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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Peter: Chapter 2)

2:1 {But there arose} (egenonto de). Second aorist middle indicative of ginomai (cf. ginetai in 1:20).
{False prophets also} (kai pseudoprophˆtai). In contrast with the true prophets just pictured in 1:20f. Late compound in LXX and Philo, common in N.T. (Mt 7:15). Allusion to the O.T. times like Balaam and others (Jer 6:13; 28:9; Eze 13:9).
{False teachers} (pseudodidaskaloi). Late and rare compound (pseudˆs, didaskalos) here alone in N.T. Peter pictures them as in the future here (esontai, shall be) and again as already present (eisin, are, verse 17), or in the past (eplanˆthˆsan, they went astray, verse 15).
{Shall privily bring in} (pareisaxousin). Future active of pareisag“, late double compound pareisag“, to bring in (eisag“), by the side (para), as if secretly, here alone in N.T., but see pareisaktous in Ga 2:4 (verbal adjective of this same verb). {Destructive heresies} (haireseis ap“leias). Descriptive genitive, "heresies of destruction" (marked by destruction) as in Lu 16:8. Hairesis (from haire“) is simply a choosing, a school, a sect like that of the Sadducees (Ac 5:17), of the Pharisees (Ac 15:5), and of Christians as Paul admitted (Ac 24:5). These "tenets" (Ga 5:20) led to destruction.
{Denying} (arnoumenoi). Present middle participle of arneomai. This the Gnostics did, the very thing that Peter did, alas (Mt 26:70) even after Christ's words (Mt 10:33).
{Even the Master} (kai ton despotˆn). Old word for absolute master, here of Christ as in Jude 1:4, and also of God (Ac 4:24). Without the evil sense in our "despot."
{That bought them} (ton agorasanta autous). First aorist active articular participle of agoraz“, same idea with lutro“ in 1Pe 1:18f. These were professing Christians, at any rate, these heretics.
{Swift destruction} (tachinˆn ap“leian). See 1:14 for tachinˆn and note repetition of ap“leian. This is always the tragedy of such false prophets, the fate that they bring on (epagontes) themselves.

2:2 {Lascivious doings} (aselgeiais). Associative instrumental ease after exakolouthˆsousin (future active, for which verb see 1:16). See 1Pe 4:3 for this word.
{By reason of whom} (di' hous). "Because of whom" (accusative case of relative, referring to polloi, many). Aut“n (their) refers to pseudodidaskaloi (false teachers) while polloi to their deluded followers. See Ro 2:23f. for a picture of such conduct by Jews (quotation from Isa 52:5, with blasphˆme“ used as here with di' humas, because of you).
{The way of truth} (hˆ hodos tˆs alˆtheias). Hodos (way) occurs often in N.T. for Christianity (Ac 9:2; 16:17; 18:25; 22:4; 24:14). This phrase is in Ge 24:48 as "the right road," and that is what Peter means here. So Ps 119:30. See again 2:15,21.

2:3 {In covetousness} (en pleonexiƒi). As did Balaam (verse 15). These licentious Gnostics made money out of their dupes. A merely intellectual Gnosticism had its fruit in immorality and fraud.
{With feigned words} (plastois logois). Instrumental case. Plastos is verbal adjective (from plass“, to mould as from clay, for which see Ro 9:20), here only in N.T. "With forged words." See sample in 3:4.
{Shall make merchandise of you} (humas emporeusontai). Future middle of emporeuomai (from emporos, a travelling merchant), old word, to go in for trade, in N.T. only here and Jas 4:13, which see. Cf. our emporium (Joh 2:16, market house).
{Whose sentence} (hois to krima). "For whom (dative case) the sentence" (verdict, not process krisis).
{Now from of old} (ekpalai). Late and common compound adverb, in N.T. only here and 3:5.
{Lingereth not} (ouk argei). "Is not idle," old verb, arge“ (from argos not working, alpha privative and ergon), here only in N.T. {Slumbereth not} (ou nustazei). Old and common verb (from nu“ to nod), in N.T. only here and Mt 25:5. Note ap“leia (destruction) three times in verses 1-3.

