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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 17)

17:1 {Lifting up} (eparas). First aorist active participle of epair“, old and common verb with ophthalmous (eyes) as in 4:35; 6:5; 11:41.
{Father} (Pater). Vocative form as in verses 5,11; 11:41, Christ's usual way of beginning his prayers. It is inconceivable that this real "Lord's Prayer" is the free composition of a disciple put into the mouth of Jesus. It is rather "the tenacious memory of an old man recalling the greatest days of his life" (Bernard), aided by the Holy Spirit promised for this very purpose (Joh 14:26; 16:13f.). Jesus had the habit of prayer (Mr 1:35; 6:46; Mt 11:25f.; Lu 3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:18,28; 11:22,42; 23:34,46; Joh 11:41; 12:27). He prayed here for himself (1-5), for the disciples (6-19), for all believers (20-26). The prayer is similar in spirit to the Model Prayer for us in Mt 6:9-13. The hour for his glorification has come as he had already told the disciples (13:31f.; 12:23). {Glorify thy Son} (doxason sou ton huion). First aorist active imperative of doxaz“, the only personal petition in this prayer. Jesus had already used this word doxaz“ for his death (13:31f.). Here it carries us into the very depths of Christ's own consciousness. It is not merely for strength to meet the Cross, but for the power to glorify the Father by his death and resurrection and ascension, "that the Son may glorify thee" (hina ho huios doxasˆi se). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive.

17:2 {Authority over all flesh} (exousian pasˆs sarkos). Sarkos is objective genitive. Stupendous claim impossible for a mere man to make. Made already in Mt 11:27; Lu 10:22 (Q, the Logia of Jesus, our earliest known document about Jesus) and repeated in Mt 28:18 after his resurrection.
{That} (hina). Secondary purpose with hina d“sei (future active indicative) carrying on the idea of hina doxasˆi. See 13:34; 17:21 for hina, kath“s, hina.
{Whatsoever} (pƒn ho). A peculiar classical Greek idiom, the collective use of the singular pƒn ho as in 6:37,39 and ho in 17:24 and the nominative absolute ("nom. pendens") with autois (to them), the dative plural explaining the construction. See Robertson, "Grammar", p. 653.

17:3 {Should know} (gin“sk“sin). Present active subjunctive with hina (subject clause), "should keep on knowing."
{Even Jesus Christ} (Iˆsoun Christon). See 1:17 for the only other place in John's Gospel where the words occur together. Coming here in the Lord's own prayer about himself they create difficulty, unless, as Westcott suggests, Christon be regarded as a predicate accusative, "Jesus as the Christ" (Messiah). Otherwise the words would seem to be John's parenthetical interpretation of the idea of Jesus. Lucke thinks that the solemnity of this occasion explains Jesus referring to himself in the third person. The knowledge of "the only true God" is through Jesus Christ (14:6-9).

17:4 {I glorified thee on the earth} (eg“ se edoxasa epi tˆs gˆs). Verse 3 is parenthetical and so verse 4 goes on after verse 2. He had prayed for further glorification.
{Having accomplished} (telei“sas). First aorist active participle of teleio“, old verb from teleios (perfect). Used in 4:34 by Jesus with to ergon as here. That was Christ's "food" (br“ma) and joy. Now as he faces death he has no sense of failure as some modern critics say, but rather fulness of attainment as in 19:30 (tetelestai). Christ does not die as a disappointed man, but as the successful messenger, apostle (apesteilƒs, verse 3) of the Father to men.
{Thou hast given} (ded“kas). Perfect active indicative of did“mi, regarded as a permanent task.

