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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Hebrews: Chapter 12)

12:1 {Therefore} (toigaroun). Triple compound inferential participle (toi, gar, oun) like the German "doch denn nun", a conclusion of emphasis, old particle, in N.T. only here and 1Th 4:8. There should be no chapter division here, since 12:1-3 really is the climax in the whole argument about the better promises (10:19-12:3) with a passionate appeal for loyalty to Christ.
{Us also} (kai hˆmeis). We as well as "these all" of 11:39 and all the more because of the "something better" given us in the actual coming of Christ.
{Compassed about} (echontes perikeimenon). Literally, "having (echontes, present active participle of ech“) lying around us" (perikeimenon, present middle participle of perikeimai, old verb as in Lu 17:2). {Cloud of witnesses} (nephos martur“n). Old word (Latin "nubes"), here only in the N.T., for vast mass of clouds. Nephelˆ is a single cloud. The metaphor refers to the great amphitheatre with the arena for the runners and the tiers upon tiers of seats rising up like a cloud. The martures here are not mere spectators (theatai), but testifiers (witnesses) who testify from their own experience (11:2,4,5,33,39) to God's fulfilling his promises as shown in chapter Heb 11.
{Laying aside} (apothemenoi). Second aorist-middle (indirect, from ourselves) participle of apotithˆmi, old verb as in Col 3:8 (laying off old clothes). The runners ran in the stadium nearly naked.
{Every weight} (ogkon panta). Old word (kin to enegkein, pher“) like phortos, baros. Here every encumbrance that handicaps like doubt, pride, sloth, anything. No trailing garment to hinder or trip one.
{The sin which doth so easily beset us} (tˆn euperistaton hamartian). "The easily besetting sin." There are a dozen possible renderings of this double compound verbal from eu, well, and periistˆmi, to place around or to stand around (intransitive). The Vulgate has "circumstans nos peccatum" (the sin standing around us). Probably this is the true idea here, "the easily encompassing (or surrounding) sin." In this case apostasy from Christ was that sin. In our cases it may be some other sin. The verbal adjective reminds one of the ring of wild beasts in the jungle that encircle the camp-fire at night each ready to pounce upon a careless victim.
{Let us run} (trech“men). Present active volitive subjunctive of trech“, "let us keep on running."
{With patience} (di' hupomonˆs). Not with impatience, doubt, or despair.
{The race that is set before us} (ton prokeimenon hˆmin ag“na). Note the article and the present middle participle of prokeimai, old compound (already in 6:18, and also in 12:2). Dative case (hˆmin) of personal interest.

12:2 {Looking unto} (aphor“ntes eis). Present active participle of aphora“, old verb to look away, "looking away to Jesus." In N.T. only here and Php 2:23. Fix your eyes on Jesus, after a glance at "the cloud of witnesses," for he is the goal. Cf. Moses in 11:26 (apeblepen).
{The author} (ton archˆgon). See 2:10 for this word. "The pioneer of personal faith" (Moffatt). {Perfecter} (telei“tˆn). A word apparently coined by the writer from teleio“ as it has been found nowhere else. Vulgate has "consummator".
{For the joy} (anti tˆs charas). Answering to, in exchange for (verse 16), at the end of the race lay the joy "set before him" (prokeimenˆs aut“i), while here was the Cross (stauron) at this end (the beginning of the race) which he endured (hupemeinen, aorist active indicative of hupomen“), {despising shame} (aischunˆs kataphronˆsas). The cross at his time brought only shame (most shameful of deaths, "yea, the death of the cross" Php 2:8). But Jesus despised that, in spite of the momentary shrinking from it, and did his Father's will by submitting to it.
{Hath sat down} (kekathiken). Perfect active indicative of kathiz“, and still is there (1:3).

