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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 16)



16:1 {That ye should not be made to stumble} (hina mˆ skandalisthˆte). Purpose clause with negative and first aorist passive of skandaliz“, common verb in the Synoptics (Mt 13:21) "the skandala of faith, the stumblingblocks which trip up a disciple" (Bernard), in John only 6:61 and here (cf. 1Jo 2:10).

16:2 {They shall put you out of the synagogues} (aposunag“gous poiˆsousin humas). "They will make you outcasts from the synagogues." Predicate accusative of the compound adjective aposunag“gos for which see 9:22; 12:42.
{Yea} (all'). Use of alla as co-ordinating conjunction, not adversative.
{That} (hina) not in the sense of "when" (hote), but as in 12:23 for God's purpose (Lu 2:34, hop“s).
{Shall think} (doxˆi). First aorist active subjunctive of doke“. "So blind will he be" (Bernard).
{That he offereth service unto God} (latreian prospherein t“i the“i). Infinitive (present active) indirect discourse after doxˆi. For the phrase see Heb 6:1ff.; 8:3ff.; 9:7ff. The rabbis so felt when they crucified Jesus and when they persecuted the disciples (Ac 6:13; 7:57f.). No persecution is more bitter than when done by religious enthusiasts and bigots like the Spanish Inquisition.

16:3 {Because} (hoti). Definite reason for the religious hatred is ignorance of God and Christ as in 15:21.

16:4 {Have I spoken} (lelalˆka). Perfect active indicative as in 15:11; 16:1. Solemn repetition.
{When their hour is come} (hotan elthˆi hˆ h“ra aut“n). Indefinite temporal clause, hotan with the second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai, "whenever their hour comes." The time appointed for these things. {Now that} (hoti). Simply "that" (declarative conjunction in indirect discourse. Forewarned is to be forearmed. Cf. 13:19.) {From the beginning} (ex archˆs). As in 6:64 but practically like ap' archˆs in 15:27. While Christ was with them, he was the object of attack (15:18).

16:5 {And none of you asketh me} (kai oudeis ex hum“n er“tƒi me). Adversative use of kai="and yet" as in 1:10. Now that they realize that Jesus is going, the thoughts of the disciples turn on themselves and they cease asking the query of Peter (13:36).

16:6 {Sorrow hath filled} (hˆ lupˆ peplˆr“ken). This word is not used of Jesus in the Gospels, in John only in this chapter. Perfect active indicative of plˆro“. They do not see their way to go on without Jesus.

16:7 {It is expedient for you} (sumpherei humin). Present active indicative of sumpher“, old verb to bear together. See 11:50 where the phrase is used by Caiaphas "for us," here "for you" (humin ethical dative).
{That I go away} (hina eg“ apelth“). Subject clause the subject of sumpherei, hina and second aorist active subjunctive of aperchomai. The reason (gar) for this startling statement follows.
{If I go not away} (ean mˆ apelth“). Third-class condition with ean and the negative with apelth“ as before.
{Will not come} (ou mˆ elthˆi). Strong double negative with second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai. The Holy Spirit was, of course, already at work in the hearts of men, but not in the sense of witnessing as Paraclete which could only take place after Jesus had gone back to the Father.
{But if I go} (ean de poreuth“). Third-class condition again (ean and the first aorist passive subjunctive of poreuomai).
{I will send} (pemps“). First person future as in 15.

16:8 {And he} (kai ekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative masculine pronoun.
{When he is come} (elth“n). Second aorist active participle of erchomai, "having come" or "coming."
{Will convict the world} (elegxei ton kosmon). Future active of elegch“, old word for confuting, convicting by proof already in 3:29; 8:46. Jesus had been doing this (7:7), but this is pre-eminently the work of the Holy Spirit and the most needed task today for our complacent age.
{In respect of sin} (peri hamartias). Concerning the reality of sin as missing the mark and as wronging God and man, and not a mere slip or animal instinct or devoid of moral responsibility or evil. Some scientists and psychologists (Freudians and behaviourists) seem bent on destroying man's sense of sin. Hence crime waves even in youth.
{And of righteousness} (kai peri dikaiosunˆs). The opposite of "sin" and to be yearned for after conviction. Cf. Ro 1:19-3:21 about the necessity of the God-kind of righteousness and the Sermon on the Mount for Christ's idea of righteousness. {And of judgment} (kai peri krise“s). As certain to come as condemnation because of sin and the lack of righteousness. These are not played out motives in human life, but basal. For this ministry we have the help of the Paraclete. The Paraclete is here spoken of "not as man's advocate with God (1Jo 2:1), but as Christ's advocate with the world" (Bernard).