17:5 {With thine own self} (para seaut“i). "By the side of thyself." Jesus prays for full restoration to the pre-incarnate glory and fellowship (cf. 1:1) enjoyed before the Incarnation (Joh 1:14). This is not just ideal pre-existence, but actual and conscious existence at the Father's side (para soi, with thee) "which I had" (hˆi eichon, imperfect active of ech“, I used to have, with attraction of case of hˆn to hˆi because of doxˆi), "before the world was" (pro tou ton kosmon einai), "before the being as to the world" (cf. verse 24). It is small wonder that those who deny or reject the deity of Jesus Christ have trouble with the Johannine authorship of this book and with the genuineness of these words. But even Harnack admits that the words here and in verse 24 are "undoubtedly the reflection of the certainty with which Jesus himself spoke" ("What Is Christianity", Engl. Tr., p. 132). But Paul, as clearly as John, believes in the actual pre-existence and deity of Jesus Christ (Php 2:5-11).

17:6 {I manifested} (ephaner“sa). First aorist active indicative of phanero“ (from phaneros, manifest). Another word for claiming successful accomplishment of his task as in verse 4 with edoxasa and in verse 26 with egn“risa. {Whom} (hous). Accusative case after ed“kas, not attracted to case of antecedent (anthr“pois). Jesus regards the apostles as the Father's gift to him. Recall the night of prayer before he chose them.
{They have kept} (tetˆrˆkan). Perfect active indicative, late "Koin‚" form for the third plural instead of the usual tetˆrˆkasin. Jesus claims loyalty and fidelity in these men with the one exception of Judas (verse 12). He does not claim perfection for them, but they have at least held on to the message of the Father in spite of doubt and wavering (6:67-71; Mt 16:15-20).

17:7 {Now they know} (nun egn“kan). Perfect active indicative third plural like tetˆrˆkan above. They have come to know, not as fully as they felt (16:30), and yet in a real sense.

17:8 {The words} (ta rˆmata). Plural, each word of God, as in 3:34, and of Christ (5:47; 6:63,68), while the singular (ton logon sou) in verses 6,14 views God's message as a whole. {Knew} (egn“san). Second aorist active indicative of gin“sk“ like elabon in contrast with egn“kan (perfect) in verse 7. They definitely "received and recognized truly" (alˆth“s). There was comfort to Christ in this fact.
{They believed} (episteusan). Another aorist parallel with elabon and egn“san. The disciples believed in Christ's mission from the Father (Joh 6:69; Mt 16:16). Note apesteilas here as in verse 3. Christ is God's {Apostle} to man (Heb 3:1). This statement, like a solemn refrain (Thou didst send me), occurs five times in this prayer (verses 8,18,21,23,25).

17:9 {I pray} (eg“ er“t“). Request, not question, as in 16:23.
{Not for the world} (ou peri tou kosmou). Now at this point in the prayer Christ means. In verse 19 Jesus does pray for the world (for future believers) that it may believe (verse 21). God loves the whole world (3:16). Christ died for sinners (Ro 5:8) and prayed for sinners (Lu 23:34) and intercedes for sinners (1Jo 2:1f.; Ro 8:34; Heb 7:25).
{For those whom} (peri h“n). A condensed and common Greek idiom for peri tout“n hous with tout“n (the demonstrative antecedent) omitted and the relative hous attracted from the accusative hous (object of ded“kas) to the case (genitive) of the omitted antecedent.

17:10 {Are} (estin). Singular number in the Greek (is), not the plural eisin (are), emphasizing the unity of the whole as in 16:15. "This no creature can say in reference to God" (Luther). {I am glorified in them} (dedoxasmai en autois). "I stand glorified (perfect passive indicative of doxaz“) in the disciples" (en autois), in spite of all their shortcomings and failings. There is comfort for us in this.

