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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Hebrews: Chapter 13)

13:1 {Brotherly love} (philadelphia). Late word from philadelphos (1Pe 3:8). See 1Th 4:9. It is always in order in a church.
{To show love unto strangers} (tˆs philoxenias). Old word for hospitality, from philoxenos (1Ti 3:2), in N.T. only here and Ro 12:3. In genitive case with epilanthanesthe (present middle imperative, cf. Heb 6:10).
{Have entertained angels unawares} (elathon xenisantes aggelous). Second aorist active indicative of lanthan“, old verb to escape notice and first aorist active participle of xeniz“, old verb to entertain a guest (xenos, stranger), according to a classic idiom seen with lanthan“, tugchan“, phthan“, by which the chief idea is expressed by the participle (supplementary participle), here meaning, "some escaped notice when entertaining angels." The reference is to Ge 18; 19 (Abraham and Sarah did this very thing).

13:2 {As bound with them} (h“s sundedemenoi). Perfect passive participle of sunde“, old verb, here only in N.T. For sympathy with prisoners see 10:34.
{As being yourselves also in the body} (h“s kai autoi ontes en s“mati). And so subject to evil treatment. See 11:37 for kakouche“ and 11:25 for sunkakouche“.

13:4 {Let marriage be} (ho gamos). No verb in the Greek. The copula can be supplied either estin (is) or est“ (let be, imperative).
{Had in honour} (timios). Old adjective from timˆ (honour) as in Ac 5:34. Gamos elsewhere in the N.T., means the wedding or wedding feast (Mt 22:29; Joh 2:1). {Undefiled} (amiantos). Old compound word (alpha privative and verbal of miain“, to defile), already in Heb 7:26. Miain“ tˆn koitˆn is a common expression for adultery.
{Fornicators} (pornous). Unmarried and impure.
{Adulterers} (moichous). Impure married persons. God will judge both classes whether men do or not.

13:5 {Be ye free from the love of money} (aphilarguros ho tropos). No copula, but supply esto: "Let your manner of life (tropos, way, Mt 23:37), be without love of money" (aphilarguros, double compound), once found only in the N.T., here and 1Ti 3:3, but now several times--or the adverb aphilargur“s --in papyri and inscriptions (Deissmann, "Light", etc., pp. 85f.). Alpha privative and philos and arguros. The N.T. is full of the peril of money on the character as modern life is also.
{Content with such things as ye have} (arkoumenoi tois parousin). Present passive participle of arke“, to suffice, to be content as in Lu 3:14. Cf. autarkˆs in Php 4:11. Here in the nominative plural with no substantive or pronoun (anacoluthon, as in 2Co 1:7) or the participle used as a principal verb as in Ro 12:16. "Contented with the present things" (tois parousin, associative instrumental case of ta paronta, present active neuter plural participle of pareimi, to be present or on hand).
{For himself hath said} (autos gar eirˆken). God himself as in Ac 20:33 of Christ. Perfect active indicative as in 1:13; 4:3f.; 10:9. The quotation is a free paraphrase of Ge 28:15; De 31:8; Jos 1:5; 1Ch 28:20. Philo (de Confus. Ling. 32) has it in this form, "a popular paraphrase" (Moffatt). Note the five negatives strengthening each other (ou mˆ with the second aorist active subjunctive an“ from aniˆmi, to relate, as in Ac 16:26; oud' ou mˆ with second aorist active subjunctive egkatalip“ from egkataleip“, to leave behind, as in Mt 27:46; 2Ti 4:10). A noble promise in times of depression.

13:6 {So that we say} (h“ste hˆmas legein). The usual construction (the infinitive) with h“ste in the "Koin‚" even when the idea is result instead of purpose. The accusative hˆmas is that of general reference.
{With good courage} (tharrountas). Present active participle of tharre“ (Ionic and early Attic tharse“, Mt 9:2) as in 2Co 5:6,8. The accusative agreeing with hˆmas, "being of good courage." The quotation is from Ps 118:6.
{My helper} (emoi boˆthos). "Helper to me" (ethical dative emoi). Boˆthos is old adjective (cf. boˆthe“, to help, 2:18), often in LXX as substantive, here only in N.T.
{I will not fear} (ou phobˆthˆsomai). Volitive first future passive of phobeomai.

