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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 11)

11:1 {A reed} (kalamos). Old word for a growing reed (Mt 11:7) which grew in immense brakes in the Jordan valley, a writer's reed (3Jo 1:7), a measuring-rod (here, 21:15f.; Eze 40:3-6; 42:16-19).
{Like a rod} (homoios rabd“i). See 2:27; Mr 6:8 for rabdos.
{And one said} (leg“n). "Saying" (present active masculine participle of leg“) is all that the Greek has. The participle implies ed“ken (he gave), not edothˆ, a harsh construction seen in Ge 22:20; 38:24, etc.
{Rise and measure} (egeire kai metrˆson). Present active imperative of egeir“ (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mr 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of metre“. In Eze 42:2ff. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mr 13:2; Mt 24:2; Lu 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Ac 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (verses 1,2), the mission of the two witnesses (3-12), the rescue of the remnant (13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (7:15; 11:19; 14:15, etc.), but here naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (3:12; 2Th 2:4; 1Co 3:16f.; 2Co 6:16; Eph 2:19ff.). For altar (thusiastˆrion) see 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to "them that worship therein" (tous proskunountas en aut“i) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma).

11:2 {The court} (tˆn aulˆn). The uncovered yard outside the house. There were usually two, one between the door and the street, the outer court, the other the inner court surrounded by the buildings (Mr 14:66). This is here the outer court, "which is without the temple" (tˆn ex“then tou naou), outside of the sanctuary, but within the hieron where the Gentiles could go (carrying out the imagery of the Jerusalem temple).
{Leave without} (ekbale ex“then). Literally, "cast without" (second aorist active imperative of ekball“).
{Do not measure it} (mˆ autˆn metrˆsˆis). Prohibition with and the first aorist active (ingressive) subjunctive of metre“. This outer court is left to its fate. In Herod's temple the outer court was marked off from the inner by "the middle wall of partition" (to mesoitoichon tou phragmou, Eph 2:15)
, beyond which a Gentile could not go. In this outer court was a house of prayer for the Gentiles (Mr 11:17), but now John is to cast it out and leave to its fate (given to the Gentiles in another sense) to be profaned by them.
{They shall tread under foot} (patˆsousin). Future active of pate“, here to trample with contempt as in Lu 21:24, even the holy city (Mt 4:5; Isa 48:2; Ne 11:1). Charles thinks that only the heavenly city can be so called here (21:2,10; 22:19) because of 11:8 (Sodom and Gomorrah). But the language may be merely symbolical. See Da 9:24.
{Forty and two months} (mˆnas tesserakonta kai duo). Accusative of extent of time. This period in Da 7:25; 12:7. It occurs in three forms in the Apocalypse (forty-two months, here and 13:5; 1260 days, 11:3; 12:6; time, times and half a time or 3 1/2 years, 12:14 and so in Daniel). This period, however its length may be construed, covers the duration of the triumph of the Gentiles, of the prophesying of the two witnesses, of the sojourn of the woman in the wilderness.

11:3 {I will give} (d“s“). Future active of did“mi. The speaker may be God (Beckwith) or Christ (Swete) as in 2:13; 21:6 or his angel representative (22:7,12ff.). The idiom that follows is Hebraic instead of either the infinitive after did“mi as in 2:7; 3:21; 6:4; 7:2; 13:7,15; 16:8 or hina with the subjunctive (9:5; 19:8) we have kai prophˆteusousin (and they shall prophesy).
{Unto my two witnesses} (tois dusin martusin mou). Dative case after d“s“. The article seems to point to two well-known characters, like Elijah, Elisha, but there is no possible way to determine who they are. All sorts of identifications have been attempted.
{Clothed} (periblˆmenous). Perfect passive participle of periball“ as often before (7:9,13; 10:1, etc.). But Aleph A P Q here read the accusative plural in -ous, while C has the nominative in -oi. Charles suggests a mere slip for the nominative, but Hort suggests a primitive error in early MSS. for the dative peribeblemenois agreeing with martusin.
{In sackcloth} (sakkous). Accusative retained with this passive verb as in 7:9,13. See 6:12 for sakkos and also Mt 3:4. The dress suited the message (Mt 11:21).