12:3 {Consider} (analogisasthe). First aorist middle imperative of analogizomai, old word to reckon up, to compare, to weigh, only here in the N.T. See katanoˆsate in 3:1. Understanding Jesus is the key to the whole problem, the cure for doubt and hesitation.
{Endured} (hupomemenˆkota). Perfect active participle of the same verb hupomen“ used in verse 2. {Gainsaying} (antilogian). Old word from antilogos (from antileg“), already in 6:16; 7:7.
{Of sinners} (hupo t“n hamart“l“n). "By sinners."
{Against themselves} (eis heautous). Against their better selves if a genuine reading. But eis heauton (against himself), against Christ, is far more likely correct.
{That ye wax not weary} (hina mˆ kamˆte). Negative final clause with hina mˆ and the second aorist active subjunctive of kamn“, old verb to be weary as here or sick as in Jas 5:15.
{Fainting in your souls} (tais psuchais hum“n ekluomenoi). Present passive participle of eklu“, old verb to loosen out, to set free, and in passive to be enfeebled, to be tired out (here in soul with locative case), as in verse 5. The rest of the Epistle drives home the argument.

12:4 {Resisted} (antikatestˆte). Second aorist active indicative (intransitive) of the double compound antikathistˆmi, old verb to stand in opposition against in line of battle, intransitively to stand face to face (anti) against (kata), here only in the N.T.
{Unto blood} (mechris haimatos). "Up to blood." As was true of Jesus and many of the other heroes of faith in chapter Heb 11.
{Striving} (antag“nizomenoi). Present middle participle of antag“nizomai, old verb with the same figure in antikatestˆte.
{Against sin} (pros hamartian). Face to face with sin as in verse 1.

12:5 {Ye have forgotten} (eklelˆsthe). Perfect middle indicative of eklanthan“, to cause to forget, old verb, here only in the N.T. with genitive case as usual.
{Reasoneth with you} (humin dialegetai). Present middle indicative of dialegomai, old verb to ponder different (dia-) things, to converse, with dative. Cf. Ac 19:8f. The quotation is from Pr 3:11f.
{Regard not lightly} (mˆ olig“rei). Prohibition with and the present active imperative of olig“re“, old verb from olig“ros and this from oligos (little) and h“ra (hour), old verb, here only in N.T.
{Chastening} (paideias). Old word from paideu“, to train a child (pais), instruction (2Ti 3:16), which naturally includes correction and punishment as here. See also Eph 6:4.
{Nor faint} (mˆde ekluou). Prohibition with and present passive imperative of eklu“ (see verse 3).

12:6 {Scourgeth} (mastigoi). Present active indicative of mastigo“, old verb from mastix (whip). This is a hard lesson for God's children to learn and to understand. See 5:7 about Jesus.

12:7 {That ye endure} (hupomenete). Present active indicative or present active imperative and so just "endure for chastening." {Dealeth with you} (humin prospheretai). Present middle indicative of prospher“, but this sense of bearing oneself towards one with the dative here only in the N.T., though often in the older Greek.
{What} (tis). Interrogative.
{Whom} (hon). Relative. Cf. Mt 7:9.

12:8 {If ye are without chastening} (ei ch“ris este paideias). Condition of first class, determined as fulfilled. Note position of este (are) between the preposition ch“ris and paideias (ablative case).
{Have been made} (gegonasin). Perfect active indicative of ginomai.
{Partakers} (metochoi). Partners (3:14).
{Then} (ara). Accordingly, correspondingly. {Bastards} (nothoi). Old word, here only in N.T. Illegitimate.

12:9 {Furthermore} (eita). The next step in the argument (Mr 4:17).
{We had} (eichomen). Imperfect indicative of customary action, "we used to have."
{To chasten us} (paideutas). Predicate accusative after eichomen, "as chasteners." Old word from paideu“, as agent (-tˆs). Only once in LXX (Ho 5:2) and twice in N.T. (here and Ro 2:20).
{We gave them reverence} (enetrepometha). Imperfect middle of old word entrep“, to turn in or at. Here "we turned ourselves to" as in Mt 21:37, habitual attitude of reverence.
{Shall we be in subjection} (hupotagˆsometha). Second future passive of hupotass“. There is no de here to correspond to men in the first part of the verse.
{Unto the father of spirits} (t“i patri t“n pneumat“n). Rather, "Unto the Father of our spirits" (note article ton). As God is.