2:4 {For if God spared not} (ei gar ho theos ouk epheisato). First instance (gar) of certain doom, that of the fallen angels. Condition of the first class precisely like that in Ro 11:21 save that here the normal apodosis (hum“n ou pheisetai) is not expressed as there, but is simply implied in verse 9 by oiden kurios ruesthai (the Lord knows how to deliver) after the parenthesis in verse 8.
{Angels when they sinned} (aggel“n hamartˆsant“n). Genitive case after epheisato (first aorist middle indicative of pheidomai) and anarthrous (so more emphatic, even angels), first aorist active participle of hamartan“, "having sinned."
{Cast them down to hell} (tartar“sas). First aorist active participle of tartaro“, late word (from tartaros, old word in Homer, Pindar, LXX Job 40:15; 41:23, Philo, inscriptions, the dark and doleful abode of the wicked dead like the Gehenna of the Jews), found here alone save in a scholion on Homer. Tartaros occurs in Enoch 20:2 as the place of punishment of the fallen angels, while Gehenna is for apostate Jews.
{Committed} (pared“ken). First aorist active indicative of paradid“mi, the very form solemnly used by Paul in Ro 1:21,26,28.
{To pits of darkness} (seirois zophou). Zophos (kin to gnophos, nephos) is an old word, blackness, gloom of the nether world in Homer, in N.T. only here, verse 17; Jude 1:13; Heb 12:18. The MSS. vary between seirais (seira, chain or rope) and seirois (seiros, old word for pit, underground granary)
. Seirois is right (Aleph A B C), dative case of destination.
{To be reserved unto judgment} (eis krisin tˆroumenous). Present (linear action) passive participle of tˆre“. "Kept for judgment." Cf. 1Pe 1:4. Aleph A have kolazomenous tˆrein as in verse 9. Note krisis (act of judgment).

2:5 {The ancient world} (archaiou kosmou). Genitive case after epheisato (with ei understood) repeated (the second example, the deluge). This example not in Jude. Absence of the article is common in the prophetic style like II Peter. For archaios see Lu 9:8.
{Preserved} (ephulaxen). Still part of the long protasis with ei, first aorist active indicative of phulass“. {With seven others} (ogdoon). "Eighth," predicate accusative adjective (ordinal), classic idiom usually with auton. See 1Pe 3:20 for this same item. Some take ogdoon with kˆruka (eighth preacher), hardly correct.
{A preacher of righteousness} (dikaiosunˆs kˆruka). "Herald" as in 1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 1:11 alone in N.T., but kˆruss“ is common. It is implied in 1Pe 3:20 that Noah preached to the men of his time during the long years. {When he brought} (epaxas). First aorist active participle (instead of the common second aorist active epagag“n) of eisag“, old compound verb to bring upon, in N.T. only here and Ac 5:28 (by Peter here also).
{A flood} (kataklusmon). Old word (from katakluz“, to inundate), only of Noah's flood in N.T. (Mt 24:38ff.; Lu 17:27; 2Pe 2:5).
{Upon the world of the ungodly} (kosmoi aseb“n). Anarthrous and dative case kosm“i. The whole world were "ungodly" (asebeis as in 1Pe 4:18)
save Noah's family of eight.

2:6 {Turning into ashes} (tephr“sas). First aorist participle of tephro“, late word from tephra, ashes (in Dio Cassius of an eruption of Vesuvius, Philo), here alone in N.T.
{The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah} (poleis Sodom“n kai Gomorrƒs). Genitive of apposition after poleis (cities), though it makes sense as possessive genitive, for Jude 1:7 speaks of the cities around these two. The third example, the cities of the plain. See Ge 19:24f.
{Condemned them} (katekrinen). First aorist active indicative of katakrin“, still part of the protasis with ei. {With an overthrow} (katastrophˆi). Instrumental case or even dative like thanat“i with katakrin“ in Mt 20:18. But Westcott and Hort reject the word here because not in B C Coptic. {Having made them} (tetheik“s). Perfect active participle of tithˆmi.
{An example} (hupodeigma). For which see Jas 5:10; Joh 13:15. Cf. 1Pe 2:21.
{Unto those that should live ungodly} (mellont“n asebesin). Rather, "unto ungodly men of things about to be" (see Heb 11:20 for this use of mellont“n). But Aleph A C K L read asebein (present active infinitive) with mellont“n\=\asebˆsont“n (future active participle of asebe“), from which we have our translation.