17:11 {And these} (kai houtoi or autoi, they). Note adversative use of kai (= but these).
{I come} (erehomai). Futuristic present, "I am coming." Cf. 13:3; 14:12; 17:13. Christ will no longer be visibly present to the world, but he will be with the believers through the Holy Spirit (Mt 28:20). {Holy Father} (pater hagie). Only here in the N.T., but see 1Jo 2:20; Lu 1:49 for the holiness of God, a thoroughly Jewish conception. See Joh 6:69 where Peter calls Jesus ho hagios tou theou. For the word applied to saints see Ac 9:13. See verse 25 for patˆr dikaie (Righteous Father).
{Keep them} (tˆrˆson autous). First aorist (constative) active imperative of tˆre“, as now specially needing the Father's care with Jesus gone (urgency of the aorist tense in prayer).
{Which} (h“i). Locative case of the neuter relative singular, attracted from the accusative ho to the case of the antecedent onomati (name). {That they may be one} (hina “sin hen). Purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive of eimi (that they may keep on being). Oneness of will and spirit (hen, neuter singular), not one person (heis, masculine singular) for which Christ does not pray. Each time Jesus uses hen (verses 11,21,22) and once, eis hen, "into one" (verse 23). This is Christ's prayer for all believers, for unity, not for organic union of which we hear so much. The disciples had union, but lacked unity or oneness of spirit as was shown this very evening at the supper (Lu 22:24; Joh 13:4-15). Jesus offers the unity in the Trinity (three persons, but one God) as the model for believers. The witness of the disciples will fail without harmony (17:21).

17:12 {I kept} (etˆroun). Imperfect active of tˆre“, "I continued to keep."
{I guarded} (ephulaxa). First aorist (constative) active of phulass“. Christ was the sentinel (phulax, Ac 5:23) for them. Is he our sentinel now? {But the son of perdition} (ei mˆ ho huios tˆs ap“leias). The very phrase for antichrist (2Th 2:3). Note play on ap“leto, perished (second aorist middle indicative of apollumi). It means the son marked by final loss, not annihilation, but meeting one's destiny (Ac 2:25). A sad and terrible exception (Mr 14:21).
{The scripture} (hˆ graphˆ). It is not clear whether this is John's own comment or the word of Jesus. Not in 18:9. The Scripture referred to is probably Ps 41:9 quoted in 13:18 with the same formula hina plˆr“thˆi which see there.

17:13 {That they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves} (hina ech“sin tˆn charan tˆn emˆn peplˆr“menˆn en heautois). Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of ech“, "that they may keep on having Christ's joy in their faithfulness realized in themselves." Peplˆr“menˆn is the perfect passive participle of plˆro“ in the predicate position. For the use of plˆro“ with chara (joy) see 15:11; 16:24; Php 2:2.

17:14 {Not of the world} (ouk ek tou kosmou). They are "in the world" (en t“i kosm“i, verse 13) still and Christ sends them "into the world" (eis ton kosmon, verse 18), but they must not be like the world nor get their spirit, standards, and message "out of the world," else they can do the world no good. These verses (14-19) picture the Master's ideal for believers and go far towards explaining the failure of Christians in winning the world to Christ. Too often the world fails to see the difference or the gain by the change.

17:15 {Shouldest take} (arˆis). First aorist active subjunctive of air“ (liquid verb).
{From the evil one} (ek tou ponˆrou). Ablative case with ek, but can mean the evil man, Satan, or the evil deed. See same ambiguity in Mt 6:13. But in 1Jo 5:18 ho ponˆros is masculine (the evil one). Cf. Re 3:10.

17:16 Repetition of verse 14 for emphasis.

17:17 {Sanctify} (hagiason). First aorist active imperative of hagiaz“. To consecrate or set apart persons or things to God. See Ex 28:41; 29:1,36; 40:13. See Paul's prayer for the Thessalonians (1Th 5:23). This is done in the sphere (en) of truth (God's truth), God's Word (not human speculation, but God's message to us).

17:18 {Sent I them} (apesteila autous). The very verb (apostell“) used of the original commission of these men (Mr 3:14) and the special commission (Lu 9:2) and the renewal of the commission after the resurrection (Joh 20:21f., both apostell“ and pemp“ here).

