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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Peter: Chapter 1)

1:1 {Simon Peter} (Sim“n Petros). Aleph A K L P have Syme“n as in Ac 15:14, while B has Sim“n. The two forms occur indifferently in I Macc. 2:3, 65 for the same man.
{Servant and apostle} (doulos kai apostolos). Like Ro 1:1; Tit 1:1.
{To them that have obtained} (tois lachousin). Dative plural articular participle second aorist active of lagchan“, old verb, to obtain by lot (Lu 1:9), here with the accusative (pistin) as in Ac 1:17.
{Like precious} (isotimon). Late compound adjective (isos, equal, timˆ, honor, price), here only in N.T. But this adjective (Field) is used in two ways, according to the two ideas in timˆ (value, honor), either like in value or like in honor. This second idea is the usual one with isotimos (inscriptions and papyri, Josephus, Lucian), while polutimos has the notion of price like timˆ in 1:7,19; 2:4,6f. The faith which they have obtained is like in honor and privilege with that of Peter or any of the apostles.
{With us} (hˆmin). Associative-instrumental case after isotimon. Equal to tˆi hˆm“n (the faith of us).
{In the righteousness} (en dikaiosunˆi). Definite because of the preposition en and the following genitive even though anarthrous. The O.T. sense of dikaiosunˆ applied to God (Ro 1:17) and here to Christ.
{Of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ} (tou theou hˆm“n kai s“tˆros Iˆsou Christou). So the one article (tou) with theou and s“tˆros requires precisely as with tou kuriou hˆm“n kai s“tˆros Iˆsou Christou (of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ), one person, not two, in 1:11 as in 2:20; 3:2,18. So in 1Pe 1:3 we have ho theos kai patˆr (the God and Father), one person, not two. The grammar is uniform and inevitable (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 786), as even Schmiedel (Winer-Schmiedel, "Grammatik", p. 158) admits: "Grammar demands that one person be meant." Moulton ("Prol.", p. 84) cites papyri examples of like usage of theos for the Roman emperors. See the same idiom in Tit 2:13. The use of theos by Peter as a predicate with Jesus Christ no more disproves the Petrine authorship of this Epistle than a like use in Joh 1:1 disproves the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel and the same use in Tit 2:13 disproves the genuineness of Titus. Peter had heard Thomas call Jesus God (Joh 20:28) and he himself had called him the Son of God (Mt 16:16).

1:2 {Be multiplied} (plˆthuntheiˆ). First aorist passive optative of plˆthun“ in a wish for the future (volitive use) as in 1Pe 1:2; Jude 1:2.
{In the knowledge} (en epign“sei). Full (additional, epi) knowledge as in 1:8 (only gn“sis in 1:5,6; 3:18), but epign“sin again in 1:3,8; 2:20. As in Colossians, so here full knowledge is urged against the claims of the Gnostic heretics to special gn“sis.
{Of God and of Jesus our Lord} (tou theou kai Iˆsou tou kuriou hˆm“n). At first sight the idiom here seems to require one person as in 1:1, though there is a second article (tou) before kuriou, and Iˆsou is a proper name. But the text here is very uncertain. Bengel, Spitta, Zahn, Nestle accept the short reading of P and some Vulgate MSS. and some minuscles with only tou kuriou hˆm“n (our Lord) from which the three other readings may have come. Elsewhere in II Peter gn“sis and epign“sis are used of Christ alone. The text of II Peter is not in a good state of preservation.

1:3 {Seeing that his divine power hath granted unto us} (h“s hˆmin tˆs theias duname“s autou ded“rˆmenˆs). Genitive absolute with the causal particle h“s and the perfect middle participle of d“re“, old verb, to bestow (d“rea, gift), usually middle as here, in N.T. elsewhere only Mr 15:45. Autou refers to Christ, who has "divine power" (tˆs theias duname“s), since he is theos (1:1). Theios (from theos) is an old adjective in N.T. here and verse 4 only, except Ac 17:29, where Paul uses to theion for deity, thus adapting his language to his audience as the papyri and inscriptions show. The use of theios with an imperial connotation is very common in the papyri and the inscriptions. Deissmann ("Bible Studies", pp. 360-368) has shown the singular linguistic likeness between 2Pe 1:3-11 and a remarkable inscription of the inhabitants of Stratonicea in Caria to Zeus Panhemerios and Hecate dated A.D. 22 (in full in C I H ii No. 2715 a b). One of the likenesses is the use of tˆs theias duname“s. Peter may have read this inscription (cf. Paul in Athens) or he may have used "the familiar forms and formulae of religious emotion" (Deissmann), "the official liturgical language of Asia Minor." Peter is fond of dunamis in this Epistle, and the dunamis of Christ "is the sword which St. Peter holds over the head of the False Teachers" (Bigg).
{All things that pertain unto life and godliness} (panta ta pros z“ˆn kai eusebeian). "All the things for life and godliness." The new life in Christ who is the mystery of godliness (1Ti 3:16). Eusebeia with its cognates (eusebˆs, euseb“s, eusebe“) occurs only in this Epistle, Acts, and the Pastoral Epistles (from eu, well, and sebomai, to worship).
{Of him that called us} (tou kalesantos). Genitive of the articular first aorist active participle of kale“. Christ called Peter and all other Christians.
{By his own glory and virtue} (dia doxˆs kai aretˆs). So B K L, but Aleph A C P read idiƒi doxˆi kai aretˆi (either instrumental case "by" or dative "to"). Peter is fond of idios (own, 1Pe 3:1,5; 2Pe 2:16,22, etc.). "Glory" here is the manifestation of the Divine Character in Christ. For aretˆ see on 1Pe 2:9 and Php 4:8; 2Pe 1:5.