13:7 {Remember} (mnˆmoneuete). Present active imperative of mnˆmoneu“, old verb to be "mindful" of (from mnˆm“n, mindful) with genitive (Joh 15:20) or accusative (Mt 16:9). "Keep in mind." Cf. 11:22.
{Them that had the rule over you} (t“n hˆgoumen“n hum“n). Present middle participle of hˆgeomai with genitive of the person (hum“n) as in verses 17,24. The author reminds them of the founders of their church in addition to the long list of heroes in chapter Ac 11. See a like exhortation to respect and follow their leaders in 1Th 5:12f. Few lessons are harder for the average Christian to learn, viz., good following. {The word of God} (ton logon tou theou). The preaching of these early disciples, apostles, and prophets (1Co 1:17).
{And considering the issue of their life} (h“n anathe“rountes tˆn ekbasin tˆs anastrophˆs). No "and" in the Greek, but the relative h“n (whose) in the genitive case after anastrophˆs, "considering the issue of whose life." Present active participle of anathe“re“, late compound, to look up a subject, to investigate, to observe accurately, in N.T. only here and Ac 17:23. Ekbasis is an old word from ekbain“, to go out (Heb 11:15, here only in N.T.), originally way out (1Co 10:13), but here (only other N.T. example) in sense of end or issue as in several papyri examples (Moulton and Milligan, "Vocabulary"). {Imitate their faith} (mimeisthe tˆn pistin). Present middle imperative of mimeomai, old verb (from mimos, actor, mimic), in N.T. only here, 2Th 3:7,9; 3Jo 1:11. Keep on imitating the faith of the leaders.

13:8 {Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yea and forever} (Iˆsous Christos echthes kai sˆmeron ho autos kai eis tous ai“nas). There is no copula in the Greek. Vincent insists that estin be supplied between Iˆsous and Christos, "Jesus is Christ," but it more naturally comes after Christos as the Revised Version has it. The old adverb echthes is rare in the N.T. (Joh 4:52; Ac 7:28; Heb 13:8). Here it refers to the days of Christ's flesh (2:3; 5:7) and to the recent work of the leaders (13:7). "Today" (sˆmeron, 3:15) is the crisis which confronts them. "Forever" (eis tous ai“nas) is eternity as well as the Greek can say it. Jesus Christ is eternally "the same" (1:12) and the revelation of God in him (1:1f.) is final and never to be superseded or supplemented (Moffatt). Hence the peril of apostasy from the only hope of man.

13:9 {Be not carried away} (mˆ parapheresthe). Prohibition with and present passive imperative of parapher“, old verb to lead along (Jude 1:12), to carry past (Mr 14:36), to lead astray as here.
{By divers and strange teachings} (didachais poikilais kai xenais). For poikilos (many coloured) see 2:4. Xenos for guest we have had in 11:13, but here as adjective meaning unheard of (1Pe 4:12) as in older Greek also. The new is not always wrong any more than the old is always right (Mt 13:52). But the air was already full of new and strange teachings that fascinated many by their very novelty. The warning here is always needed. Cf. Ga 1:6-9; 2Ti 3:16.
{That the heart be established by grace} (chariti bebaiousthai tˆn kardian). Present passive infinitive of bebaio“ (from bain“) to make stable with the instrumental case chariti (by grace) and the accusative of general reference (tˆn kardian). How true it is that in the atmosphere of so many windy theories only the heart is stable that has an experience of God's grace in Christ.
{That occupied themselves} (hoi peripatountes). "That walked" in the ritualistic Jewish rules about meats.
{Were not profited} (ouk “phelˆthˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of “phele“, to help. Mere Jewish ceremonialism and ritualism failed to build up the spiritual life. It was sheer folly to give up Christ for Pharisaism or for Moses.

