {Whose adorning} (h“n kosmos). Genitive plural of the relative referring to gunaik“n (wives). Kosmos has here its old meaning of ornament (cf. our cosmetics), not the common one of world (Joh 17:5) considered as an orderly whole. "Mundus" in Latin is used in this double sense (ornament, world).
{Let it be} (est“). Imperative third singular of eimi. Not the outward adorning of plaiting the hair (ouch ho ex“then emplokˆs trich“n). The use of ouch here rather than (usual negative with the imperative) because of the sharp contrast in verse 4 (all'). The old adverb ex“then (from without) is in the attributive position like an adjective. Emplokˆ is a late word (from emplek“, to inweave, 2Ti 2:4; 2Pe 2:20) in Strabo, but often in the papyri for struggle as well as plaiting, here only in N.T.
{Of wearing} (perithese“s). Late and rare word (Galen, Arrian) from peritithˆmi (Mt 27:28), to put around, a placing around. Ornaments of gold were worn round the hair as nets and round the finger, arm, or ankle.
{Or of putting on} (enduse“s). Old word from endu“ (to put on), here only in N.T. Peter is not forbidding the wearing of clothes and ornaments by women, but the display of finery by contrast. Cf. 1Ti 2:9-13; Isa 3:16ff.

3:4 {But the hidden man of the heart} (all' ho kruptos tˆs kardias anthr“pos). Here anthr“pos is in contrast with kosmos just before. See Paul's use of anthr“pos for the outer and old, the inner and new man (2Co 4:16; Ro 7:22; Col 3:9; Eph 3:16; 4:22,24). See also the Jew en krupt“i (Ro 2:29) and what Jesus said about God seeing "in secret" (Mt 6:4,6).
{In the incorruptible apparel of a meek and quiet spirit} (en t“i aphthart“i tou hˆsuchiou kai prae“s pneumatos). No word in the Greek for "apparel" (kosm“i). For aphthartos see 1:4,23. For praus see Mt 5:5; 11:29. Pneuma (spirit) is here disposition or temper (Bigg), unlike any other use in the N.T. In 3:18,19; 4:6 it means the whole inner man as opposed to sarx or s“ma, very much as psuchˆ is used as opposed to s“ma. {Which} (ho). Spirit just mentioned.
{Of great price} (poluteles). Old word (from polu and telos, cost), in N.T. only here, Mr 14:3; 1Ti 2:9.

3:5 {Adorned themselves} (ekosmoun heautas). Imperfect active of customary action, "used to adorn themselves." Kosme“ is old verb from kosmos in the sense in verse 3. See Heb 11:11,35 for like tribute to holy women of the O.T. The participle hupotassomenai repeats verse 1.

3:6 {As Sarah} (h“s Sarra).
{Obeyed Abraham} (hupˆkouen t“i Abraam). Imperfect active of hupakou“, "used to obey" (with dative).
{Calling him lord} (kurion auton kalousa). Present active participle of kale“. See Gen 18:12.
{Whose children ye now are} (hˆs egenˆthˆte tekna). First aorist passive indicative of ginomai, "whose children ye became."
{If ye do well} (agathopoiousai). Present active feminine plural participle of agathopoie“ (2:15), "doing good."
{And are not put in fear by any terror} (kai mˆ phoboumenai mˆdemian ptoˆsin). Free quotation from Pr 3:25, "and not fearing any terror" (cognate accusative of ptoˆsis, after phoboumenai, present middle participle, late and rare word from ptoe“, to terrify, as in Lu 21:9, here only in N.T.). Perhaps Peter regards Sarah's falsehood as the yielding to a sudden terror (Hart). Hannah could also be named along with Sarah. The women somehow do not organize "daughters of Sarah" societies.