11:4 {The two olive trees} (hai duo elaiai). The article seems to point to what is known. For this original use of elaia see Ro 11:17,24. In Zec 4:2,3,14 the lampstand or candlestick (luchnia) is Israel, and the two olive trees apparently Joshua and Zerubbabel, but John makes his own use of this symbolism. Here the two olive trees and the candlesticks are identical. {Standing} (hest“tes). Masculine perfect active participle agreeing with houtoi instead of hest“sai (read by P and cursives) agreeing with elaiai kai luchniai, even though hai (feminine plural article) be accepted before en“pion tou kuriou (before the Lord).

11:5 {If any man desireth to hurt them} (ei tis autous thelei adikˆsai). Condition of first class, assumed to be true, with ei and present active indicative (thelei) "if any one wants to hurt" (adikˆsai first aorist active infinitive). It is impossible to hurt these two witnesses till they do their work. The fire proceeding out of the mouths of the witnesses is like Elijah's experience (2Ki 1:10).
{Devoureth} (katesthiei). "Eats up (down)," present active indicative of katesthi“.
{If any man shall desire} (ei tis thelˆsˆi). Condition of third class with ei and first aorist active subjunctive of thel“ as in Lu 9:13; Php 3:12, but MSS. also read either thelei (present active indicative) or thelˆsei (future active, condition of the first class like the preceding one. The condition is repeated in this changed form, as less likely to happen and with inevitable death(\dei auton apoktanthˆnai, must be killed, first aorist passive infinitive of apoktein“ with dei).

11:6 {To shut the heaven} (kleisai ton ouranon). First aorist active infinitive of klei“. As Elijah did by prayer (1Ki 17:1; Lu 4:25; Jas 5:17).
{That it rain not} (hina mˆ huetos brechˆi). Sub-final use of hina mˆ with the present active subjunctive of brech“, old verb to rain (Mt 5:45), here with huetos as subject.
{During the days} (tas hˆmeras). Accusative of extent of time. In Lu 4:25; Jas 5:17 the period of the drouth in Elijah's time was three and a half years, just the period here.
{Of their prophecy} (tˆs prophˆteias aut“n). Not here the gift of prophecy (1Co 12:10) or a particular prophecy or collection of prophecies (Re 1:3; 22:7f.), but "the execution of the prophetic office" (Swete).
{Over the waters} (epi t“n hudat“n). "Upon the waters." As Moses had (Ex 7:20). {Into blood} (eis haima). As already stated in 8:8 about the third trumpet and now again here.
{To smite} (pataxai). First aorist active infinitive of patass“, used here with exousian echousin (they have power), as is strephein (to turn).
{With every plague} (en pasˆi plˆgˆi). In 1Ki 4:8, but with reference to the plagues in Egypt.
{As often as they shall desire} (hosakis ean thelˆs“sin). Indefinite temporal clause with hosakis and modal ean (= an) and the first aorist active subjunctive of thel“, "as often as they will."

11:7 {When they shall have finished} (hotan teles“sin). Merely the first aorist active subjunctive of tele“ with hotan in an indefinite temporal clause with no "futurum exactum" (future perfect), "whenever they finish."
{The beast} (to thˆrion). "The wild beast comes out of the abyss" of 9:1f. He reappears in 13:1; 17:8. In Da 7:3 thˆria occurs. Nothing less than antichrist will satisfy the picture here. Some see the abomination of Da 7:7; Mt 24:15. Some see Nero "redivivus".
{He shall make war with them} (poiˆsei met' aut“n polemon). This same phrase occurs in 12:17 about the dragon's attack on the woman. It is more the picture of single combat (2:16).
{He shall overcome them} (nikˆsei autous). Future active of nika“. The victory of the beast over the two witnesses is certain, as in Da 7:21.
{And kill them} (kai apoktenei). Future active of apoktein“. Without attempting to apply this prophecy to specific individuals or times, one can agree with these words of Swete: "But his words cover in effect all the martyrdoms and massacres of history in which brute force has seemed to triumph over truth and righteousness."