2:7 {And delivered} (kai erusato). First aorist middle of ruomai as in Mt 6:13, still part of the protasis with ei. {Righteous Lot} (dikaion Lot). This adjective dikaios occurs three times in verses 7,8. See Wisdom 10:6.
{Sore distressed} (kataponoumenon). Present passive participle of katapone“, late and common verb, to work down, to exhaust with labor, to distress, in N.T. only here and Ac 7:24.
{By the lascivious life of the wicked} (hupo tˆs t“n athesm“n en aselgeiƒi anastrophˆs). "By the life in lasciviousness of the lawless." Athesmos (alpha privative and thesmos), late and common adjective (cf. athemitos 1Pe 4:3) for rebels against law (of nature and conscience here). Anastrophˆ is frequent in I Peter.

2:8 {For} (gar). Parenthetical explanation in verse 8 of the remark about Lot.
{Dwelling} (enkatoik“n). Present active participle of enkatoike“, old but rare double compound, here only in N.T.
{In seeing and hearing} (blemmati kai akoˆi). "By sight (instrumental case of blemma, old word, from blep“ to see, here only in N.T.) and hearing" (instrumental case of akoˆ from akou“, to hear, common as Mt 13:14).
{From day to day} (hˆmeran ex hˆmerƒs). "Day in day out." Accusative of time and ablative with ex. Same idiom in Ps 96:2 for the more common ex hˆmeras eis hˆmeran.
{Vexed} (ebasanizen). Imperfect active (kept on vexing) of basaniz“, old word, to test metals, to torment (Mt 8:29).
{With their lawless deeds} (anomois ergois). Instrumental case of cause, "because of their lawless (contrary to law) deeds." For anomos see 2Th 2:8.

2:9 {The Lord knoweth how} (oiden kurios). The actual apodosis of the long protasis begun in verse 4. God can deliver his servants as shown by Noah and Lot and he will deliver you. The idiomatic use of oida and the infinitive (ruesthai present middle and see verse 7) for knowing how as in Mt 7:11; Jas 4:17.
{The godly} (eusebeis). Old anarthrous adjective (from eu and sebomai, to worship), in N.T. only here and Ac 10:2,7 (by Peter). For {temptation} (peirasmou) see Jas 1:2,12; 1Pe 1:6.
{To keep} (tˆrein). Present active infinitive of tˆre“ after oiden.
{Unrighteous} (adikous). As in 1Pe 3:18.
{Under punishment} (kolazomenous). Present passive participle of kolaz“, old verb (from kolos, lopped off), in N.T. only here and Ac 4:21. Present tense emphasises continuity of the punishment. See kolasin ai“nion in Mt 25:46.

2:10 {Chiefly} (malista). Especially. He turns now to the libertine heretics (verses 2,7).
{After the flesh} (opis“ sarkos). Hebraistic use of opis“ as with hamarti“n (sins) in Isa 65:2. Cf. Mt 4:19; 1Ti 5:15.
{Of defilement} (miasmou). Old word (from miain“ Tit 1:15), here only in N.T.
{Despise dominion} (kuriotˆtos kataphronountas). Kuriotˆs is late word for lordship (perhaps God or Christ) (from Kurios), in Col 1:16; Eph 1:21; Jude 1:8. Genitive case after kataphrountas (thinking down on, Mt 6:24).
{Daring} (tolmˆtai). Old substantive (from tolma“, to dare), daring men, here only in N.T.
{Self-willed} (authadeis). Old adjective (from autos and hˆdomai), self-pleasing, arrogant, in N.T. only here and Tit 1:7.
{They tremble not to rail at dignities} (doxas ou tremousin blasphˆmountes). "They tremble not blaspheming dignities." Trem“ is old verb (Mr 5:33), used only in present as here and imperfect. Here with the complementary participle blasphˆmountes rather than the infinitive blasphˆmein. See Jude 1:8. Perhaps these dignities (doxas) are angels (evil).

