[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 10)

10:1 {Another strong angel} (allon aggelon ischuron). But the seventh trumpet does not sound till 11:15. This angel is not one of the seven or of the four, but like the other strong angel in 5:2; 18:21 or the other angel in 14:6,15. The sixth trumpet of 9:13 ends in 9:21. The opening of the seventh seal was preceded by two visions (chapter Re 7) and so here the sounding of the seventh trumpet (11:15) is preceded by a new series of visions (10:1-11:14).
{Coming down out of heaven} (katabainonta ek tou ouranou). Present active participle of katabain“ picturing the process of the descent as in 20:1 (cf. 3:12).
{Arrayed with a cloud} (peribeblˆmenon nephelˆn). Perfect passive participle of periball“ with accusative case retained as in 7:9,13. Not proof that this angel is Christ, though Christ will come on the clouds (1:7) as he ascended on a cloud (Ac 1:9). God's chariot is in the clouds (Ps 104:3), but this angel is a special messenger of God's.
{The rainbow} (hˆ iris). See 4:3 for this word. The construction here is changed from the accusative to the nominative.
{As the sun} (h“s ho hˆlios). The very metaphor applied to Christ in 1:16.
{As pillars of fire} (h“s stuloi puros). Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in 1:15, but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On stulos see 3:12; Ga 2:9.

10:2 {And he had} (kai ech“n). This use of the participle in place of eichen (imperfect) is like that in 4:7f.; 12:2; 19:12; 21:12,14, a Semitic idiom (Charles), or as if katabain“n (nominative) had preceded in place of katabainonta.
{A little book} (biblaridion). A diminutive of biblarion (papyri), itself a diminutive of biblion (5:1) and perhaps in contrast with it, a rare form in Hermas and Re 10:2,9,10. In 10:8 Tischendorf reads biblidarion, diminutive of biblidion (Aristophanes) instead of biblion (Westcott and Hort). The contents of this little book are found in 11:1-13. {Open} (ˆne“igmenon). See Eze 2:9f. Perfect (triple reduplication) passive participle of anoig“, in contrast to the closed book in 5:1. There also we have epi (upon) tˆn dexian (the right hand), for it was a large roll, but here the little open roll is held in the hand (en tˆi cheiri), apparently the left hand (verse 5).
{He set} (ethˆken). First aorist active indicative of tithˆmi. The size of the angel is colossal, for he bestrides both land and sea. Apparently there is no special point in the right foot (ton poda ton dexion) being on the sea (epi tˆs thalassˆs) and the left (ton eu“numon) upon the land (epi tˆs gˆs). It makes a bold and graphic picture.
{As a lion roareth} (h“sper le“n mukƒtai). Only instance of h“sper in the Apocalypse, but h“s in the same sense several times. Present middle indicative of mukaomai, an old onomatopoetic word from mu or moo (the sound which a cow utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin "mugire", but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here, though in 1Pe 5:8 we have “ruomai. Homer uses mukaomai for the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf. 1:10; 5:2,12; 6:10; 7:2,10, etc.

10:3 {The seven thunders} (hai hepta brontai). A recognized group, but not explained here, perhaps John assuming them to be known. For brontai see already 4:5; 6:1; 8:5. In Ps 29 the Lord speaks in the sevenfold voice of the thunderstorm upon the sea.
{Their voices} (tas heaut“n ph“nas). Cognate accusative with elalˆsan and heaut“n (reflexive) means "their own." In Joh 12:28 the voice of the Father to Christ was thought by some to be thunder.

10:4 {I was about to write} (ˆmellon graphein). Imperfect active of mell“ (double augment as in Joh 4:47; 12:33; 18:32) and the present (inchoative) active infinitive of graph“, "I was on the point of beginning to write," as commanded in 1:11,19.
{Seal up} (sphragison). Aorist active imperative of sphragiz“, tense of urgency, "seal up at once."
{And write them not} (kai mˆ auta grapsˆis). Prohibition with and the ingressive aorist active subjunctive of graph“, "Do not begin to write." It is idle to conjecture what was in the utterances. Compare Paul's silence in 2Co 12:4.

10:5 {Standing} (hest“ta). Second perfect active participle of histˆmi (intransitive). John resumes the picture in verse 2. {Lifted up} (ˆren). First aorist active indicative of air“, to lift up.
{To heaven} (eis ton ouranon). Toward heaven, the customary gesture in taking a solemn oath (Ge 14:22; De 32:40; Da 12:7).