12:10 {They} (hoi men). Demonstrative hoi in contrast (men).
{Chastened} (epaideuon). Imperfect active, used to chasten.
{As seemed good to them} (kata to dokoun autois). "According to the thing seeming good to them." Dokoun is present active neuter singular articular participle of doke“. {But he} (ho de). Demonstrative with de vs. men.
{For our profit} (epi to sumpheron). Present active articular neuter singular participle of sumpher“, to bear together as in 1Co 12:7.
{That we may be partakers} (eis to metalabein). Articular second aorist active infinitive of metalamban“ with eis for purpose, "for the partaking."
{Of his holiness} (tˆs hagiotˆtos autou). Genitive with metalabein (to share in). Rare word, in N.T. only here and 2Co 1:12.

12:11 {For the present} (pros to paron). A classical phrase (Thucydides), pros with the accusative neuter singular articular participle of pareimi, to be beside.
{Not joyous, but grievous} (ou charas, alla lupˆs). Predicate ablative (springing from) or predicate genitive (marked by). Either makes sense, but note predicate ablative in 2Co 4:7 (kai tou theou kai mˆ ex hˆm“n).
{Peaceable fruit} (karpon eirˆnikon). Old adjective from eirˆnˆ (peace), in N.T. only here and Jas 3:17. Peaceable after the chastening is over.
{Exercised thereby} (di' autˆs gegumnasmenois). Perfect passive participle (dative case) of gumnaz“, state of completion, picturing the discipline as a gymnasium like 5:14; 1Ti 4:17.

12:12 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of the chastening.
{Lift up} (anorth“sate). First aorist active imperative of anortho“, old compound (from ana, orthos) to make straight, in N.T. here and Lu 13:13; Ac 15:16.
{Hang down} (pareimenas). Perfect passive participle of pariˆmi, old verb to let pass, to relax, in N.T. only here and Lu 11:42.
{Palsied} (paralelumena). Perfect passive participle of paralu“, old verb to loosen on the side, to dissolve, to paralyze (Lu 5:18,24).

12:13 {Straight paths} (trochias orthas). Track of a wheel (trochos, Jas 3:6 from trech“, to run), here only in N.T. "Straight (orthas) wheel tracks."
{Be not turned out of the way} (hina mˆ ektrapˆi). Negative final clause with hina mˆ and second aorist passive of ektrep“, old verb to turn out, to twist, to put out of joint. So 1Ti 1:6. Vivid picture of concern for the lame (ch“lon, as in Mt 11:5). Graphic picture of concern for the weak, a good argument for prohibition also.

12:14 {Follow after peace} (eirˆnˆn di“kete). Give peace a chase as if in a hunt.
{With all men} (meta pant“n). Like Paul's use of di“k“ with eirˆnˆn in Ro 14:19 and his to ex hum“n (so far as proceeds from you) in 12:18. This lesson the whole world needs including Christians.
{Sanctification} (hagiasmon). Consecration as in 1Th 4:7; Ro 6:19, etc. {Without which} (hou ch“ris). Ablative case of the relative with ch“ris (post positive here). About seeing God compare Mt 5:8 where we have katharoi.