11:8 {Their dead bodies lie} (to pt“ma aut“n). Old word from pipt“ (to fall), a fall, especially of bodies slain in battle, a corpse, a carcase (Mt 14:12), here the singular (some MSS. pt“mata, plural) as belonging to each of the aut“n (their) like stomatos aut“n (their mouth) in verse 5. So also in verse 9. No word in the Greek for "lie."
{In} (epi). "Upon," as in verse 6, with genitive (tˆs plateias), the broad way (hodou understood), from platus (broad) as in Mt 6:5, old word (Re 21:21; 22:2).
{Of the great city} (tˆs pole“s tˆs megalˆs). Clearly Jerusalem in view of the closing clause (hopou--estaur“thˆ), though not here called "the holy city" as in verse 2, and though elsewhere in the Apocalypse Babylon (Rome) is so described (14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2,10,16,18,19,21).
{Which} (hˆtis). Which very city, not "whichever."
{Spiritually} (pneumatik“s). This late adverb from pneumatikos (spiritual) occurs in the N.T. only twice, in 1Co 2:14 for the help of the Holy Spirit in interpreting God's message and here in a hidden or mystical (allegorical sense). For this use of pneumatikos see 1Co 10:3f. Judah is called Sodom in Isa 1:9f.; Eze 16:46,55. See also Mt 10:15; 11:23. Egypt is not applied to Israel in the O.T., but is "an obvious symbol of oppression and slavery" (Swete).
{Where also their Lord was crucified} (hopou kai ho kurios aut“n estaur“thˆ). First aorist passive indicative of stauro“, to crucify, a reference to the fact of Christ's crucifixion in Jerusalem. This item is one of the sins of Jerusalem and the disciple is not greater than the Master (Joh 15:20).

11:9 {Men from among} (ek t“n etc.). No word for "men" (anthr“poi or polloi) before ek t“n, but it is implied (partitive use of ek) as in 2:10 and often. See also 5:9; 7:9 for this enumeration of races and nations.
{Do look upon} (blepousin). Present (vivid dramatic) active indicative of blep“.
{Three days and a half} (hˆmeras treis kai hˆmisu). Accusative of extent of time. Hˆmisu is neuter singular though hˆmeras (days) is feminine as in Mr 6:23; Re 12:14. The days of the gloating over the dead bodies are as many as the years of the prophesying by the witnesses (11:3), but there is no necessary correspondence (day for a year). This delight of the spectators "is represented as at once fiendish and childish" (Swete).
{Suffer not} (ouk aphiousin). Present active indicative of aphi“, late form for aphiˆmi, as in Mr 1:34 (cf. apheis in Re 2:20). This use of aphiˆmi with the infinitive is here alone in the Apocalypse, though common elsewhere (Joh 11:44,48; 12:7; 18:8).
{Their dead bodies} (ta pt“mata aut“n). "Their corpses," plural here, though singular just before and in verse 8.
{To be laid in a tomb} (tethˆnai eis mnˆma). First aorist passive of tithˆmi, to place. Mnˆma (old word from mimnˆsk“, to remind) is a memorial, a monument, a sepulchre, a tomb (Mr 5:3). "In a country where burial regularly took place on the day of death the time of exposure and indignity would be regarded long" (Beckwith). See Tobit 1:18ff.

11:10 {They that dwell upon the earth} (hoi katoikountes epi tˆs gˆs). Present active articular participle of katoike“, "an Apocalyptic formula" (Swete) for the non-Christian world (3:10; 6:10; 8:13; 13:8,12,14; 17:8).
{Rejoice} (chairousin). Present active indicative of chair“.
{Over them} (ep' autois). Locative (or dative) case with epi as in 10:11.
{Make merry} (euphrainontai). Present middle indicative of euphrain“, old verb (eu, phrˆn, jolly mind), as in Lu 15:32; Re 12:12; 18:20. Jubilant jollification over the cessation of the activity of the two prophets.
{They shall send gifts to one another} (d“ra pempsousin allˆlois). Future active of pemp“ with dative allˆlois. Just as we see it done in Es 9:19,22; Ne 8:10,12.
{Tormented} (ebasanisan). First aorist active indicative of basaniz“, for which see 9:5. This is the reason (hoti) of the fiendish glee of Jew and Gentile, who no longer will have to endure the prophecies (11:3f.) and dread miracles (11:5f.) of these two prophets. "Such a sense of relief is perhaps not seldom felt today by bad men when a preacher of righteousness or a signal example of goodness is removed" (Swete).

