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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 11)

11:1 {Was sick} (ˆn asthen“n). Periphrastic imperfect active of asthene“, old verb (from asthenˆs, a privative, and sthenos, strength).
{Lazarus} (Lazaros). See on ¯Lu 16:20 for the name of another man in the parable, a shortened form of Eleazer, only other N.T. use, but in Josephus and rabbinical writings. No connexion between this Lazarus and the one in the parable.
{Of Bethany} (apo Bˆthanias). Use of apo as in 1:44 Philip of Bethsaida and 1:45 Joseph of Nazareth. This Bethany is about two miles (11:18) east of Jerusalem on the south-east slope of Olivet and is now called El Azariyeh, from the name Lazarus. Jesus is still apparently at the other Bethany beyond Jordan (10:40). It is doubtful if a distinction is meant here by apo and ek between Bethany as the residence and some other village (ek tˆs k“mˆs) as the birthplace of Lazarus and the sisters.
{Of Mary and Martha} (Marias kai Marthas). Note Marthas, not Marthˆs for the genitive. Elsewhere (Joh 11:19; Lu 10:38) Martha comes first as the mistress and hostess. The two sisters are named for further identification of Lazarus. Martha was apparently the elder sister (11:5,19; Lu 10:38f.). "The identification of Mary with Mary Magdalene is a mere conjecture supported by no direct evidence, and opposed to the general tenor of the Gospels" (Westcott).

11:2 {And it was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair} (ˆn de Mariam hˆ aleipsasa ton kurion mur“i kai ekmaxasa tous podas autou tais thrixin autˆs). This description is added to make plainer who Mary is "whose brother Lazarus was sick" (hˆs ho adelphos Lazaros ˆsthenei). There is an evident proleptic allusion to the incident described by John in 12:1-8 just after chapter 11. As John looks back from the end of the century it was all behind him, though the anointing (hˆ aleipsasa, first aorist active articular participle of aleiph“, old verb for which see Mr 6:13) took place after the events in chapter 11. The aorist participle is timeless and merely pictures the punctiliar act. The same remark applies to ekmaxasa, old verb ekmass“, to wipe off or away (Isa 12:3; 13:5; Lu 7:38,44). Note the Aramaic form Mariam as usual in John, but Marias in verse 1. When John wrote, it was as Jesus had foretold (Mt 26:13), for the fame of Mary of Bethany rested on the incident of the anointing of Jesus. The effort to link Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalene and then both names with the sinful woman of Lu 7:36-50 is gratuitous and to my mind grotesque and cruel to the memory of both Mary of Bethany and Mary Magdalene. Bernard may be taken as a specimen: "The conclusion is inevitable that John (or his editor) regarded Mary of Bethany as the same person who is described by Luke as hamart“los." This critical and artistic heresy has already been discussed in Vol. II on Luke's Gospel. Suffice it here to say that Luke introduces Mary Magdalene as an entirely new character in 8:2 and that the details in Lu 7:36-50; Joh 12:1-8 have only superficial resemblances and serious disagreements. John is not here alluding to Luke's record, but preparing for his own in chapter 12. What earthly difficulty is there in two different women under wholly different circumstances doing a similar act for utterly different purposes?

11:3 {Sent saying} (apesteilan legousai). First aorist active indicative of apostell“ and present active participle. The message was delivered by the messenger.
{Thou lovest} (phileis). Phile“ means to love as a friend (see philos in verse 11) and so warmly, while agapa“ (akin to agamai, to admire, and agathos, good) means high regard. Here both terms occur of the love of Jesus for Lazarus (ˆgapa in verse 5). Both occur of the Father's love for the Son (agapƒi in 3:35, philei in 5:20). Hence the distinction is not always observed.

11:4 {Heard it} (akousas). The messenger delivered the message of the sisters. The reply of Jesus is for him and for the apostles.
{Is not unto death} (ouk estin pros thanaton). Death in the final issue, to remain dead. Lazarus did die, but he did not remain dead. See hamartia pros thanaton in 1Jo 5:16, "sin unto death" (final death).
{But for the glory of God} (all' huper tˆs doxˆs tou theou). In behalf of God's glory, as the sequel shows. Cf. 9:3 about the man born blind. The death of Lazarus will illustrate God's glory. In some humble sense those who suffer the loss of loved ones are entitled to some comfort from this point made by Jesus about Lazarus. In a supreme way it is true of the death of Christ which he himself calls glorification of himself and God (13:31). In 7:39 John had already used doxaz“ of the death of Christ.
{That the Son of God may be glorified thereby} (hina doxasthˆi ho huios tou theou di' autˆs). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of doxaz“. Here Jesus calls himself "the Son of God." In 8:54 Jesus had said: "It is my Father that glorifieth me." The raising of Lazarus from the tomb will bring glory to the Son of God. See 17:1 for this idea in Christ's prayer. The raising of Lazarus will also bring to an issue his own death and all this involves the glorification of the Father (7:39; 12:16; 13:31; 14:13). The death of Lazarus brings Jesus face to face with his own death.