12:15 {Looking carefully} (episkopountes). Present active participle of episkope“, to have oversight, in N.T. only here and 1Pe 5:2. Cf. episcopos (bishop).
{Lest there be any man} (mˆ tis). Negative purpose clause with ei (present active subjunctive) omitted.
{Falleth short of} (huster“n apo). Present active participle of hustere“ (see 4:1) agreeing with tis. Followed here by apo and the ablative.
{Root of bitterness}. (riza pikrias). Quoted from De 29:18. Vivid picture.
{Springing up} (an“ phuousa). Present active participle of phu“, to sprout. Pictured here as a quick process. Also from De 29:18.
{Trouble} (enochlˆi). Present active subjunctive (in final clause with mˆ tis) of enochle“, old verb to trouble with a crowd, to annoy. In N.T. only here and Lu 6:18.
{Be defiled} (mianth“sin). First aorist passive subjunctive (in final clause with mˆ) of mian“, old verb to dye, to stain, to defile as in Tit 1:15 (the conscience). The contagion of sin is terrible as any disease.

12:16 {Profane} (bebˆlos). Trodden under foot, unhallowed (1Ti 1:9).
{For one mess of meat} (anti br“se“s mias). Idea of exchange, "for one act of eating" (1Co 8:4).
{Sold} (apedeto). Second aorist middle indicative from Ge 25:31,33, and with irregular form for apedoto (regular mi form).
{His own birthright} (ta pr“totokia heautou). From Genesis also and in Philo, only here in N.T. From pr“totokos (first born, Heb 1:6).

12:17 {Ye know} (iste). Regular form for the second person of oida rather than the "Koin‚" oidate.
{He was rejected} (apedokimasthˆ). First aorist passive indicative of apodokimaz“, old verb to disapprove (Mt 21:42).
{Place of repentance} (metanoias topon). Metanoia is change of mind and purpose, not sorrow though he had tears (meta dakru“n) afterwards as told in Ge 27:38. He sought it (autˆn, the blessing eulogian) with tears, but in vain. There was no change of mind in Isaac. The choice was irrevocable as Isaac shows (Ge 27:33). Esau is a tragic example of one who does a wilful sin which allows no second chance (Heb 6:6; 10:26). The author presses the case of Esau as a warning to the Christians who were tempted to give up Christ.

12:18 {Ye are not come} (ou proselˆluthate). Perfect active indicative of proserchomai. There is no word here in the Greek for "a mount" like orei in verses 20,22 (and Ex 19:12f.; De 4:11), but it is clearly understood since the dative participles agree with it unless they be taken as descriptive of puri ("a palpable and kindled fire " when puri would be the dative case after proselˆluthate).
{That might be touched} (psˆlaph“men“i). Present passive participle (dative case) of psˆlapha“, old verb to handle, to touch (Lu 24:39).
{That burned with fire} (kekaumen“i puri). Perfect passive participle of kai“, old verb to burn, with instrumental case puri (fire), unless the other view (above) is correct.

12:19 {Unto blackness} (gnoph“i). Dative case of gnophos (late form for earlier dnophos and kin to nephos, cloud), here only in N.T. Quoted here from Ex 10:22.
{Darkness} (zoph“i). Old word, in Homer for the gloom of the world below. In the Symmachus Version of Ex 10:22, also in Jude 1:6; 2Pe 2:4,15.
{Tempest} (thuellˆi). Old word from thu“ (to boil, to rage), a hurricane, here only in N.T. From Ex 10:22.
{The sound of a trumpet} (salpiggos ˆch“i). From Ex 19:16. Echos is an old word (our echo) as in Lu 21:25; Ac 2:2.
{The voice of words} (ph“nˆi rˆmat“n). From Ex 19:19; De 4:12.
{Which voice} (hˆs). Relative referring to ph“nˆ (voice) just before, genitive case with akousantes (heard, aorist active participle).
{Intreated} (parˆitˆsanto). First aorist middle (indirect) indicative of paraiteomai, old verb, to ask from alongside (Mr 15:6), then to beg away from oneself, to depreciate as here, to decline (Ac 25:11), to excuse (Lu 14:18), to avoid (1Ti 4:7).
{That no word should be spoken unto them} (prostethˆnai autois logon). First aorist passive infinitive of prostithˆmi, old word to add, here with accusative of general reference (logon), "that no word be added unto them." Some MSS. have here a redundant negative with the infinitive because of the negative idea in parˆitˆsanto as in Ga 5:7.