16:9 {Because they believe not on me} (hoti ou pisteuousin eis eme). Without this conviction by the Paraclete such men actually have a pride of intellectual superiority in refusing to believe on Jesus.

16:10 {And ye behold me no more} (kai ouketi the“reite me). With the bodily eyes and without the Holy Spirit they are unable to behold Jesus with the spiritual vision (14:19). Without Christ they lose the sense of righteousness as is seen in the "new morals" (immorality, loose views of marriage, etc.).

16:11 {Because the prince of this world hath been judged} (hoti ho arch“n tou kosmou toutou kekritai). Cf. 12:31; 14:31 for the title. Perfect passive indicative of krin“. He stands condemned. The sinful world is in his grip, but he will be cast out (12:31).

16:12 {But ye cannot bear them now} (all' ou dunasthe bastazein arti). The literal sense of bastaz“, to bear, occurs in 12:6. For the figurative as here see Ac 15:10. The untaught cannot get the full benefit of teaching (1Co 3:1; Heb 5:11-14). The progressive nature of revelation is a necessity.

16:13 {Howbeit} (de). One of the most delicate and difficult particles to translate, varying from "and" to "but."
{When he, the Spirit of truth, is come} (hotan elthˆi ekeinos, to pneuma tˆs alˆtheias). Indefinite relative clause (hotan and the second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai, no "futurum exactum"), "whenever he comes." Note ekeinos (masculine demonstrative pronoun, though followed by neuter pneuma in apposition.) See 15:26 for this phrase about the Holy Spirit. He shall guide you (hodˆgˆsei humas). Future active of old verb hodˆge“ (from hodˆgos, from hodos, way, hˆgeomai, to lead). See Ps 24:5 for "lead me into thy truth" (hodˆgˆson me eis tˆn alˆtheian sou). Christ is both the Way and the Truth (14:6) and the Holy Spirit is the Guide who shows the way to the Truth (verse 14). This he does gradually. We are still learning the truth in Christ.
{From himself} (aph' heautou). In this he is like Christ (1:26; 12:49; 14:10).
{He shall declare} (anaggelei). Future active of anaggell“, as in 4:25. See it also repeated in verse 14.
{The things that are yet to come} (ta erchomena). Neuter plural articular participle of erchomai, "the coming things." This phrase only here in the N.T. The things already begun concerning the work of the Kingdom (Lu 7:19ff.; 18:30) not a chart of future history. See Lu 7:20; Joh 6:14; 11:27 for ho erchomenos (the coming one) used of the Messiah.

16:14 {He shall glorify me} (ekeinos eme doxasei). This is the glory of the Holy Spirit, to glorify Jesus Christ.
{For he shall take of mine} (hoti ek tou emou lˆmpsetai). Future middle of lamban“ and a definite promise of the Spirit's guidance in interpreting Christ. One need only refer to Peter's sermon at pentecost after the coming of the Holy Spirit, to Peter's Epistles, to Paul's Epistles, to Hebrews, to John's Epistles, to see how under the tutelage of the Holy Spirit the disciples grew into the fulness of the knowledge of God in the face of Christ (2Co 6:4).

16:15 {Therefore said I} (dia touto eipon). Jesus explains how and why the Holy Spirit can and will reveal to the disciples what they need to know further concerning him. They had failed so far to understand Christ's words about his death and resurrection. The Holy Spirit as Guide and Teacher will teach them what they can only receive and understand after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus.

16:16 {A little while} (mikron). The brief period now till Christ's death as in 7:33; 13:33; 14:19.
{Again a little while} (palin mikron). The period between the death and the resurrection of Jesus (from Friday afternoon till Sunday morning).
{Ye shall see me} (opsesthe me). Future middle of optomai, the verb used in 1:51; 16:22 as here of spiritual realities (Bernard), though the“re“ is so used in 20:14.