11:5 {Now Jesus loved} (ˆgapa de). Imperfect active of agapa“ picturing the continued love of Jesus for this noble family where he had his home so often (Lu 10:38-42; Joh 12:1-8). The sisters expected him to come at once and to heal Lazarus.

11:6 {That he was sick} (hoti asthenei). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after a secondary tense (ˆkousen).
{Two days} (duo hˆmeras). Accusative of extent of time.
{In the place where he was} (en h“i ˆn top“i). Incorporation of the antecedent top“i into the relative clause, "in which place he was." It was long enough for Lazarus to die and seemed unlike Jesus to the sisters.

11:7 {Then after this} (epeita meta touto). Epeita (only here in John) means thereafter (Lu 16:7) and it is made plainer by the addition of meta touto (cf. 2:12; 11:11), meaning after the two days had elapsed.
{Let us go into Judea again} (Ag“men eis tˆn Ioudaian palin). Volitive (hortative) subjunctive of ag“ (intransitive use as in verses 11,16). They had but recently escaped the rage of the Jews in Jerusalem (10:39) to this haven in Bethany beyond Jordan (10:40).

11:8 {Were but now seeking to stone thee} (nun ezˆtoun se lithasai). Conative imperfect of zˆte“ with reference to the event narrated in 10:39 in these very words.
{Goest thou thither again?} (palin hupageis ekei;). Present active intransitive use of the compound hupag“, to withdraw (6:21; 8:21) from this safe retreat (Vincent). It seemed suicidal madness to go back now.

11:9 {In the day} (tˆs hˆmeras). Genitive of time, within the day, the twelve-hour day in contrast with night. The words of Jesus here illustrate what he had said in 9:4. It is not blind fatalism that Jesus proclaims, but the opposite of cowardice. He has full confidence in the Father s purpose about his "hour" which has not yet come. Jesus has courage to face his enemies again to do the Father's will about Lazarus.
{If a man walk in the day} (ean tis peripatˆi en tˆi hˆmerƒi). Condition of the third class, a conceived case and it applies to Jesus who walks in the full glare of noonday. See 8:12 for the contrast between walking in the light and in the dark.
{He stumbleth not} (ou proskoptei). He does not cut (or bump) against this or that obstacle, for he can see. Kopt“ is to cut and pros, against.

11:10 {But if a man walk in the night} (ean de tis peripatˆi en tˆi nukti). Third condition again. It is spiritual darkness that Jesus here pictures, but the result is the same. See the same figure in 12:35 (1Jo 2:11). The ancients had poor illumination at night as indeed we did before Edison gave us electric lights. Pedestrians actually used to have little lamps fastened on the feet to light the path.
{In him} (en aut“i). Spiritual darkness, the worst of all (cf. Mt 6:23; Joh 8:12). Man has the capacity for light, but is not the source of light. "By the application of this principle Christianity is distinguished from Neo-Platonism" (Westcott).

11:11 {Is fallen asleep} (kekoimˆtai). Perfect passive indicative of koima“, old verb to put to sleep. Common as a metaphor for death like our cemetery.
{I go} (poreuomai). Futuristic use of the present tense as in 14:2.
{That I may awake him out of sleep} (hina exupnis“ auton). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of exupniz“, a late compound (ex, hupnos, sleep) for the older aphupniz“, here only in the N.T. See Job 14:12 where also it occurs along with koimaomai.

11:12 {He will recover} (s“thˆsetai). Future passive indicative of s“z“ used in its original sense of being or getting well (safe and sound). Conclusion of the condition of the first class (ei kekoimˆtai).

11:13 {Had spoken} (eirˆkei). Past perfect of eipon (er“). The disciples had misunderstood Christ's metaphor for death. {That he spake} (hoti legei). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense (edoxan).
{Of taking rest in sleep} (peri tˆs koimˆse“s tou hupou). Only use of koimˆsis (from koima“) in the N.T., but it also was used of death (Sirach 46:19). Hupnou (in sleep) is objective genitive of hupnos (sleep, Mt 1:24).

11:14 {Plainly} (parrˆsiƒi). Adverb (see on ¯7:4), without metaphor as in 16:29.
{Is dead} (apethanen). First aorist active indicative, "died."

11:15 {For your sakes} (di' humas). That they may witness his raising from the grave.
{That I was not there} (hoti ouk ˆmˆn ekei). Imperfect middle ˆmˆn of the later Greek instead of the common active ˆn in indirect discourse in place of the usual present retained as in verse 13.
{To the intent ye may believe} (hina pisteusˆte). Purpose clause with hina and the ingressive aorist active subjunctive, "that ye may come to believe" (more than you do). See the same use of the ingressive aorist in episteusan (2:11) where the disciples gained in belief.
{Nevertheless let us go to him} (alla ag“men pros auton). Volitive subjunctive, repeating the proposal of verse 7. He is dead, but no matter, yea all the more let us go on to him.