12:20 {For they could not endure} (ouk epheron gar). Imperfect active of pher“, "for they were not enduring (bearing)."
{That which was enjoined} (to diastellomenon). Present passive articular participle of diastell“, old verb to distinguish, to dispose, to order. The quotation is from Ex 19:12f. The people appealed to Moses (Ex 20:19) and the leaders did so also (De 5:23f.), both in terror.
{If even} (kan). "Even if." Condition of third class with second aorist active subjunctive of thiggan“ as in 11:28, followed by genitive orous (mountain).
{It shall be stoned} (lithobolˆthˆsetai). From Ex 19:13. Late compound verb from lithobolos (from lithos, ball“) as in Mt 21:35.

12:21 {Fearful} (phoberon). As in 10:27,31, only in Heb. in N.T.
{The appearance} (to phantazomenon). Present passive articular participle of phantaz“, old verb from phain“, to make visible, here only in N.T. "The manifestation."
{I exceedingly fear and quake} (ekphobos eimi kai entromos). "I am terrified (ekphobos, late compound like ekphobe“, to frighten, Mr 9:6) and trembling" (entromos, late compound like entrem“, to tremble at, as in Ac 7:32; 16:29). Ekphobos is quoted from De 9:19.

12:22 {But} (alla). Sharp contrast to verse 18 with same form proselˆluthate.
{Unto Mount Zion} (Si“n orei). Dative case of oros, as with the other substantives. In contrast to Mount Sinai (verses 18-21). Paul has contrasted Mount Sinai (present Jerusalem) with the Jerusalem above (heaven) in Ga 4:21-31. {City} (polei). As in 11:10,16. Heaven is termed thus a spiritual mountain and city.
{The heavenly Jerusalem} (Ierousalem epourani“i). See 11:10,16; Isa 60:14. {Innumerable hosts of angels} (muriasin aggel“n). "Myriads of angels." Murias is an old word (from murios, 1Co 4:15) as in Lu 12:1.

12:23 {To the general assembly} (panˆgurei). Old word (from pas and aguris, ageir“). Here only in N.T. Panˆguriz“ occurs in Isa 66:10 for keeping a festal holiday. Possibly to be connected with aggel“n, though not certain.
{Church of the firstborn} (ekklˆsiƒi pr“totok“n). Probably an additional item besides the angelic host as the people of Israel are called firstborn (Ex 4:22). The word ekklˆsia here has the general sense of all the redeemed, as in Mt 16:18; Col 1:18; Eph 5:24-32, and equivalent to the kingdom of God.
{Who are enrolled in heaven} (apogegrammen“n en ouranois). Perfect passive participle of apograph“, old verb to write off, to copy, to enroll as in Lu 2:1,3,5 (only N.T. examples). Enrolled as citizens of heaven even while on earth (Lu 10:20; Php 1:27; 3:20; 4:3; Re 13:8, etc.).
{To God the Judge of all} (kritˆi the“i pant“n). All these chief substantives in the dative case. People should not forget that God is the Judge of all men.
{Made perfect} (tetelei“men“n). Perfect passive participle of teleio“, perfected at last (11:40).

12:24 {To Jesus} (Iˆsou). This great fact is not to be overlooked (Php 2:10f.). He is there as Lord and Saviour and still "Jesus."
{The mediator of a new covenant} (diathˆkˆs neas mesitˆi). As already shown (7:22; 8:6,8,9,10; 9:15) and now gloriously consummated.
{To the blood of sprinkling} (haimati rantismou). As in 9:19-28.
{Than Abel} (para ton Abel). Accusative as in 1:4.
{Better} (kreitton). Comparative of kalos. Abel's blood still speaks (11:4), but it is as nothing compared to that of Jesus.