13:10 {We have an altar} (echomen thusiastˆrion). We Christians have a spiritual altar (thusiastˆrion), not a literal one (7:13). This metaphor is carried out.
{Whereof} (ex hou). Our spiritual altar.
{The tabernacle} (tˆi skˆnˆi). Dative case with latreuontes (serve), skˆnˆ being used for "the whole ceremonial economy" (Vincent) of Judaism.

13:11 {Of those beasts whose blood} (h“n z““n to haima tout“n). The antecedent (z““n) of h“n is here incorporated and attracted into the case of the relative, "the blood of which beasts" and then tout“n (genitive demonstrative) is added, "of these." Cf. Le 4:12f.,21; 16:27 for the Old Testament ritual in such cases. This is the only example in the LXX or N.T. where z““n (animal) is used of a sacrificial victim. See also Ex 29:14; 32:26f. for burning without the camp.

13:12 {Wherefore Jesus also} (dio kai Iˆsous). The parallel is drawn between the O.T. ritual and the better sacrifice of Jesus already discussed (9:13-10:18). The purpose of Jesus is shown (hina hagiasˆi, hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of hagiaz“, to sanctify), the means employed (dia tou idiou haimatos, by his own blood), the place of his suffering (epathen, as in 5:8) is also given (ex“ tˆs pulˆs, outside the gate, implied in Joh 19:17) which phrase corresponds to "outside the camp" of verse 11.

13:13 {Let us therefore go forth to him} (toinun exerch“metha pros auton). Inferential particle (toi, nun), usually post-positive (Lu 20:25; 1Co 9:26) only N.T. examples. Present middle volitive subjunctive of exerchomai. "Let us keep on going out there to him." If a separation has to come between Judaism and Christianity, let us give up Judaism, and go out to Christ "outside the camp" and take our stand with him there on Golgotha, "bearing his reproach (ton oneidismon autou pherontes) as Jesus himself endured the Cross despising the shame (12:2) and as Moses accepted "the reproach of the Messiah" (11:26) in his day. The only decent place for the follower of Christ is beside the Cross of Christ with the reproach and the power (Ro 8:1f.) in it. This is the great passionate plea of the whole Epistle.

13:14 {An abiding city} (menousan polin). Jerusalem has lost its charm for followers of Christ. Vincent rightly argues that the Epistle must have been written before the destruction of Jerusalem else a reference to that event could hardly have been avoided here. We are now where Abraham was once (11:10).

13:15 {Through him} (di' autou). That is Jesus. He is our Priest and Sacrifice, the only efficient and sufficient one.
{Let us offer up} (anapher“men). Present active volitive subjunctive of anapher“, "let us keep on offering up." Jesus is living and let us go to him.
{A sacrifice of praise} (thusian ainese“s). This phrase occurs in Le 7:12; Ps 54:8. The word ainesis (from aine“, to praise), common in LXX, is only here in N.T. {The fruit of lips} (karpon cheile“n). In apposition (tout 'estin) and explanation of thusian ainese“s. Cf. Ho 14:3; Isa 57:19.
{Which made confession to his name} (homologount“n t“i onomati autou). This use of homologe“ with the dative in the sense of praise like exomologe“ is unique, though the papyri furnish examples in the sense of gratitude (Moulton and Milligan, "Vocabulary").

13:16 {To do good} (tˆs eupoiias). Genitive case. Late compound from eupoios (eupoie“), common in Epictetus, but here only in N.T., a doing good.
{To communicate} (koin“nias). Genitive case. See 2Co 9:13 for use for contribution, beneficence. Moffatt notes that the three great definitions of worship and religious service in the N.T. (here, Ro 12:1f.; Jas 1:27) are all inward and ethical.
{Forget not} (mˆ epilanthanesthe). Prohibition with and the present middle imperative of epilanthan“ (6:10; 13:2). Here with the genitive case.
{Is well pleased} (euaresteitai). Present passive indicative of euareste“ (Heb 11:5). With the associative instrumental case thusiais (sacrifices).