3:7 {Ye husbands likewise} (hoi andres homoi“s). Probably "likewise" here refers to honouring all men (2:17), not "likewise" of 3:1.
{Dwell with} (sunoikountes). Present active participle of sunoike“, old verb for domestic association, here only in N.T. Used as imperative here like the participle in 2:18; 3:1.
{According to knowledge} (kata gn“sin). "With an intelligent recognition of the nature of the marriage relation" (Vincent).
{Giving honour unto the woman as unto the weaker vessel} (h“s asthenester“i skeuei t“i gunaikei“i aponemontes timˆn). Present active participle of aponem“, old verb, to assign, to portion out (or off), here only in N.T. Skeuos is an old and common word for vessel, furniture, utensil (Mt 12:29; 2Ti 2:20). Here both husband and wife are termed vessels or "parts of the furniture of God's house" (Bigg). See Paul's use of skeuos for ministers (2Co 4:7). Gunaikei“i here is an adjective (female, feminine) from gunˆ (woman, wife). She is termed "the weaker" (t“i asthenester“i), not for intellectual or moral weakness, but purely for physical reasons, which the husband must recognize with due consideration for marital happiness.
{Joint-heirs of the grace of life} (sunklˆronomoi charitos z“ˆs). Late double compound found in an Ephesian inscription and the papyri, in N.T. only here, Ro 8:17; Eph 3:6; Heb 11:9. God's gift of life eternal belongs to woman as well as to man. In the eyes of God the wife may be superior to the husband, not merely equal.
{To the end that your prayers be not hindered} (eis to mˆ egkoptesthai tas proseuchas hum“n). Purpose clause with eis to and the present passive infinitive (with negative ) of egkopt“, to cut in, to interrupt, late verb (Polybius), as in Ro 15:22, etc. Very vivid to us now with our telephones and radios when people cut in on us. Proseuchas (prayers) is the accusative of general reference. Husbands surely have here cause to consider why their prayers are not answered.

3:8 {Finally} (to telos). Adverbial accusative. Conclusion, not of the Epistle, but only of the addresses to various classes. No verb (este imperative, be) here.
{Likeminded} (homophrones). Old compound (homos, phrˆn), here only in N.T.
{Compassionate} (sumpatheis). Old adjective (sun, pasch“), in N.T. only here and Ro 12:15. Our "sympathetic" in original sense.
{Loving as brethren} (philadelphoi). Old compound (philos, adelphos), here only in N.T.
{Tender-hearted} (eusplagchnoi). Late and rare compound (eu and splagchnon), in Hippocrates, Apocrypha, in N.T. only here and Eph 4:32.
{Humble minded} (tapeinophrones). Late compound (tapeinos, phrˆn), in Plutarch, Pr 29:23, here only in N.T.

3:9 {Not rendering evil for evil} (mˆ apodidontes kakon anti kakou). and the present active participle of apodid“mi, to give back. The same phrase in Ro 12:17 and the same idea in 1Th 5:15. Peter may have obtained it from Paul or both from Pr 17:13; 20:22, "an approximation to Christ's repeal of the lex talionis (Mt 5:38ff.) which Plato first opposed among the Greeks" (Hart). Common use of anti for exchange.
{Reviling for reviling} (loidorian anti loidorias). Allusion to 2:23 (Christ's own example).
{But contrariwise blessing} (tounantion de eulogountes). Adverbial accusative and crasis (to enantion) of the neuter article and the adjective enantios (en, antios, opposite, Mt 14:24), "on the contrary." For eulogountes (present active participle of euloge“) see Lu 6:28; Ro 12:14 (imperative eulogeite).
{For hereunto were ye called} (hoti eis touto eklˆthˆte). See 2:21 for this verb and use of eis touto (pointing to the preceding argument).
{That ye should inherit a blessing} (hina eulogian klˆronomˆsˆte). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of klˆronome“, a plain reference to Esau, who wanted "to inherit the blessing" (Heb 12:17) after he had sold his birthright. Christians are the new Israel (both Gentiles and Jews) and are the spiritual descendants of Isaac (Ga 4:22ff.).