11:16 {Didymus} (Didumos). The word means twin. Clearly Thomas had a twin brother or sister. Applied two other times to him (20:24; 21:2). The Aramaic word for Thomas means Twin and Didymus is just the Greek equivalent of Thomas. He may even in Greek circles have been called Didymus.
{His fellow disciples} (tois sunmathˆtais). Dative case and article use like "his." Only use of sunmathˆtes in the N.T., rare word (in Plato).
{Us also} (kai hˆmeis). As well as Jesus, since he is bent on going.
{That we may die with him} (hina apothan“men met' autou). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothnˆsk“. Die with Jesus, Thomas means. Lazarus is already dead and they will kill Jesus (verse 8). Pessimistic courage surely.

11:17 {Found} (heuren). Second aorist active indicative of heurisk“.
{That he had been in the tomb four days already} (auton tessaras ˆdˆ hˆmeras echonta). Literally, "him (accusative object of heuren) having already four days in the tomb." See 5:5 for the same idiom (etˆ ech“n) for expression of time (having 38 years). In Jewish custom burial took place on the day of death (Ac 6:6,10).

11:18 {About fifteen furlongs off} (h“s apo stadi“n dekapente). The idiom of apo with the ablative for distance is like the Latin "a millibus passum duobus" (Caesar, "Bell. Gall". ii. 7), but it (pro also, Joh 12:1) occurs already in the Doric and in the "Koin‚" often (Moulton, "Proleg"., p. 101; Robertson, "Grammar", p. 110). See it again in 21:8; Re 14:20.

11:19 {Had come} (elˆlutheisan). Past perfect of erchomai. These Jews were probably not hostile to Jesus. There were seven days of solemn mourning (1Sa 31:13). The presence of so many indicates the prominence of the family.
{To Martha and Mary} (pros tˆn Marthan kai Mariam). Correct text, not the Textus Receptus pros tas peri Marthan kai Mariam (to the women about Martha and Mary).
{To console them} (hina paramuthˆs“ntai). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of paramutheomai, old verb (para, beside, muthos, word), to put in a word beside, to offer consolation. Again in verse 31. See 1Th 2:11; 5:14. See Job 2:13 for these visits of consolation, often deplorable enough, though kindly meant.

11:20 {That Jesus was coming} (hoti Iˆsous erchetai). Present middle indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense ˆkousen (first aorist active).
{Went and met him} (hupˆntˆsen aut“i). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of hupanta“, old compound verb, to go to meet (Mt 8:28) with the associative instrumental case aut“i.
{But Mary still sat in the house} (Mariam de en t“i oik“i ekathezeto). Imperfect middle of kathezomai, old verb to sit down, graphic picture of Mary, "while Mary was sitting in the house." Both Martha and Mary act true to form here as in Lu 10:38-42.

11:21 {Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died} (Kurie, ei ˆs h“de ouk an apethanen ho adelphos mou). Condition of the second class with ei and the imperfect ˆs (no aorist of eimi, to be) in the condition and an with the second aorist active indicative of apothnˆsk“. Mary (verse 32) uses these identical words to Jesus. Clearly they had said so to each other with wistful longing if not with a bit of reproach for his delay. But they used ˆs, not ˆlthes or egenou. But busy, practical Martha comes to the point.

11:22 {And even now I know} (kai nun oida). Rather just, "Even now I know." Alla (but) of the Textus Receptus is not genuine. {Whatsoever thou shalt ask of God} (hosa an aitˆsˆi ton theon). Indefinite relative (hosa, as many things as) with an and the first aorist middle (indirect middle, thou thyself asking) subjunctive of aite“. Martha uses aite“ (usual word of prayer of men to God) rather than er“ta“ (usual word of Jesus praying to the Father), but in 16:23 we have er“ta“ used of prayer to Jesus and aite“ of prayer to God. But the distinction is not to be pressed. "As many things as thou dost ask of God."
{God will give} (d“sei soi ho theos). Repetition of ho theos for emphasis. Martha still has courageous faith in the power of God through Jesus and Jesus in verse 41 says practically what she has said here.

11:23 {Thy brother will rise again} (anastˆsetai ho adelphos sou). Future middle (intransitive) of anistˆmi. The words promise Martha what she has asked for, if Jesus means that.

11:24 {In the resurrection at the last day} (en tˆi anastasei en tˆi eschatˆi hˆmerƒi). Did Jesus mean only that? She believed it, of course, and such comfort is often offered in case of death, but that idea did not console Martha and is not what she hinted at in verse 22.

11:25 {I am the resurrection and the life} (Eg“ eimi hˆ anastasis kai hˆ z“ˆ). This reply is startling enough. They are not mere doctrines about future events, but present realities in Jesus himself. "The Resurrection is one manifestation of the Life: it is involved in the Life" (Westcott). Note the article with both anastasis and z“ˆ. Jesus had taught the future resurrection often (6:39), but here he means more, even that Lazarus is now alive.
{Though he die} (kan apothanˆi). "Even if he die," condition (concession) of third class with kai ean (kan) and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothnˆsk“ (physical death, he means).
{Yet shall he live} (zˆsetai). Future middle of za“ (spiritual life, of course).