17:19 {I sanctify myself} (eg“ hagiaz“ emauton). To his holy ministry to which the Father "sanctified" (hˆgiasen) him (Joh 10:36).
{That they themselves also may be sanctified in truth} (hina “sin kai autoi hˆgiasmenoi en alˆtheiƒi). Purpose clause with hina and the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of hagiaz“ (that they may remain sanctified). The act of Christ helps us, but by no means takes the place of personal consecration on the part of the believer. This high and holy prayer and act of Christ should shame any one who uses the livery of heaven to serve the devil in as does, alas, sometimes happen (2Co 11:13-15).

17:20 {Through their word} (dia tou logou aut“n). Through the agency of conversation and preaching, blessed privilege open to all believers thus to win men to Christ, but an agency sadly limited by the lives of those who speak in Christ's name.

17:21 {That they also may be in us} (hina kai autoi en hˆmin “sin). Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive of eimi. The only possible way to have unity among believers is for all of them to find unity first with God in Christ.
{That the world may believe} (hina ho kosmos pisteuˆi). Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive of pisteu“, "may keep on believing." Beyond a doubt, strife, wrangling, division are a stumblingblock to the outside world.

17:22 {And the glory} (kag“ tˆn doxan). Literally, "And I the glory," with emphasis on "I." It is the glory of the Incarnate Word (Bernard), cf. 1:14; 2:11, not the glory of the Eternal Word mentioned in 17:24. Bengel says: "Quanta majestas Christianorum!" Then verse 22 repeats the unity prayed for in verse 21.

17:23 {That they may be perfected into one} (hina “sin tetelei“menoi eis hen). Purpose clause again with hina (nineteen times in this prayer, this the fifteenth) with the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of teleio“ (verse 4), permanent state, with eis hen (into one) as the goal and final result.
{That the world may know} (hina gin“skˆi). Present active subjunctive of gin“sk“ with hina like the present tense of pisteu“ in verse 21, "that the world may keep on knowing" with the same pregnant phrase "that thou me didst send" (hoti su me apesteilas) as in 8,25.
{And lovedst them} (kai ˆgapˆsas autous). Timeless aorist, but love shown by sending Christ (Joh 3:16) and illustrated and proven by the way Christians love one another.

17:24 {I will} (thel“). Perfect identity of his will with that of the Father in "this moment of spiritual exaltation" (Bernard), though in Gethsemane Jesus distinguishes between his human will and that of the Father (Mr 14:36).
{Where I am} (hopou eimi eg“). That is heaven, to be with Jesus (12:26; 13:36; 14:3; Ro 8:17; 2Ti 2:11f.).
{That they may behold} (hina the“r“sin). Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive of the“re“, "that they may keep on beholding," the endless joy of seeing Jesus "as he is" (1Jo 3:2) in heaven. {Before the foundation of the world} (pro katabolˆs kosmou). This same phrase in Eph 1:4; 1Pe 1:20 and six other times we have katabolˆ kosmou (Mt 25:34; Lu 11:50; Heb 4:3; 9:26; Re 13:8; 17:8). Here we find the same pre-incarnate consciousness of Christ seen in 17:5.

17:25 {O righteous Father} (Patˆr dikaie). Nominative form with patˆr used as vocative (cf. Joh 20:28), but vocative form dikaie. Then the righteousness of God is appealed to like God's holiness in verse 11.
{The world} (kai ho kosmos). The translations usually slur over the kai as untranslatable in English. Westcott suggests "while" as a sort of correlative. It is quite possible that here kai is almost concessive like "though" and de=yet: "though the world did not know thee, yet I knew thee, and these knew thee." See Robertson, "Grammar", p. 1182 for kai--de--kai and various other uses of kai in John's Gospel.

17:26 {And will make it known} (kai gn“ris“). Future active of gn“riz“, the perpetual mission of Christ through the Spirit (16:12,25; Mt 28:20) as he himself has done heretofore (17:6).
{Wherewith} (hen). Cognate accusative relative with ˆgapˆsas which has also the accusative of the person me (me).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 17)

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