11:11 {After the} (meta tas etc.). The article tas (the) points back to 11:9.
{The breath of life from God} (pneuma z“ˆs ek tou theou). This phrase (pneuma z“ˆs) occurs in Ge 6:17; 7:15,22 of the lower animals, but here there is clearly an allusion to Eze 37:5,10 (also 2Ki 13:21), where the dead bones lived again.
{Entered into them} (eisˆlthen en autois). Second aorist active indicative of eiserchomai with en rather than eis after it (cf. Lu 9:46). The prophecy has here become fact (change from future pempsousin to aorist eisˆlthen). {They stood upon their feet} (estˆsan epi tous podas aut“n). Ingressive second aorist active indicative of histˆmi (intransitive). Reference to Eze 37:10, but with the accusative in place of genitive there after epi as in 2Ki 13:21.
{Fell upon} (epepesen epi). Second aorist active indicative of epipipt“ with repetition of epi. The same prophetic use of the aorist as in eisˆlthen and estˆsan.
{Beheld} (the“rountas). Present active articular participle of the“re“. "The spectators were panic-stricken" (Swete).

11:12 {Saying} (legousˆs). Present active predicate participle of leg“, feminine genitive agreeing with ph“nˆs, though some MSS. have the accusative ph“nˆn legousan, either construction being proper after ˆkousan (they heard). There is a little evidence for ˆkousa like 12:10 (24 times in the book). Cf. Joh 5:28.
{Come up hither} (anabate h“de). Second aorist active imperative of anabain“. The ascension of these two witnesses is in full view of their enemies, not just in the presence of a few friends as with Christ (Ac 1:9).
{They went up} (anebˆsan). Second aorist active indicative of anabain“. {In the cloud} (en tˆi nephelˆi). As Jesus did (Ac 1:9) and like Elijah (2Ki 2:11). Their triumph is openly celebrated before their enemies and is like the rapture described by Paul in 1Th 4:17.

11:13 {There was} (egeneto). "There came to pass" (second aorist middle indicative of ginomai). Earthquakes are often given as a symbol of great upheavals in social and spiritual order (Swete) as in Eze 37:7; 38:19; Hag 2:6; Mr 13:8; Heb 12:26f.; Re 6:12; 16:18.
{Fell} (epesen). Second aorist active indicative of pipt“, to fall. Only the tenth (to dekaton) of the city fell. Cf. to triton (the third) in 8:7-12, perhaps a conventional number.
{Were killed} (apektanthˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of apoktein“ as in 9:18.
{Seven thousand persons} (onomata anthr“p“n chiliades hepta). This use of onomata (names of men here) is like that in 3:4; Ac 1:15 and occurs in the papyri (Deissmann, "Bible Studies", p. 196f.). {Were affrighted} (emphoboi egenonto). "Became terrified," old adjective (en, phobos, fear)
as in Lu 24:5; Ac 10:4; 24:5. "A general movement toward Christianity, induced by fear or despair--a prediction fulfilled more than once in ecclesiastical history" (Swete).
{Gave glory} (ed“kan doxan). First aorist active indicative of did“mi, when they saw the effect of the earthquake, recognition of God's power (Joh 9:24; Ac 12:23; Ro 4:20).

11:14 {Is past} (apˆlthen). Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai. See 9:12 for this use and 21:1,4. The second woe (hˆ ouai hˆ deutera) is the sixth trumpet (9:12) with the two episodes attached (10:1-11:13).
{The third woe} (hˆ ouai hˆ tritˆ, feminine as in 9:12) is the seventh trumpet, which now "cometh quickly" (erchetai tachu), for which phrase see 2:16; 3:11; 22:7,12,20. Usually pointing to the Parousia.

11:15 {There followed} (egenonto). "There came to pass." There was silence in heaven upon the opening of the seventh seal (8:1), but here "great voices." Perhaps the great voices are the z“a of 4:6ff.; 5:8.
{Saying} (legontes). Construction according to sense; legontes, masculine participle (not legousai), though ph“nai, feminine. John understood what was said.
{Is become} (egeneto). "Did become," prophetic use of the aorist participle, already a fact. See egeneto in Lu 19:9. {The kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ} (tou kuriou hˆm“n kai tou Christou autou). Repeat hˆ basileia from the preceding. God the Father is meant here by kuriou (Lord), as autou (his) shows. This is the certain and glorious outcome of the age-long struggle against Satan, who wields the kingdom of the world which he offered to Christ on the mountain for one act of worship. But Jesus scorned partnership with Satan in the rule of the world, and chose war, war up to the hilt and to the end. Now the climax has come with Christ as Conqueror of the kingdom of this world for his Father. This is the crowning lesson of the Apocalypse.
{He shall reign} (basileusei). Future active of basileu“. God shall reign, but the rule of God and of Christ is one as the kingdom is one (1Co 15:27). Jesus is the Lord's Anointed (Lu 2:26; 9:20).