10:6 {Sware} (“mosen). First aorist indicative of omnu“ to swear.
{By him that liveth} (en t“i z“nti). This use of en after omnu“ instead of the usual accusative (Jas 5:12) is like the Hebrew (Mt 5:34,36). "The living one for ages of ages" is a common phrase in the Apocalypse for God as eternally existing (1:18; 4:9,10; 15:7). This oath proves that this angel is not Christ.
{Who created} (hos ektisen). First aorist active indicative of ktiz“, a reference to God's creative activity as seen in Ge 1:1ff.; Ex 20:11; Isa 37:16; 42:5; Ps 33:6; 145:6, etc.
{That there shall be time no longer} (hoti chronos ouketi estai). Future indicative indirect discourse with hoti. But this does not mean that chronos (time), Einstein's "fourth dimension" (added to length, breadth, height), will cease to exist, but only that there will be no more delay in the fulfillment of the seventh trumpet (verse 7), in answer to the question, "How long?" (6:10).

10:7 {When he is about to sound} (hotan mellˆi salpizein). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the present active subjunctive of mell“ and the present (inchoative) active infinitive of salpiz“, "whenever he is about to begin to sound" (in contrast to the aorist in 11:15).
{Then} (kai). So in apodosis often (14:10).
{Is finished} (etelesthˆ). First aorist passive indicative of tele“, proleptic or futuristic use of the aorist as in 1Co 7:28. So also 15:1.
{The mystery of God} (to mustˆrion tou theou). This same phrase by Paul in 1Co 2:1; Col 2:2. Here apparently the whole purpose of God in human history is meant.
{According to the good tidings which he declared} (h“s euˆggelisen). "As he gospelized to," first aorist active indicative of euaggeliz“, a rare use of the active as in 14:6 with the accusative. See the middle so used in Ga 1:9; 1Pe 1:12. See Am 3:7; Jer 7:25; 25:4 for this idea in the O.T. prophets who hoped for a cleaning up of all mysteries in the last days.

10:8 {Again speaking and saying} (palin lalousan kai legousan). Present active predicate participles feminine accusative singular agreeing with hˆn (object of ˆkousa), not with ph“nˆ (nominative) as most of the cursives have it (lalousa kai legousa). Ordinarily it would be elalei kai elegen. See 4:1 for like idiom. This is the voice mentioned in verse 4. No great distinction is to be made here between lale“ and leg“. {Go, take} (Hupage labe). Present active imperative of hupag“ and second aorist active imperative of lamban“. The use of hupage (exclamation like ide) is common in N.T. (Mt 5:24; 8:4; 19:21; Joh 4:16; 9:7). Charles calls it a Hebraism (16:1). Note the repeated article here (to) referring to the open book in the hand of the angel (verse 2), only here biblion is used, not the diminutive of biblaridion of verses 2,9,10.

10:9 {I went} (apˆltha). Second aorist active indicative (-a form), "I went away" (ap-) to the angel. John left his position by the door of heaven (4:1).
{That he should give} (dounai). Second aorist active infinitive of did“mi, indirect command after leg“n (bidding) for dos in the direct discourse (second aorist active imperative second person singular). This use of leg“ to bid occurs in 13:14; Ac 21:21.
{He saith} (legei). Dramatic vivid present active indicative of leg“.
{Take it and eat it up} (labe kai kataphage auto). Second aorist (effective) active imperatives of lamban“ and katesthi“ (perfective use of kata, "eat down," we say "eat up"). See the same metaphor in Eze 3:1-3; Jer 15:6f. The book was already open and was not to be read aloud, but to be digested mentally by John.
{It shall make thy belly bitter} (pikranei sou tˆn koilian). Future active of pikrain“, for which verb see 8:11; 10:10; Col 3:19. There is no reference in Ezekiel or Jeremiah to the bitterness here mentioned.
{Sweet as honey} (gluku h“s meli). For the sweetness of the roll see Ps 19:10f.; 119:103. "Every revelation of God's purposes, even though a mere fragment, a biblaridion, is 'bitter-sweet,' disclosing judgement as well as mercy" (Swete). Deep and bitter sorrows confront John as he comes to understand God's will and way.

10:10 {I took--and ate it up} (elabon--kai katephagon auto). Second aorist active indicatives of the same verbs to show John's prompt obedience to the command. The order of the results is here changed to the actual experience (sweet in the mouth, bitter in the belly). The simplex verb ephagon (I ate) is now used, not the compound katephagon (I ate up).

10:11 {They say} (legousin). Present active of vivid dramatic action and the indefinite statement in the plural as in 13:16; 16:15. It is possible that the allusion is to the heavenly voice (10:4,8) and to the angel (10:9).
{Thou must prophesy again} (dei se palin prophˆteusai). Not a new commission (1:19), though now renewed. C.f. Eze 4:7; 6:2; Jer 1:10. The palin (again) points to what has preceded and also to what is to come in 11:15. Here it is predictive prophecy (prophˆteusai, first aorist active infinitive of prophˆteu“).
{Over} (epi). In the case, in regard to as in Joh 12:16 (with graph“), not in the presence of (epi with genitive, Mr 13:9) nor against (epi with the accusative, Lu 22:53). For this list of peoples see 5:9, occurring seven times in the Apocalypse.

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 10)

| About LW | Site Map | LW Publications | Search
Developed by © Levend Water All rights reserved