11:26 {Shall never die} (ou mˆ apothanˆi eis ton ai“na). Strong double negative ou mˆ with second aorist active subjunctive of apothnˆsk“ again (but spiritual death, this time), "shall not die for ever" (eternal death).
{Believest thou this?} (pisteueis touto;) Sudden test of Martha's insight and faith with all the subtle turns of thought involved.

11:27 {Yea, Lord} (Nai, kurie). Martha probably did not understand all that Jesus said and meant, but she did believe in the future resurrection, in eternal life for believers in Christ, in the power of Christ to raise even the dead here and now. She had heroic faith and makes now her own confession of faith in words that outrank those of Peter in Mt 16:16 because she makes hers with her brother dead now four days and with the hope that Jesus will raise him up now.
{I have believed} (pepisteuka). Perfect active indicative of pisteu“. It is my settled and firm faith. Peter uses this same tense in 6:69.
{That thou art the Son of God} (hoti su ei ho Christos ho huios tou theou). The Messiah or the Christ (1:41) was to be also "the Son of God" as the Baptist said he had found Jesus to be (1:34), as Peter confessed on Hermon for the apostles (Mt 16:16), as Jesus claimed to be (Joh 11:41) and confessed on oath before Caiaphas that he was (Mt 26:63f.), and as John stated that it was his purpose to prove in his Gospel (20:31). But no one said it under more trying circumstances than Martha.
{Even he that cometh into the world} (ho eis ton kosmon erchomenos). No "even" in the Greek. This was a popular way of putting the people's expectation (6:14; Mt 11:3). Jesus himself spoke of his coming into the world (9:39; 16:28; 8:37).

11:28 {Called Mary} (eph“nˆsen Mariam). First aorist active indicative of ph“ne“. Out of the house and away from the crowd. {Secretly} (lathrƒi). Old adverb from lathros (lanthan“). To tell her the glad news.
{The Master} (ho didaskalos). "The Teacher." So they loved to call him as he was (13:13).
{Is here} (parestin). "Is present."
{Calleth thee} (ph“nei se). This rouses Mary.

11:29 {And she} (kai ekeinˆ). Emphatic use of the demonstrative ekeinos as often in John, "And that one."
{Arose quickly} (ˆgerthˆ). First aorist (ingressive) passive of egeir“ and intransitive. Naturally so on the sudden impulse of joy.
{And went unto him} (kai ˆrcheto pros auton). Imperfect middle, possibly inchoative, started towards him, certainly picturing her as she was going.

11:30 {Now Jesus was not yet come into the town} (oup“ de elˆluthei ho Iˆsous eis tˆn k“mˆn). Explanatory parenthesis with past perfect as in verse 19. Martha had her interview while he was still coming (verse 20) and left him (went off, apˆlthen, verse 28) to hurry to Mary with the news. Why Jesus tarried still where he had met Martha we do not know. Westcott says, "as though He would meet the sisters away from the crowd of mourners."

11:31 {Followed her} (ˆkolouthˆsan autˆi). First aorist active indicative of akolouthe“ with associative instrumental case (autˆi). This crowd of consolers (paramuthoumenoi) meant kindly enough, but did the one wrong thing for Mary wished to see Jesus alone. People with kind notions often so act. The secrecy of Martha (verse 28) was of no avail.
{Supposing that she was going unto the tomb} (doxantes hoti hupagei eis to mnˆmeion). First aorist active participle of doke“, justifying their conduct by a wrong inference. Note retention of present tense hupagei in indirect discourse after the secondary tense ˆkolouthˆsan.
{To weep there} (hina klausˆi ekei). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of klai“, old verb to weep. Sometimes to wail or howl in oriental style of grief, but surely not that here. At any rate this supposed purpose of Mary was a real reason for this crowd {not} to go with her.

11:32 {Fell down at his feet} (epesen autou pros tous podas). Second aorist active of pipt“, to fall. Note unusual position of autou. This impulsive act like Mary. She said precisely what Martha had said to Jesus (verse 21). But she said no more, only wept (verse 33).