12:25 {See} (blepete). Earnest word as in 3:12. Driving home the whole argument of the Epistle by this powerful contrast between Mount Zion and Mount Sinai. The consequences are dreadful to apostates now, for Zion has greater terrors than Sinai, great as those were.
{That ye refuse not} (mˆ paraitˆsˆsthe). Negative purpose with and the first aorist middle subjunctive of paraiteomai, the same verb used in verse 19 about the conduct of the Israelites at Sinai and also below.
{Him that speaketh} (ton lalounta). Present active articular participle of lale“ as in verse 24 (Jesus speaking by his blood).
{For if they did not escape} (ei gar ekeinoi ouk exephugon). Condition of first class with ei and second aorist active indicative of ekpheug“, to escape. Direct reference to Sinai with use of the same verb again (paraitˆsamenoi, when they refused).
{Him that warned} (ton chrˆmatizonta). That is Moses. For chrˆmatiz“ see 8:5; 11:7.
{Much more we} (polu mallon hˆmeis). Argument from the less to the greater, polu, adverbial accusative case. The verb has to be supplied from the condition, "We shall not escape." Our chance to escape is far less, "we who turn away (apostrephomenoi, middle participle, turn ourselves away from) the one from heaven (ton ap' ouran“n)," God speaking through his Son (1:2).

12:26 {Then shook} (esaleusen tote). Old verb as in Mt 11:7. {He hath promised} (epˆggeltai). Perfect middle indicative of epaggell“ and it still holds. He quotes Hag 2:6.
{Will I make to tremble} (seis“). Old and strong verb (here future active) sei“, to agitate, to cause to tremble as in Mt 21:10. The author applies this "yet once more" (eti hapax) and the reference to heaven (ton ouranon) to the second and final "shaking" at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ for judgement (9:28).

12:27 {And this word} (to de). He uses the article to point out "eti hapax" which he explains (dˆloi, signifies, present active indicative of dˆlo“).
{The removing} (tˆn metathesin). For this word see 7:12; 11:5. For the transitory nature of the world see 1Co 7:31; 1Jo 2:17. "There is a divine purpose in the cosmic catastrophe" (Moffatt).
{Made} (pepoiˆmen“n). Perfect passive participle of poie“. Made by God, but made to pass away.
{That those things which are not shaken may remain} (hina meinˆi ta mˆ saleuomena). Final clause with and the first aorist active subjunctive of men“. The Kingdom of God is not shaken, fearful as some saints are about it.

12:28 {Wherefore} (dio). Ground for loyalty to Christ and for calm trust in God.
{That cannot be shaken} (asaleuton). Old compound with alpha privative and the verbal adjective from saleu“ just used. In N.T. only here and Ac 27:41.
{Let us have grace} (ech“men charin). Present active volitive subjunctive of ech“, "Let us keep on having grace" as in 4:16, though it can mean "Let us keep on having gratitude" as in Lu 17:9.
{Whereby} (di' hˆs). That is dia charitos.
{We may offer service} (latreu“men). This subjunctive in a relative clause can be volitive like ech“men just before (cf. imperative stˆte in 1Pe 5:12) or it might be the futuristic subjunctive as in 8:3 (ho prosenegkˆi).
{Well pleasing} (euarest“s). Old compound adverb, here only in N.T.
{With reverence and awe} (meta eulabeias kai deous). For eulabeia see 5:7; 11:7. Deos is apprehension of danger as in a forest. "When the voice and tread of a wild beast are distinctly heard close at hand the deos becomes phobos" (Vincent).

12:29 {A consuming fire} (pur katanaliskon). From De 4:24. Present active participle of katanalisk“, old compound verb, here only in the N.T. This verse is to be coupled with 10:31.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Hebrews: Chapter 12)

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