3:10 {For} (gar). Reason for the entire exhortation in verses 8,9 and introducing in verses 10-12 a quotation from Ps 34:13-17 with some slight changes.
{Would love life} (thel“n z“ˆn agapƒin). "Wishing to love life." This present life. The LXX expressions are obscure Hebraisms. The LXX has agap“n (participle present active of agapa“, not the infinitive agapƒin).
{Let him refrain} (pausat“). Third person singular first aorist active imperative of pau“ to make stop, whereas the LXX has pauson (second person singular).
{His tongue} (tˆn gl“ssan). See Jas 3:1-12.
{That they speak no guile} (tou mˆ lalˆsai dolon). Purpose clause with genitive article tou (negative ) and the first aorist active infinitive of lale“. But it can also be explained as the ablative case with the redundant negative after a verb of hindering (pausat“) like Lu 4:42. See Robertson, "Grammar", p. 1061. "Let him refrain his lips from speaking guile."

3:11 {Let him turn away} (ekklinat“). First aorist active imperative third person singular of ekklin“, where the LXX has ekklinon (second person singular). Old verb, in N.T. only here, Ro 3:12; 16:17. Peter adapted the passage all through to his own construction and use. So as to poiˆsat“ (let him do) for poiˆson (do thou), zˆtˆsat“ (let him seek) for zˆtˆson (do thou seek), di“xat“ (let him pursue) for di“xon (do thou pursue), all first aorist active imperatives (of poie“, zˆte“, di“k“). See Heb 12:14 for "pursuing peace." If men only did!

3:12 {Upon} (epi). In the case of righteous (dikaious, in the O.T. sense like dikaion Lot in 2Pe 2:7) for their good, but in the case of men "that do evil" (epi poiountas kaka, "upon men doing evil things") "the face of the Lord" (pros“pon kuriou) is not for their good, epi here approaching "against" in idea.

3:13 {That will harm you} (ho kak“s“n humas). Future active articular participle of kako“, old verb (from kakos, bad) as in Ac 7:6,19. Any real hurt, either that wishes to harm you or that can harm. See the words in Isa 50:9.
{If ye be} (ean genˆsthe). Rather, "if ye become" (condition of third class with ean and second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai). {Zealous of that which is good} (tou agathou zˆl“tai). "Zealots for the good" (objective genitive after zˆl“tai (zealots, not zealous), old word from zˆlo“ (1Co 12:12).

3:14 {But and if ye should suffer} (all' ei kai paschoite). "But if ye should also (or even) suffer." Condition of the fourth class with ei and the optative (undetermined with less likelihood), a rare condition in the vernacular "Koin‚", since the optative was a dying mode. If matters, in spite of the prophetic note of victory in verse 13, should come to actual suffering "for righteousness' sake" (dia dikaiosunˆn) as in Mt 5:10 (heneken, not dia), then "blessed" (makarioi, the very word of Jesus there which see, a word meaning "happy," not eulogˆtoi) "are ye" (not in the Greek). If the conclusion were expressed regularly, it would be eiˆte an (ye would be), not este (ye are). It is interesting to note the third-class condition in verse 13 just before the fourth-class one in verse 14.
{Fear not their fear} (ton phobon aut“n mˆ phobˆthˆte). Prohibition with and the first aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive of phobeomai, to fear, and the cognate accusative phobon (fear, terror). "Do not fear their threats" (Bigg). Quotation from Isa 8:12f.
{Neither be troubled} (mˆde taraxthˆte). Prohibition with mˆde and the first aorist (ingressive) subjunctive of tarass“, to disturb (Mt 2:6; Joh 12:27). Part of the same quotation. Cf. 3:6.