2:11 {Whereas} (hopou). Loose use of hopou (in Xenophon) = "wherein."
{Though greater} (meizones ontes). Than the evil doxai. Concessive participle and comparative adjective.
{In might and strength} (ischui kai dunamei). Locative case. Both indwelling strength (ischus, Mr 12:30) and ability (dunamis, Mt 25:15).
{Railing judgment} (blasphemon krisin). "Blasphemous accusation."
{Against them} (kat' aut“n). The evil angels (doxai).
{Before the Lord} (para kuri“i). In God's presence. See Jude 1:9 and possibly Enoch 9.

2:12 {But these} (houtoi de). The false teachers of verse 1. {As creatures} (z“a). Living creatures, old word, from z“os (alive), Jude 1:10; Re 4:6-9.
{Without reason} (aloga). Old adjective, in N.T. only here, Jude 1:10; Ac 25:27. Brute beasts like thˆria (wild animals).
{Born} (gegennˆmena). Perfect passive participle of genna“.
{Mere animals} (phusika). Old adjective in -ikos (from phusis, nature), natural animals, here only in N.T.
{To be taken} (eis hal“sin). "For capture" (old substantive, from halo“, here only in N.T.).
{And destroyed} (kai phthoran). "And for destruction" just like a beast of prey caught. See 1:4.
{In matters whereof they are ignorant} (en hois agnoousin). "In which things they are ignorant." Here en hois = en toutois ha (in those things which), a common Greek idiom. For agnoe“ (present active indicative) see 1Th 4:13; 1Ti 1:7 for a like picture of loud ignoramuses posing as professional experts.
{Shall in their destroying surely be destroyed} (en tˆi phthorƒi aut“n phtharˆsontai). Second future passive of phtheir“. Rhetorical Hebraism in the use of en phthorƒi (same root as phtheir“), word four times in II Peter. See Jude 1:10.

2:13 {Suffering wrong} (adikoumenoi). Present middle or passive participle of adike“ to do wrong. So Aleph B P, but A C K L have komioumenoi (future middle participle of komiz“), shall receive.
{As the hire of wrong-doing} (misthon adikias). The Elephantine papyrus has the passive of adike“ in the sense of being defrauded, and that may be the idea here. Peter plays on words again here as often in II Peter. The picture proceeds now with participles like hˆgoumenoi (counting).
{Pleasure} (hˆdonˆn). See Jas 4:1,3.
{To revel in the daytime} (tˆn en hˆmerƒi truphˆn). "The in the daytime revel" (old word truphˆ from thrupt“, to enervate, in N.T. only here and Lu 7:25). {Spots} (spiloi). Old word for disfiguring spot, in N.T. only here and Eph 5:27.
{Blemishes} (m“moi). Old word for blot (kin to mu“), only here in N.T. See 1Pe 1:19 for am“mos kai aspilos.
{Revelling} (entruph“ntes). Present active participle of entrupha“, old compound for living in luxury, only here in N.T.
{In their love-feasts} (en tais agapais). So B Sah, but Aleph A C K L P read apatais (in their deceivings). If agapais is genuine as it is in Jude 1:12, they are the only N.T. examples of this use of agapˆ.
{While they feast with you} (suneu“choumenoi). Present passive participle of late and rare verb suneu“che“ (sun, together, and eu“che“, to feed abundantly)
to entertain with. Clement of Alex. ("Paed". ii. I. 6) applies eu“chia to the agapˆ.