11:16 {The four and twenty elders} (hoi eikosi tessares presbuteroi). They follow the living creatures (verse 15, if correctly interpreted) in their adoration, as in 4:9ff. Though seated on thrones of their own (4:4), yet they fall upon their faces in every act of worship to God and Christ (4:10; 5:8,14; 19:4). Here epi ta pros“pa aut“n (upon their faces) is added as in 7:11 about the angels. The elders here again represent the redeemed, as the four living creatures the forces of nature, in the great thanksgiving here (eucharistoumen, present active indicative of euchariste“).

11:17 {O Lord God} (Kurie ho theos). Vocative form kurie and nominative form ho theos (vocative in use). See 1:8; 4:8 for this combination with ho pantokrat“r (the Almighty). For ho “n kai ho ˆn (which art and which wast) see 1:4,8; 4:8; 16:5. {Thou hast taken} (eilˆphes). Perfect active indicative of lamban“, emphasizing the permanence of God's rule, "Thou hast assumed thy power."
{Didst reign} (ebasileusas). Ingressive first aorist active indicative of basileu“, "Didst begin to reign." See this combination of tenses (perfect and aorist) without confusion in 3:3; 5:7; 8:5.

11:18 {Were wroth} (“rgisthˆsan). Ingressive first aorist active indicative of orgizomai, "became angry." The culmination of wrath against God (16:13ff.; 20:8f.). Cf. Ps 2:1,5,12; 99:1; Ac 4:25ff. John sees the hostility of the world against Christ.
{Thy wrath came} (ˆlthen hˆ orgˆ sou). Second aorist active indicative of erchomai, the prophetic aorist again. The "Dies Irae" is conceived as already come.
{The time of the dead to be judged} (ho kairos t“n nekr“n krithˆnai). For this use of kairos see Mr 11:13; Lu 21:24. By "the dead" John apparently means both good and bad (Joh 5:25; Ac 24:21), coincident with the resurrection and judgment (Mr 4:29; Re 14:15ff.; 20:1-15). The infinitive krithˆnai is the first aorist passive of krin“, epexegetic use with the preceding clause, as is true also of dounai (second aorist active infinitive of did“mi), to give.
{Their reward} (ton misthon). This will come in the end of the day (Mt 20:8), from God (Mt 6:1), at the Lord's return (Re 22:12), according to each one's work (1Co 3:8). {The small and the great} (tous mikrous kai tous megalous). The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after dounai ton misthon, though some MSS. have the dative tois mikrois, etc. John is fond of this phrase "the small and the great" (13:16; 19:5,18; 20:12).
{To destroy} (diaphtheirai). First aorist active infinitive of diaphtheir“, carrying on the construction with kairos. Note tous diaphtheirontas, "those destroying" the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in diaphtheir“ that justifies this play on the word. See 19:2. In 1Ti 6:5 we have those "corrupted in mind" (diaphtharmenoi ton noun). God will destroy the destroyers (1Co 3:16f.).

11:19 {Was opened} (ˆnoigˆ). Second aorist passive indicative of anoig“, with augment on the preposition as in 15:5. For the sanctuary (naos) of God in heaven see 3:12; 7:15; 15:5ff.; 21:22.
{Was seen} (“phthˆ). First aorist passive indicative of hora“.
{The ark of his covenant} (hˆ kib“tos tˆs diathˆkˆs autou). The sacred ark within the second veil of the tabernacle (Heb 9:4) and in the inner chamber of Solomon's temple (1Ki 8:6) which probably perished when Nebuchadrezzar burnt the temple (2Ki 25:9; Jer 3:16). For the symbols of majesty and power in nature here see also 6:12; 8:5; 11:13; 16:18,21.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 11)

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