3:15 {Sanctify} (hagiasate). First aorist active imperative of hagiaz“. This instead of being afraid.
{Christ as Lord} (kurion ton Christon). Ton Christon, direct object with article and kurion predicate accusative (without article). This is the correct text, not ton theon of the Textus Receptus. An adaptation to Christ of Isa 8:13.
{Being ready always} (hetoimoi aei). No participle in the Greek, old adjective (Tit 3:1).
{To give answer} (pros apologian). "For an apology," the old sense of apologia, an answer back, a defence (not excuse), as in Ac 22:1, from apologeomai to defend (not to apologize). {A reason concerning the hope that is in you} (logon peri tˆs en humin elpidos). Original sense of logon (accusative of the thing with aitounti with humƒs, accusative of the person) "concerning the in you hope." Ready with a spoken defence of the inward hope. This attitude calls for an intelligent grasp of the hope and skill in presenting it. In Athens every citizen was expected to be able to join in the discussion of state affairs. {Yet with meekness and fear} (alla meta prautˆtos kai phobou). Of God (2:18; 3:2,4), not of man.

3:16 {Having a good conscience} (suneidˆsin echontes agathˆn). Present active participle of ech“. See 2:18 for suneidˆsin and 3:21 for suneidˆsis agathˆ again ("a quasi-personification," Hart).
{That they may be put to shame} (hina kataischunth“sin). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of kataischun“, old verb, to put to shame (Lu 13:17; 1Pe 2:6).
{Wherein ye are spoken against} (en h“i katalaleisthe). Present passive indicative of katalale“, for which see 2:12 with en h“i also. Peter may be recalling (Hart) his own experience at Pentecost when the Jews first scoffed and others were cut to the heart (Ac 2:13,37). {Who revile} (hoi epˆreazontes). Articular present active participle of epˆreaz“, old verb (from epˆreia, spiteful abuse), to insult, in N.T. only here and Lu 6:28.
{In Christ} (en Christ“i). Paul's common mystical phrase that Peter has three times (here, 5:10,14), not in John, though the idea is constantly in John. Peter here gives a new turn (cf. 2:12) to anastrophˆ (manner of life). "Constantly the apostle repeats his phrases with new significance and in a new light" (Bigg).

3:17 {Better} (kreitton). Comparative of kratus as in 2Pe 2:21; Heb 1:4. Patient endurance not only silences calumny (verse 16), is Christlike (verse 18), but it has a value of its own (verse 17).
{If the will of God should so will} (ei theloi to thelˆma tou theou). Condition of the fourth class again (ei--theloi) with ei and the optative. For a like pleonasm see Joh 7:17.
{For well-doing than for evil-doing} (agathopoiountas ˆ kakopoiountas). Accusative plural agreeing with humƒs understood (accusative of general reference with the infinitive paschein (to suffer) of the participles from agathopoie“ (see 2:15) and kakopoie“ (Mr 3:4, and see 1Pe 2:14 for kakopoios).

3:18 {Because Christ also died} (hoti kai Christos apethanen). So the best MSS.; later ones epathen (suffered). The example of Christ should stir us to patient endurance.
{For sins} (peri hamarti“n). "Concerning sins" (not his, but ours, 1:18). Peri (around, concerning) with hamartias in the regular phrase for the sin offering (Le 5:7; 6:30), though huper hamartias does occur (Eze 43:25). So in the N.T. we find both peri hamarti“n (Heb 5:3) and huper hamarti“n (Heb 5:1). {Once} (hapax). Once for all (Heb 9:28), not once upon a time (pote).
{The righteous for the unrighteous} (dikaios huper adik“n). Literally, "just for unjust" (no articles). See 1Pe 2:19 for the sinlessness of Christ as the one perfect offering for sin. This is what gives Christ's blood value. He has no sin himself. Some men today fail to perceive this point.
{That he might bring us to God} (hina hˆmƒs prosagagˆi t“i the“i). Purpose clause with hina, with second aorist active subjunctive of prosag“ and the dative case t“i the“i. The MSS. vary between hˆmƒs (us) and humƒs (you). The verb prosag“ means to lead or bring to (Mt 18:24), to approach God (cf. prosag“gˆn in Eph 2:18), to present us to God on the basis of his atoning death for us, which has opened the way (Ro 3:25; Heb 10:19f.) {Being put to death in the flesh} (thanat“theis men sarki). First aorist passive participle of thanato“, old verb (from thanatos death), to put to death. Sarki is locative case of sarx.
{But quickened in the spirit} (z“opoiˆtheis de pneumati). First aorist passive participle of z“opoie“ rare (Aristotle) verb (from z“opoios making alive), to make alive. The participles are not antecedent to apethanen, but simultaneous with it. There is no such construction as the participle of subsequent action. The spirit of Christ did not die when his flesh did, but "was endued with new and greater powers of life" (Thayer). See 1Co 15:22 for the use of the verb for the resurrection of the body. But the use of the word pneumati (locative case) in contrast with sarki starts Peter's mind off in a long comparison by way of illustration that runs from verses 19-22. The following verses have caused more controversy than anything in the Epistle.