16:17 {Some of the disciples} (ek t“n mathˆt“n autou). Ellipsis of time (some) before ek as in 7:40. Jesus seemed to contradict himself, for the disciples took both verbs in the same sense and were still puzzled over the going to the Father of 14:3. But they talk to one another, not to Jesus.

16:18 {We know not what he saith} (ouk oidamen ti lalei). The questions to Jesus cease and the disciples frankly confess to each other their own ignorance.

16:19 {Jesus perceived} (egn“ Iˆsous). Second aorist active indicative of gin“sk“.
{That they were desirous to ask him} (hoti ˆthelon auton er“tƒin). Imperfect active tense of thel“ in indirect discourse instead of the retention of the present thelousin (the usual idiom), just like our English. Their embarrassment was manifest after four inquiries already (Peter, Thomas, Philip, Judas). So Jesus takes the initiative.

16:20 {Ye shall weep and lament} (klausete kai thrˆnˆsete). Future active of klai“ and thrˆne“, both old words (for klai“ see Joh 11:31, for thrˆne“ see Mt 11:17), both words used of the loud lamentations so common in the east.
{Shall rejoice} (charˆsetai). Second future passive of chair“ in violent contrast. Picture the women on the way to the Cross (Lu 23:27, ekoptonto kai ethrˆnoun, two descriptive imperfects) and Mary Magdalene by the tomb (Joh 20:11, klaiousa).
{Ye shall be sorrowful} (lupˆthˆsesthe). First future passive of lupe“, word for inward grief. See the change from sorrow to joy in 20:14-16 when "they disbelieved for joy" (Lu 24:41). So violent was the reaction on the sudden appearance of Jesus.

16:21 {A woman} (hˆ gunˆ). "The woman," any woman.
{When she is in travail} (hotan tiktˆi). Indefinite temporal clause, "whenever she is about to bear (or give birth)," hotan and present active subjunctive of tikt“, common O.T. image for pain.
{Her hour is come} (ˆlthen hˆ h“ra autˆs). Second aorist active indicative, timeless aorist, "her hour" for giving birth which she knows is like a living death.
{But when she is delivered of the child} (hotan de gennˆsˆi to paidion). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and first aorist active subjunctive of genna“. "But whenever she bears the child."
{The anguish} (tˆs thlipse“s). Genitive case after mnˆmoneuei of thlipsis, usual word for tribulation (Mt 13:21).
{Is born} (egennˆthˆ). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of genna“.

16:22 {And ye therefore now} (kai humeis oun nun). See 8:38 for like emphasis on {ye} (humeis). The "sorrow" (lupˆn) is like that of the mother in childbirth (real, but fleeting, with permanent joy following). The metaphor points, of course, to the resurrection of Jesus which did change the grief of the disciples to gladness, once they are convinced that Jesus has risen from the dead.
{But I will see you again} (palin de opsomai humas). Future middle of hora“, to see. In verses 16,19 Jesus had said "ye shall see me" (opsesthe me), but here we have one more blessed promise, "I shall see you," showing "that we are the objects of God's regard" (Westcott).
{Shall rejoice} (charˆsetai). Second future passive of chair“.
{Taketh away} (airei). Present active indicative, futuristic present, but B D have arei the future active (shall take away). This joy is a permanent possession.

16:23 {Ye shall ask me nothing} (eme ouk er“tˆsete). Either in the sense of question (original meaning of er“ta“) as in verses 19,30 since he will be gone or in the sense of request or favours (like aite“ in this verse) as in 14:16; Ac 3:2. In verse 26 both aite“ and er“ta“ occur in this sense. Either view makes sense here.
{If ye shall ask} (an ti aitˆsˆte). Third-class condition, an like ean with first aorist active subjunctive of aite“. Note 14:26 for "in my name."

16:24 {Hitherto} (he“s arti). Up till now the disciples had not used Christ's name in prayer to the Father, but after the resurrection of Jesus they are to do so, a distinct plea for parity with the Father and for worship like the Father.
{May be fulfilled} (ˆi peplˆr“menˆ). Periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of plˆro“ in a purpose clause with hina. See 15:11 for some verb (first aorist passive subjunctive with hina) and 1Jo 1:4 for same form as here, emphasizing the abiding permanence of the joy.