2:14 {Of adultery} (moichalidos). Rather, "of an adulteress," like Jas 4:4. Vivid picture of a man who cannot see a woman without lascivious thoughts toward her (Mayor). Cf. Mt 5:28. {That cannot cease} (akatapastous). Reading of A B in place of akatapaustous (alpha privative and verbal of katapau“, to cease). "Unable to stop." This a late verbal, only here in N.T. It is probable that akatapastous is merely a misspelling of akatapaustous.
{From sin} (hamartias). Ablative case as in 1Pe 4:1 (hamartias). Insatiable lust.
{Enticing} (deleazontes). Present active participle of deleaz“, to catch by bait as in verse 18; Jas 1:14.
{Unsteadfast} (astˆriktous). Late verbal adjective (alpha privative and stˆriz“), in Longinus and Vettius Valens, here alone in N.T. {Exercised} (gegumnasmenˆn). Perfect passive predicate participle with echontes, from gumnaz“ precisely as in Heb 5:14. Rhetorical metaphor from the gymnasium.
{In covetousness} (pleonexias). Genitive case after the participle.
{Children of cursing} (kataras tekna). Hebraism like tekna hupakoˆs in 1Pe 1:14 = accursed (kataratoi).

2:15 {Forsaking} (kataleipontes). Present active participle of kataleip“ (continually leaving) or katalipontes (second aorist active), having left.
{The right way} (eutheian hodon). "The straight way" of 1Sa 12:23 (cf. Mt 7:13f. for this use of hodos), "the way of truth" (2:2).
{They went astray} (eplanˆthˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of plana“, like Mr 12:24.
{The way of Balaam} (tˆi hod“i tou Balaam). Associative instrumental case after exakolouthˆsantes, for which verb see 1:16; 2:2. These false teachers, as shown in verse 13, followed the way of Balaam, "who loved the hire of wrong-doing" (hos misthon adikias ˆgapˆsen).

2:16 {But he was rebuked} (elegxin de eschen). "But he had rebuke." Second aorist active indicative of ech“ and accusative of elegxis (late word from elegch“, a periphrasis for elegch“, here only in N.T.) {For his own transgression} (idias paranomias). Objective genitive of paranomia, old word (from paranomos lawbreaker), here only in N.T.
{A dumb ass} (hupozugion aph“non). Dumb is without voice, old word for idols and beasts. The adjective hupozugios (hupo zugon on) "being under a yoke," is applied to the ass as the common beast of burden (papyri, Deissmann, "Bible Studies", p. 160), in N.T. only here and Mt 21:5.
{Spake} (phthegxamenon). First aorist middle participle of phtheggomai, old verb, to utter a sound, in N.T. only here, verse 18, Ac 4:18.
{Stayed} (ek“lusen). First aorist active indicative of k“lu“, to hinder.
{Madness} (paraphronian). Only known example of this word instead of the usual paraphrosunˆ or paraphronˆsis. It is being beside one's wits.

2:17 {Without water} (anudroi). As in Mt 12:43; Lu 11:24. Old word for common and disappointing experience of travellers in the orient.
{Mists} (homichlai). Old word for fog, here alone in N.T.
{Driven by a storm} (hupo lailapos elaunomenai). Lailaps is a squall (Mr 4:37; Lu 8:23, only other N.T. examples). See Jas 3:4 for another example of elaun“ for driving power of wind and waves.
{For whom} (hois). Dative case of personal interest.
{The blackness} (ho zophos). See verse 4 for this word.
{Hath been reserved} (tetˆrˆtai). Perfect passive participle of tˆre“, for which see verses 4,9.

2:18 {Great swelling words} (huperogka). Old compound adjective (huper and ogkos, a swelling, swelling above and beyond), in N.T. only here and Jude 1:16.
{Of vanity} (mataiotˆtos). Late and rare word (from mataios, empty, vain), often in LXX, in N.T. here, Ro 8:20; Eph 4:17.
{By lasciviousness} (aselgeiais). Instrumental plural, "by lascivious acts." Note asyndeton as in 1:9,17.
{Those who are just escaping} (tous olig“s apopheugontas). So A B read olig“s (slightly, a little), while Aleph C K L P read ont“s (actually). Olig“s late and rare, only here in N.T. So again the Textus Receptus has apophugontas (second aorist active participle, clean escaped) while the correct text is the present active apopheugontas. {From them that live in error} (tous en planˆi anastrephomenous). Accusative case after apopheugontas (escaping from) according to regular idiom. Peter often uses anastreph“ and anastrophˆ.