11:33 {When Jesus therefore saw her weeping} (Iˆsous oun h“s eiden autˆn klaiousan). Proleptic position of "Jesus," "Jesus therefore when he saw." She was weeping at the feet of Jesus, not at the tomb.
{And the Jews also weeping} (kai tous Ioudaious klaiontas). Mary's weeping was genuine, that of the Jews was partly perfunctory and professional and probably actual "wailing" as the verb klai“ can mean. Klai“ is joined with alalaz“ in Mr 5:38, with ololuz“ in Jas 5:1, with thorube“ in Mr 5:39, with penthe“ in Mr 16:10. It was an incongruous combination.
{He groaned in the spirit} (enebrimˆsato t“i pneumati). First aorist middle indicative of embrimaomai, old verb (from en, and brimˆ, strength) to snort with anger like a horse. It occurs in the LXX (Da 11:30) for violent displeasure. The notion of indignation is present in the other examples of the word in the N.T. (Mr 1:43; 14:5; Mt 9:30). So it seems best to see that sense here and in verse 38. The presence of these Jews, the grief of Mary, Christ's own concern, the problem of the raising of Lazarus--all greatly agitated the spirit of Jesus (locative case t“i pneumati). He struggled for self-control.
{Was troubled} (etaraxen heauton). First aorist active indicative of tarass“, old verb to disturb, to agitate, with the reflexive pronoun, "he agitated himself" (not passive voice, not middle). "His sympathy with the weeping sister and the wailing crowd caused this deep emotion" (Dods). Some indignation at the loud wailing would only add to the agitation of Jesus.

11:34 {Where have ye laid him?} (Pou tetheikate auton;). Perfect active indicative of tithˆmi. A simple question for information. The only other like it in John is in 6:6 where it is expressly stated that Jesus knew what he was going to do. So it was here, only he politely asked for direction to the tomb of Lazarus. The people invite him to come and see, the very language used by Philip to Nathanael (1:46). It was a natural and polite reply as they would show Jesus the way, but they had no idea of his purpose.

11:35 {Jesus wept} (edakrusen ho Iˆsous). Ingressive first aorist active indicative of dakru“, old verb from dakru or dakruon, a tear (Ac 20:19), only here in N.T. It never means to wail, as klai“ sometimes does. "Jesus burst into tears." Klai“ is used of Jesus in Lu 19:41. See Heb 5:7 "with strong crying and tears" (meta kraugˆs kai dakru“n). Apparently this was as Jesus started towards (see verse 38) the tomb. In a sense it was a reaction from the severe strain in verse 33, but chiefly it was the sheer human sympathy of his heart with Martha and Mary touched with the feeling of our common weakness (Heb 4:15). Often all that we can do is to shed tears in grief too deep for words. Jesus understood and understands. This is the shortest verse in the Bible, but no verse carries more meaning in it.

11:36 {Loved} (ephilei). As in verse 3 which see. Imperfect active. Even the Jews saw that Jesus loved Lazarus.

11:37 {Could not this man} (ouk edunato houtos). Imperfect middle of dunamai. They do not say dunatai (can, present middle indicative). But clearly the opening of the blind man's eyes (chapter 9) had made a lasting impression on some of these Jews, for it was done three months ago.
{Have caused that this man also should not die} (poiˆsai hina kai houtos mˆ apothanˆi). First aorist active infinitive of poie“ with hina, like the Latin "facere ut" (sub-final use, Robertson, "Grammar", p. 985), with the second aorist active subjunctive apothanˆi and negative . These Jews share the view expressed by Martha (verse 21) and Mary (verse 32) that Jesus could have {prevented} the death of Lazarus.

11:38 {Again groaning in himself} (palin embrim“menos en heaut“i). Direct reference to the use of this same word (present middle participle here) in verse 33, only with en heaut“i (in himself) rather than t“i pneumati (in his spirit), practically the same idea. The speculation concerning his power stirred the depths of his nature again.
{Cometh to the tomb} (erchetai eis to mnˆmeion). Vivid historical present.
{A cave} (spˆlaion). Old word (from speos, cavern). Cf. Mt 21:13.
{Lay against it} (epekeito ep' aut“i). Imperfect middle of epikeimai, old verb to lie upon as in 21:9 and figuratively (1Co 9:16). Note repetition of epi with locative case. The use of a cave for burial was common (Ge 23:19). Either the body was let down through a horizontal opening (hardly so here) or put in a tomb cut in the face of the rock (if so, epi can mean "against"). The stones were used to keep away wild animals from the bodies.

11:39 {Take ye away the stone} (arate ton lithon). First aorist active imperative of air“. They could do this much without the exercise of Christ's divine power. It was a startling command to them.
{By this time he stinketh} (ˆdˆ ozei). Present active indicative of old verb, here only in N.T. (cf. Ex 8:14). It means to give out an odour, either good or bad.
{For he hath been dead four days} (tetartaios gar estin). The Greek simply says, "For he is a fourth-day man." It is an old ordinal numeral from tetartos (fourth). Herodotus (ii. 89) has tetartaios genesthai of one four days dead as here. The word is only here in the N.T. The same idiom occurs in Ac 28:13 with deuteraioi (second-day men). Lightfoot ("Hor. Hebr.") quotes a Jewish tradition ("Beresh. Rabba") to the effect that the soul hovers around the tomb for three days hoping to return to the body, but on the fourth day leaves it. But there is no suggestion here that Martha held that notion. Her protest is a natural one in spite of her strong faith in verses 22-27.