3:19 {In which also} (en h“i kai). That is, in spirit (relative referring to pneumati). But, a number of modern scholars have followed Griesbach's conjecture that the original text was either N“e kai (Noah also), or En“ch kai (Enoch also), or en h“i kai En“ch (in which Enoch also) which an early scribe misunderstood or omitted En“ch kai in copying (homoioteleuton). It is allowed in Stier and Theile's "Polyglott". It is advocated by J. Cramer in 1891, by J. Rendel Harris in "The Expositor" (1901), and "Sidelights on N.T. Research" (p. 208), by Nestle in 1902, by Moffatt's New Translation of the New Testament. Windisch rejects it as inconsistent with the context. There is no manuscript for the conjecture, though it would relieve the difficulty greatly. Luther admits that he does not know what Peter means. Bigg has no doubt that the event recorded took place between Christ's death and his resurrection and holds that Peter is alluding to Christ's "Descensus ad Inferos" in Ac 2:27 (with which he compares Mt 27:52f.; Lu 23:34; Eph 4:9). With this Windisch agrees. But Wohlenberg holds that Peter means that Christ in his preexistent state preached to those who rejected the preaching of Noah who are now in prison. Augustine held that Christ was in Noah when he preached. Bigg argues strongly that Christ during the time between his death and resurrection preached to those who once heard Noah (but are now in prison) and offered them another chance and not mere condemnation. If so, why did Jesus confine his preaching to this one group? So the theories run on about this passage. One can only say that it is a slim hope for those who neglect or reject Christ in this life to gamble with a possible second chance after death which rests on very precarious exegesis of a most difficult passage in Peter's Epistle. Accepting the text as we have, what can we make of it? {He went and preached} (poreutheis ekˆruxen). First aorist passive (deponent) participle of poreuomai and first aorist active indicative of kˆruss“, the verb commonly used of the preaching of Jesus. Naturally the words mean personal action by Christ "in spirit" as illustration of his "quickening" (verse 18) whether done before his death or afterwards. It is interesting to observe that, just as the relative en h“i here tells something suggested by the word pneumati (in spirit) just before, so in verse 21 the relative ho (which) tells another illustration of the words di' hudatos (by water) just before. Peter jumps from the flood in Noah's time to baptism in Peter's time, just as he jumped backwards from Christ's time to Noah's time. He easily goes off at a word. What does he mean here by the story that illustrates Christ's quickening in spirit? {Unto the spirits in prison} (tois en phulakˆi pneumasin). The language is plain enough except that it does not make it clear whether Jesus did the preaching to spirits in prison at the time or to people whose spirits are now in prison, the point of doubt already discussed. The metaphorical use of en phulakˆi can be illustrated by 2Pe 2:4; Jude 1:6; Re 20:7 (the final abode of the lost). See Heb 12:23 for the use of pneumata for disembodied spirits.