2:19 {Liberty} (eleutherian). Promising "personal liberty," that is license, after the fashion of advocates of liquor today, not the freedom of truth in Christ (Joh 8:32; Ga 5:1,13). {Themselves bondservants} (autoi douloi). "Themselves slaves" of corruption and sin as Paul has it in Ro 6:20.
{Of whom} (h“i). Instrumental case, but it may mean "of what."
{Is overcome} (hˆttˆtai). Perfect passive indicative of hˆtta“ (from hˆtt“n, less) old verb, in N.T. only here, verse 20; 2Co 12:13.
{Of the same} (tout“i). "By this one (or thing)."
{Is brought into bondage} (dedoul“tai). Perfect passive indicative of doulo“. Like Paul again (Ro 6:16,18; 8:21).

2:20 {After they have escaped} (apophugontes). Second aorist active participle here (see verse 18).
{The defilements} (ta miasmata). Old word miasma, from miain“, here only in N.T. Our "miasma." The body is sacred to God. Cf. miasmou in verse 10. {They are again entangled} (palin emplakentes). Second aorist passive participle of emplek“, old verb, to inweave (noosed, fettered), in N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:4.
{Overcome} (hˆtt“ntai). Present passive indicative of hˆttao“, for which see verse 19, "are repeatedly worsted." Predicate in the condition of first class with ei. It is not clear whether the subject here is "the deluded victims" (Bigg) or the false teachers themselves (Mayor). See Heb 10:26 for a parallel. {Therein} (toutois). So locative case (in these "defilements"), but it can be instrumental case ("by these," Strachan).
{With them} (autois). Dative of disadvantage, "for them."
{Than the first} (t“n pr“t“n). Ablative case after the comparative cheirona. See this moral drawn by Jesus (Mt 12:45; Lu 11:26).

2:21 {It were better} (kreitton ˆn). Apodosis of a condition of second class without an, as is usual with clauses of possibility, propriety, obligation (Mt 26:24; 1Co 5:10; Ro 7:7; Heb 9:26).
{Not to have known} (mˆ epegn“kenai). Perfect active infinitive of epigin“sk“ (cf. epign“sei, verse 20) to know fully.
{The way of righteousness} (tˆn hodon tˆs dikaiosunˆs). For the phrase see Mt 21:33, also the way of truth (2:2), the straight way (2:15).
{After knowing it} (epignousin). Second aorist active participle of epigin“sk“ (just used) in the dative plural agreeing with autois (for them).
{To turn back} (hupostrepsai). First aorist active infinitive of hupostreph“, old and common verb, to turn back, to return.
{From} (ek). Out of. So in Ac 12:25 with hupostreph“. With ablative case. See Ro 7:12 for hagia applied to hˆ entolˆ (cf. 1Ti 6:14). II Peter strikes a high ethical note (1:5ff.).
{Delivered} (paradotheisˆs). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of paradid“mi.

2:22 {It has happened} (sumbebˆken). Perfect active indicative of sumbain“, for which see 1Pe 4:12.
{According to the true proverb} (to tˆs alˆthous paroimias). "The word (to used absolutely, the matter of, as in Mt 21:21; Jas 4:14) of the true proverb" (paroimia a wayside saying, for which see Joh 10:6; 16:25,29). The first proverb here given comes from Pr 26:11. Exerama is a late and rare word (here only in N.T., in Diosc. and Eustath.) from exera“, to vomit.
{The sow that had washed} (h–s lousamenˆ). H–s, old word for hog, here only in N.T. Participle first aorist direct middle of lou“ shows that it is feminine (anarthrous). This second proverb does not occur in the O.T., probably from a Gentile source because about the habit of hogs. Epictetus and other writers moralize on the habit of hogs, having once bathed in a filthy mud-hole, to delight in it.
{To wallowing} (eis kulismon). "To rolling." Late and rare word (from kuli“, Mr 9:20), here only in N.T.
{In the mire} (borborou). Objective genitive, old word for dung, mire, here only in N.T. J. Rendel Harris ("Story of Ahikar", p. LXVII) tells of a story about a hog that went to the bath with people of quality, but on coming out saw a stinking drain and went and rolled himself in it.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Peter: Chapter 2)

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