11:40 {Said I not unto thee?} (Ouk eipon soi;). Jesus pointedly reminds Martha of his promise to raise Lazarus (verses 25f.). {That if thou believedst} (hoti ean pisteusˆis). Indirect discourse with ean and the first aorist active subjunctive (condition of third class) retained after the secondary tense eipon. He had not said this very phrase, ean pisteusˆis, to Martha, but he did say to her: Pisteueis touto; (Believest thou this?). He meant to test Martha as to her faith already hinted at (verse 22) on this very point. Jesus had also spoken of increase of faith on the part of the disciples (verse 15). {Thou shouldest see the glory of God} (opsˆi tˆn doxan tou theou). Future middle indicative of the old defective verb hora“ retained in the conclusion of this condition in indirect discourse. Jesus means the glory of God as shown in the resurrection of Lazarus as he had already said to the disciples (verse 4) and as he meant Martha to understand (verse 25) and may in fact have said to her (the report of the conversation is clearly abridged). Hence Bernard's difficulty in seeing how Martha could understand the words of Jesus about the resurrection of Lazarus here and now seems fanciful and far-fetched.

11:41 {So they took away the stone} (ˆran oun ton lithon). First aorist active indicative of air“, but without the explanatory gloss of the Textus Receptus "from the place where the dead was laid" (not genuine).
{I thank thee that thou heardest me} (eucharist“ soi hoti ˆkousas mou). See 6:11 for euchariste“. Clearly Jesus had prayed to the Father concerning the raising of Lazarus. He has the answer before he acts. "No pomp of incantation, no wrestling in prayer even; but simple words of thanksgiving, as if already Lazarus was restored" (Dods). Jesus well knew the issues involved on this occasion. If he failed, his own claims to be the Son of God (the Messiah), would be hopelessly discredited with all. If he succeeded, the rulers would be so embittered as to compass his own death.

11:42 {And I knew} (eg“ de ˆidein). Past perfect of oida used as imperfect. This confident knowledge is no new experience with Jesus. It has "always" (pantote) been so.
{Which standeth around} (ton periest“ta). Second perfect active (intransitive) articular participle of periistˆmi. It was a picturesque and perilous scene.
{That they may believe} (hina pisteus“sin). Purpose clause with hina and first ingressive aorist active subjunctive of pisteu“, "that they may come to believe."
{That thou didst send me} (hoti su me apesteilas). First aorist active indicative of apostell“ and note position of su me side by side. This claim Jesus had long ago made (5:36) and had repeatedly urged (10:25,38). Here was a supreme opportunity and Jesus opens his heart about it.

11:43 {He cried with a loud voice} (ph“nˆi megalˆi ekraugasen). First aorist active indicative of kraugaz“, old and rare word from kraugˆ (Mt 25:6). See Mt 12:19. Occurs again in Joh 18:40; 19:6,12. Only once in the LXX (Ezr 3:13) and with ph“nˆi megalˆi (either locative or instrumental case makes sense) as here. For this "elevated (great) voice" see also Mt 24:31; Mr 15:34,37; Re 1:10; 21:3. The loud voice was not for the benefit of Lazarus, but for the sake of the crowd standing around that they might see that Lazarus came forth simultaneously with the command of Jesus.
{Lazarus, come forth} (Lazare, deuro ex“). "Hither out." No verb, only the two adverbs, deuro here alone in John. Lazarus heard and obeyed the summons.

11:44 {He that was dead came forth} (exˆlthen ho tethnˆk“s). Literally, "Came out the dead man," (effective aorist active indicative and perfect active articular participle of thnˆsk“). Just as he was and at once.
{Bound hand and foot} (dedemenos tous podas kai tas cheiras). Perfect passive participle of de“ with the accusative loosely retained according to the common Greek idiom (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 486), but literally "as to the feet and hands" (opposite order from the English). Probably the legs were bound separately.
{With grave-clothes} (keiriais). Or "with bands." Instrumental case of this late and rare word (in Plutarch, medical papyrus in the form kˆria, and Pr 7:16). Only here in N.T.
{His face} (hˆ opsis autou). Old word, but pros“pon is usual in N.T. See Re 1:16 for another instance.
{Was bound about} (periededeto). Past perfect passive of peride“, old verb to bind around, only here in N.T.
{With a napkin} (soudari“i). Instrumental case of soudarion (Latin word "sudarium" from "sudor", sweat). In N.T. here, 20:7; Lu 19:20; Ac 19:12. Our handkerchief.
{Loose him} (lusate auton). First aorist active imperative of lu“. From the various bands. {Let him go} (aphete auton hupagein). Second aorist active imperative of aphiˆmi and present active infinitive.

11:45 {Beheld that which he did} (theasamenoi ho epoiˆsen). First aorist middle participle of theaomai and first aorist active indicative of poie“ in the relative (ho) clause. They were eye-witnesses of all the details and did not depend on hearsay.
{Believed on him} (episteusan eis auton). Such a result had happened before (7:31), and all the more in the presence of this tremendous miracle which held many to Jesus (12:11,17).