16:25 {In proverbs} (en paroimiais). See on 10:6 for this word.
{Shall tell} (apaggel“). Future active of apaggell“, to report, correct text and not anaggel“ (verses 13,14,15), as in 1Jo 1:2f.
{Plainly} (parrˆsiƒi). See on 7:13 for this word.

16:26 {I say not} (ou leg“). "I speak not." Christ did pray for the disciples before his death (Joh 14:16; 17:9,15,24) and he prays also for sinners (Lu 23:34; 1Jo 2:1). Here it is the special love of God for disciples of Jesus (Joh 14:21,23; 17:23; 1Jo 4:19). Note aite“ and er“ta“ used in practically the same sense as in verse 23.

16:27 {Loveth} (philei). Present active indicative of phile“, the word for warm and friendly love, here used of God's love for the disciples, while in 3:16 agapa“ occurs of God's love for the world.
{Ye have loved me} (pephilˆkate). Perfect active indicative of phile“, "loved and still love me warmly."
{And have believed} (pepisteukate). Perfect active indicative again. Recall the exhortation in 14:1.

16:28 {I came out from the Father} (exˆlthon ek tou patros). Definite act (aorist), the Incarnation, with repetition of ek (out of), while in verse 27 we have para tou patros exˆlthon) with no practical distinction between ek and para in resultant idea.
{Am come} (elˆlutha). Perfect active indicative of erchomai, as in 18:37. The Incarnation is now a permanent fact, once only a blessed hope (11:27). His leaving the world and going to the Father does not set aside the fact of the Incarnation. Both aphiˆmi (I leave) and poreuomai (I go) are futuristic present indicatives.

16:29 {No proverb} (paroimian oudemian). No wayside saying, no dark saying. See 10:6; 16:25.

16:30 {Now know we} (nun oidamen). They had failed to understand the plain words of Jesus about going to the Father heretofore (16:5), but Jesus read their very thoughts (16:19f.) and this fact seemed to open their minds to grasp his idea.
{Should ask} (er“tƒi). Present active subjunctive with hina in original sense of asking a question.
{By this} (en tout“i). In Christ's supernatural insight into their very hearts.
{From God} (apo theou). Compare para tou patros (verse 27) and ek tou patros (verse 28), apo, ek, para all with the ablative of source or origin.

16:31 {Do ye now believe?} (arti pisteuete;). For arti (just now) see 9:19; 13:33,37. Their belief in Christ was genuine "as far as it went", but perils await them of which they are ignorant. They are too self-confident as their despair at Christ's death shows.

16:32 {Cometh} (erchetai). Futuristic present middle indicative of erchomai.
{Yea, is come} (kai elˆluthen). Explanatory use of kai and the perfect active indicative as in 12:23. The long-looked-for hour (h“ra) is so close that it has virtually begun. The time for the arrest of Jesus is near. See also 17:1. {That} (hina). See verse 2 for this same use of hina (not hote) with erchomai h“ra.
{Ye shall be scattered} (skorpisthˆte). First aorist passive subjunctive of skorpiz“, used in 10:12 of sheep scampering from the wolf. Cf. Mt 12:30; Lu 11:33.
{To his own} (eis ta idia). "To his own home" as in 1:11; 19:27. So Appian VI. 23.
{Shall leave} (aphˆte). Second aorist subjunctive of aphiˆmi with hina.
{And yet} (kai). Clear case of kai in adversative sense, not just "and."

16:33 {That in me ye may have peace} (hina en emoi eirˆnˆn echˆte). Present active subjunctive of ech“, "that ye may keep on having peace in me," even when I am put to death, peace to be found nowhere save in me (14:27).
{Be of good cheer} (tharseite). Imperative active from tharsos, courage (Ac 28:15). A word for courage in the face of danger, only here in John, but see Mt 9:2,22; Mr 10:49.
{I have overcome the world} (eg“, nenikˆka ton kosmon). Perfect active indicative of nika“, to be victorious, to conquer. Always of spiritual victory in the N.T. See 1Jo 5:4f. This majestic proclamation of victory over death may be compared with tetelestai ({It is finished}) in Joh 19:30 as Christ died and with Paul's hupernik“men (we are more than conquerors) in Ro 8:37.


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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 16)



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