3:20 {Which aforetime were disobedient} (apeithˆsasin pote). First aorist active participle of apeithe“ (for which verb see 3:20) in the dative plural agreeing with pneumasin. These spirits now in prison once upon a time (pote) were disobedient (typical rebels, Hart calls them).
{Waited} (apexedecheto). Imperfect middle of the double compound apekdechomai, late verb, probably first by Paul (1Co 1:7), though in the apocryphal "Acta Pauli" (iii) and other late writings cited by Nageli (p. 43). Perfective use of the two prepositions (apo, ek) to wait out to the end, as for Christ's Second Coming (Php 3:20). A hundred years apparently after the warning (Ge 5:32; 6:3; 7:6) Noah was preparing the ark and Noah as a preacher of righteousness (2Pe 2:5) forewarned the people, who disregarded it.
{While the ark was a preparing} (kataskeuazomenˆs kib“tou). Genitive absolute with present passive participle of kataskeuaz“, old compound (Mt 11:10), for kib“tos (ark) see on »Mt 24:38.
{Wherein} (eis hˆn). "Into which" (the ark). {That is} (tout' estin). Explanatory expression like our English idiom (Ro 10:6, etc.).
{Souls} (psuchai). Persons of both sexes (living men) as in Ac 2:41; 27:37, etc.
{Were saved} (dies“thˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of dias“z“, old compound, to bring safe through as in Ac 27:44.
{Through water} (di' hudatos). "By means of water" as the intermediate agent, an apparent change in the use of dia in composition just before (local use) to the instrumental use here. They came through the water in the ark and so were saved by the water in spite of the flood around them. Peter lays stress (Hart) on the water rather than on the ark (Heb 11:7) for the sake of the following illustration.

3:21 {Which also} (ho kai). Water just mentioned.
{After a true likeness} (antitupon). Water in baptism now as an anti-type of Noah's deliverance by water. For baptisma see on »Mt 3:7. For antitupon see on »Heb 9:24 (only other N.T. example) where the word is used of the earthly tabernacle corresponding (antitupa) to the heavenly, which is the pattern (tupon Heb 8:5) for the earthly. So here baptism is presented as corresponding to (prefigured by) the deliverance of Noah's family by water. It is only a vague parallel, but not over-fanciful.
{Doth now save you} (humas nun s“zei). Simplex verb (s“z“, not the compound dias“z“). The saving by baptism which Peter here mentions is only symbolic (a metaphor or picture as in Ro 6:2-6), not actual as Peter hastens to explain.
{Not the putting away of the filth of the flesh} (ou sarkos apothesis rupou). Apothesis is old word from apotithˆmi (2:1), in N.T. only here and 2Pe 1:14. Rupou (genitive of rupos) is old word (cf. ruparos, filthy, in Jas 2:2; Re 22:11), here only in N.T. (cf. Isa 3:3; 4:4). Baptism, Peter explains, does not wash away the filth of the flesh either in a literal sense, as a bath for the body, or in a metaphorical sense of the filth of the soul. No ceremonies really affect the conscience (Heb 9:13f.). Peter here expressly denies baptismal remission of sin.
{But the interrogation of a good conscience toward God} (alla suneidˆse“s agathˆs eper“tˆma eis theon). Old word from eper“ta“ (to question as in Mr 9:32; Mt 16:1), here only in N.T. In ancient Greek it never means answer, but only inquiry. The inscriptions of the age of the Antonines use it of the Senate's approval after inquiry. That may be the sense here, that is, avowal of consecration to God after inquiry, having repented and turned to God and now making this public proclamation of that fact by means of baptism (the symbol of the previous inward change of heart). Thus taken, it matters little whether eis theon (toward God) be taken with eper“tˆma or suneidˆse“s.
{Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ} (di' anastase“s Iˆsou Christou). For baptism is a symbolic picture of the resurrection of Christ as well as of our own spiritual renewal (Ro 6:2-6). See 1:3 for regeneration made possible by the resurrection of Jesus.

3:22 {Having gone} (poreutheis). First aorist (deponent) participle (not periphrastic) of poreuomai.
{Being made subject} (hupotagent“n). Second aorist passive participle of hupotass“ (see 2:18; 3:1) in the genitive absolute construction.
{Unto him} (aut“i). Christ. See 1Co 15:28.


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