11:46 {Went away to the Pharisees} (apˆlthon pros tous Pharisaious). Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai. This "some" (tines) did who were deeply impressed and yet who did not have the courage to break away from the rabbis without consulting them. It was a crisis for the Sanhedrin.

11:47 {Gathered a council} (sunˆgagon sunedrion). Second aorist active indicative of sunag“ and sunedrion, the regular word for the Sanhedrin (Mt 5:22, etc.), only here in John. Here a sitting or session of the Sanhedrin. Both chief priests (Sadducees) and Pharisees (mentioned no more in John after 7:57 save 12:19,42) combine in the call (cf. 7:32). From now on the chief priests (Sadducees) take the lead in the attacks on Jesus, though loyally supported by their opponents (the Pharisees).
{And said} (kai elegon). Imperfect active of leg“, perhaps inchoative, "began to say."
{What do we?} (Ti poioumen;). Present active (linear) indicative of poie“. Literally, "What are we doing?" {Doeth} (poiei). Better, "is doing" (present, linear action). He is active and we are idle. There is no mention of the raising of Lazarus as a fact, but it is evidently inoluded in the "many signs."

11:48 {If we let him thus alone} (ean aph“men auton hout“s). Condition of third class with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of apiˆmi. "Suppose we leave him thus alone." Suppose also that he keeps on raising the dead right here next door to Jerusalem! {All will believe on him} (pantes pisteusousin eis auton). Future active of pisteu“. The inevitable conclusion, "all" (pantes), not just "some" (tines). as now.
{And the Romans will come} (kai eleusontai hoi R“maioi). Another inevitable result with the future middle of erchomai. Only if the people take Jesus as their political Messiah (6:15) as they had once started to do. This is a curious muddle for the rulers knew that Jesus did not claim to be a political Messiah and would not be a rival to Caesar. And yet they use this fear (their own belief about the Messiah) to stir themselves to frenzy as they will use it with Pilate later.
{And take away both our place and our nation} (kai arousin hˆm“n kai ton topon kai to ethnos). Future active of air“, another certain result of their inaction. Note the order here when "place" (job) is put before nation (patriotism), for all the world like modern politicians who make the fate of the country turn on their getting the jobs which they are seeking. In the course of time the Romans will come, not because of the leniency of the Sanhedrin toward Jesus, but because of the uprising against Rome led by the Zealots and they will destroy both temple and city and the Sanhedrin will lose their jobs and the nation will be scattered. Future historians will say that this fate came as punishment on the Jews for their conduct toward Jesus.

11:49 {Caiaphas} (Kaiaphas). Son-in-law of Annas and successor and high priest for 18 years (A.D. 18 to 36).
{That year} (tou eniautou ekeinou). Genitive of time; his high-priesthood included that year (A.D. 29 or 30). So he took the lead at this meeting.
{Ye know nothing at all} (humeis ouk oidate ouden). In this he is correct, for no solution of their problem had been offered.

11:50 {That it is expedient for you} (hoti sumpherei humin). Indirect discourse with present active indicative of sumpher“ used with the hina clause as subject. It means to bear together, to be profitable, with the dative case as here (humin, for you). It is to your interest and that is what they cared most for.
{That one man die} (hina heis anthr“pos apothanˆi). Sub-final use of hina with second aorist active subjunctive of apothnˆsk“ as subject clause with sumpherei. See 16:7; 18:7 for the same construction.
{For the people} (huper tou laou). Huper simply means "over", but can be in behalf of as often, and in proper context the resultant idea is "instead of" as the succeeding clause shows and as is clearly so in Ga 3:13 of the death of Christ and naturally so in 2Co 5:14f.; Ro 5:6. In the papyri huper is the usual preposition used of one who writes a letter for one unable to write.
{And that the whole nation perish not} (kai mˆ holon to ethnos apolˆtai). Continuation of the hina construction with and the second aorist subjunctive of apollumi. What Caiaphas has in mind is the giving of Jesus to death to keep the nation from perishing at the hands of the Romans. Politicians are often willing to make a sacrifice of the other fellow.

11:51 {Not of himself} (aph' heautou ouk). Not wholly of himself, John means. There was more in what Caiaphas said than he understood. His language is repeated in 18:14.
{Prophesied} (eprophˆteusen). Aorist active indicative of prophˆteu“. But certainly unconscious prophecy on his part and purely accidental. Caiaphas meant only what was mean and selfish.
{That Jesus should die} (hoti emellen Iˆsous apothnˆskein). Imperfect active of mell“ in indirect discourse instead of the usual present retained after a secondary tense (eprophˆteusen) as sometimes occurs (see 2:25).

11:52 {But that he might also gather together into one} (all' hina sunagagˆi eis hen). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of sunag“. Caiaphas was thinking only of the Jewish people (laou, ethnos, verse 50). The explanation and interpretation of John here follow the lead of the words of Jesus about the other sheep and the one flock in 10:16.
{That are scattered abroad} (ta dieskorpismena). Perfect passive articular participle of diaskorpiz“, late verb (Polybius, LXX) to scatter apart, to winnow grain from chaff, only here in John. The meaning here is not the Diaspora (Jews scattered over the world), but the potential children of God in all lands and all ages that the death of Christ will gather "into one" (eis hen). A glorious idea, but far beyond Caiaphas.