13:17 {Obey} (peithesthe). Present middle imperative of peith“ with dative case.
{Submit} (hupeikete). Present active imperative of hupeik“, old compound to yield under, to give up. Here only in N.T.
{They watch} (agrupnousin). Present active indicative of agrupne“ old verb (from agre“, to search, hupnos, sleep), to seek after sleep, to be sleepless, be watchful (Mr 13:33).
{As they that shall give account} (h“s logon apod“sontes). Regular Greek idiom with h“s and the future participle. For logon apodid“mi, to render account, see Mt 12:36. These leaders as good shepherds recognize keenly their responsibility for the welfare of the flock.
{And not with grief} (kai mˆ stenazontes). "And not groaning" (cf. Ro 8:23).
{Unprofitable} (alusiteles). Old double compound adjective (alpha privative and lusitelˆs and this from lu“, to pay, and telos, tax, useful or profitable as Lu 17:2), not profitable, not advantageous, by "litotes", hurtful, pernicious. Common rhetorical "litotes", here only in N.T.

13:18 {Honestly} (kal“s). Nobly, honourably. Apparently the writer is conscious that unworthy motives have been attributed to him. Cf. Paul in 1Th 2:18; 2Co 1:11f.,17f.

13:19 {That I may be restored to you the sooner} (hina tacheion apokatastath“ humin). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of apokathistˆmi, an old double compound as in Mt 12:13. What is meant by tacheion (Joh 13:27; 20:4) we do not know, possibly sickness. See verse 23 also for tacheion.

13:20 {The God of peace} (ho theos tˆs eirˆnˆs). God is the author and giver of peace, a Pauline phrase (6 times) as in 1Th 5:23.
{Who brought again from the dead} (ho anagag“n ek nekr“n). Second aorist active articular participle of anag“ (cf. Ro 10:7), the only direct mention of the resurrection of Jesus in the Epistle, though implied often (1:3, etc.).
{That great shepherd of the sheep} (ton poimena t“n probat“n ton megan). This phrase occurs in Isa 63:11 except ton megan which the author adds as in 4:14; 10:21. So here, "the shepherd of the sheep the great one."
{With the blood of the eternal covenant} (en haimati diathˆkˆs ai“niou). This language is from Zec 9:11. The language reminds us of Christ's own words in Mr 14:24 (Mt 26:28; Lu 22:20; 1Co 11:25) about "my blood of the covenant."

13:21 {Make you perfect} (katartisai). First aorist active optative of katartiz“, to equip, as in 10:5. A wish for the future. See 1Co 1:10; 2Co 13:11; 2Ti 3:17.
{Working in us} (poi“n en hemin). "Doing in us." Some MSS. read "in you." {Well-pleasing} (euareston). Compound adjective (eu, arestos). Usually with the dative (Ro 12:2), here with en“pion autou more like the Hebrew. This is one of the noblest doxologies in the N.T.

13:22 {Bear with} (anechesthe). Present middle imperative (some MSS. have anechesthai, infinitive) of anech“ with the ablative, "hold yourselves back from" as in Col 3:13.
{The word of exhortation} (tou logou tˆs paraklˆse“s). His description of the entire Epistle. It certainly is that, a powerful appeal in fact.
{I have written} (epesteila). First aorist active indicative (epistolary aorist) of epistell“, old word to send a letter (epistolˆ) as in Ac 15:20.
{In few words} (dia brache“n). Common Greek idiom, here only in N.T. (from brachus, brief, short). Cf. di' olig“n egrapsa in 1Pe 5:12.

13:23 {Hath been set at liberty} (apolelumenon). Perfect passive participle of apolu“, to set free, in indirect discourse after gin“skete. Possibly from prison if he came to Rome at Paul's request (2Ti 4:11,21).
{Shortly} (tacheion). Same comparative as in verse 19, "sooner" than I expect (?).

13:24 {They of Italy} (hoi apo tˆs Italias). Either those with the author in Italy or those who have come from Italy to the author outside of Italy.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Hebrews: Chapter 13)

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