11:53 {So from that day} (ap' ekeinˆs oun tˆs hˆmeras). The raising of Lazarus brought matters to a head so to speak. It was now apparently not more than a month before the end.
{They took counsel} (ebouleusanto). First aorist middle indicative of bouleu“, old verb to take counsel, in the middle voice for themselves, among themselves. The Sanhedrin took the advice of Caiaphas seriously and plotted the death of Jesus.
{That they might put him to death} (hina apoktein“sin auton). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of apoktein“. It is an old purpose (5:18; 7:19; 8:44,59; 10:39; 11:8) now revived with fresh energy due to the raising of Lazarus.

11:54 {Therefore walked no more openly} (oun ouketi parrˆsiƒi periepatei). Imperfect active of peripate“, to walk around. Jesus saw clearly that to do so would bring on the end now instead of his "hour" which was to be at the passover a month ahead.
{Into the country near to the wilderness} (eis tˆn ch“ran eggus tˆs erˆmou). It was now in Jerusalem as it had become once in Galilee (7:1) because of the plots of the hostile Jews. The hill country northeast of Jerusalem was thinly populated.
{Into a city called Ephraim} (eis Ephraim legomenˆn polin). Polis here means no more than town or village (k“mˆ). The place is not certainly known, not mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. Josephus mentions ("War", IV. ix. 9) a small fort near Bethel in the hill country and in 2Ch 13:19 Ephron is named in connexion with Bethel. Up here Jesus would at least be free for the moment from the machinations of the Sanhedrin while he faced the coming catastrophe at the passover. He is not far from the mount of temptation where the devil showed and offered him the kingdoms of the world for the bending of the knee before him. Is it mere fancy to imagine that the devil came to see Jesus again here at this juncture with a reminder of his previous offer and of the present plight of the Son of God with the religious leaders conspiring his death? At any rate Jesus has the fellowship of his disciples this time (meta t“n mathˆt“n). But what were they thinking?

11:55 {Was near} (ˆn eggus). See 2:13 for the same phrase. This last passover was the time of destiny for Jesus.
{Before the passover to purify themselves} (pro tou pascha hina hagnis“sin heautous). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of hagniz“, old verb from hagnos (pure), ceremonial purification here, of course. All this took time. These came "from the country" (ek tˆs ch“ras), from all over Palestine, from all parts of the world, in fact. John shifts the scene to Jerusalem just before the passover with no record of the way that Jesus came to Jerusalem from Ephraim. The Synoptic Gospels tell this last journey up through Samaria into Galilee to join the great caravan that crossed over into Perea and came down on the eastern side of the Jordan opposite Jericho and then marched up the mountain road to Bethany and Bethphage just beside Jerusalem. This story is found in Lu 17:11-19:28; Mr 10:1-52; Mt 19:1-20:34. John simply assumes the Synoptic narrative and gives the picture of things in and around Jerusalem just before the passover (11:56,57).

11:56 {They sought therefore for Jesus} (ezˆtoun oun ton Iˆsoun). Imperfect active of zˆte“ and common oun of which John is so fond. They were seeking Jesus six months before at the feast of tabernacles (7:11), but now they really mean to kill him.
{As they stood in the temple} (en t“i hier“i hestˆkotes). Perfect active participle (intransitive) of histˆmi, a graphic picture of the various groups of leaders in Jerusalem and from other lands, "the knots of people in the Temple precincts" (Bernard). They had done this at the tabernacles (7:11-13), but now there is new excitement due to the recent raising of Lazarus and to the public order for the arrest of Jesus.
{That he will not come to the feast?} (hoti ou mˆ elthˆi eis tˆn heortˆn;). The form of the question (indirect discourse after dokeite) assumes strongly that Jesus will not (ou mˆ, double negative with second aorist active elthˆi from erchomai) dare to come this time for the reason given in verse 57.

11:57 {The chief priests and the Pharisees} (hoi archiereis kai hoi Pharisaioi). The Sanhedrin.
{Had given commandment} (ded“keisan entolas). Past perfect active of did“mi.
{That he should shew it} (hina mˆnusˆi). Sub-final hina with first aorist active subjunctive of mˆnu“, old verb to disclose, to report formally (Ac 23:30).
{If any man knew} (ean tis gn“i). Third-class condition with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of gin“sk“.
{Where he was} (pou estin). Indirect question with interrogative adverb and present indicative estin retained like gn“i and mˆnusˆi after the secondary tense ded“keisan.
{That they might take him} (hop“s pias“sin auton). Purpose clause with hop“s instead of hina and first aorist active subjunctive of piaz“ so often used before (7:44, etc.).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 11)

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