1:4 {Whereby} (di' h“n). Probably the "glory and virtue" just mentioned, though it is possible to take it with panta ta pros, etc., or with hˆmin (unto us, meaning "through whom").
{He hath granted} (ded“rˆtai). Perfect middle indicative of d“re“, for which see verse 3.
{His precious and exceeding great promises} (ta timia kai megista epaggelmata). Epaggelma is an old word (from epaggell“) in place of the common epaggelia, in N.T. only here and 3:13. Timios (precious, from timˆ, value), three times by Peter (1Pe 1:7 of faith; 1:19 of the blood of Christ; 2Pe 1:4 of Christ's promises). Megista is the elative superlative used along with a positive adjective (timia).
{That ye may become} (hina genˆsthe). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai.
{Through these} (dia tout“n). The promises.
{Partakers} (koin“noi). Partners, sharers in, for which word see 1Pe 5:1.
{Of the divine nature} (theias phuse“s). This phrase, like to theion in Ac 17:29, "belongs rather to Hellenism than to the Bible" (Bigg). It is a Stoic phrase, but not with the Stoic meaning. Peter is referring to the new birth as 1Pe 1:23 (anagegennˆmenoi). The same phrase occurs in an inscription possibly under the influence of Mithraism (Moulton and Milligan's "Vocabulary").
{Having escaped} (apophugontes). Second aorist active participle of apopheug“, old compound verb, in N.T. only here and 2:18-20, with the ablative here (phthorƒs, old word from phtheir“, moral decay as in 2:12)
and the accusative there.
{By lust} (en epithumiƒi). Caused by, consisting in, lust. "Man becomes either regenerate or degenerate" (Strachan).

1:5 {Yea, and for this very cause} (kai auto touto de). Adverbial accusative (auto touto) here, a classic idiom, with both kai and de. Cf. kai touto (Php 1:29), touto men--touto de (Heb 10:33). "The soul of religion is the practical part" (Bunyan). Because of the new birth and the promises we have a part to play.
{Adding on your part} (pareisenegkantes). First aorist active participle of pareispher“, old double compound, to bring in (eispher“), besides (para), here only in N.T.
{All diligence} (spoudˆn pƒsan). Old word from speud“ to hasten (Lu 19:5f.). This phrase (pƒsan spoudˆn) occurs in Jude 1:3 with poioumenos and on the inscription in Stratonicea (verse 3) with ispheresthai (certainly a curious coincidence, to say the least, though common in the "Koin‚").
{In your faith} (en tˆi pistei hum“n). Faith or pistis (strong conviction as in Heb 11:1,3, the root of the Christian life Eph 2:8) is the foundation which goes through various steps up to love (agapˆ). See similar lists in Jas 1:30; 1Th 1:3; 2Th 1:3f.; Ga 5:22f.; Ro 5:3f.; 8:29f. Hermas (Vis. iii. 8. 1-7) has a list called "daughters" of one another. Note the use of en (in, on) with each step.
{Supply} (epichorˆgˆsate). First aorist active imperative of epichorˆge“, late and rare double compound verb (epi and chorˆge“ 1Pe 4:11 from chorˆgos, chorus-leader, choros and hˆgeomai, to lead), to fit out the chorus with additional (complete) supplies. Both compound and simplex (more common) occur in the papyri. In 1:11 and already in 2Co 9:10; Ga 3:5; Col 2:19.
{Virtue} (aretˆn). Moral power, moral energy, vigor of soul (Bengel). See 3.
{Knowledge} (gn“sin). Insight, understanding (1Co 16:18; Joh 15:15).

1:6 {Temperance} (tˆn egkrateian). Self-control. Old word (from egkratˆs, en and kratos, one holding himself in as in Tit 1:8), in N.T. only here, Ac 24:25; Ga 5:23. The opposite of the pleonexia of the heretics.
{Patience} (tˆn hupomonˆn). For which see Jas 1:3.
{Godliness} (tˆn eusebeian). For which see verse 3.

1:7 {Love of the brethren} (tˆn philadelphian). See 1Pe 1:22. {Love} (tˆn agapˆn). By deliberate choice (Mt 5:44). Love for Christ as the crown of all (1Pe 1:8) and so for all men. Love is the climax as Paul has it (1Co 13:13).

1:8 {For if these things are yours and abound} (tauta gar humin huparchonta kai pleonazonta). Present active circumstantial (conditional) participles neuter plural of huparch“ and pleonaz“ (see 1Th 3:12) with dative case humin, "these things existing for you (or in you) and abounding."
{They make you to be} (kathistˆsin). "Render" (present active indicative of kathistˆmi, old verb, Jas 3:6), singular because tauta neuter plural.
{Not idle nor unfruitful} (ouk argous oude akarpous). Accusative predicative plural with humas understood, both adjectives with alpha privative, for argos see Jas 2:20 and for akarpos Mt 13:22.
{Knowledge} (epign“sin). "Full (additional) knowledge" as in 1:2.

1:9 {He that lacketh these things} (h“i mˆ parestin tauta). "To whom (dative case of possession) these things are not (mˆ because a general or indefinite relative clause)."
{Seeing only what is near} (mu“paz“n). Present active participle of mu“paz“, a rare verb from mu“ps (in Aristotle for a near-sighted man) and that from mue“ tous “pas (to close the eyes in order to see, not to keep from seeing). The only other instance of mu“paz“ is given by Suicer from Ps. Dion. Eccl. Hier. ii. 3 (mu“pasousˆi kai apostrephomenˆi) used of a soul on which the light shines (blinking and turning away). Thus understood the word here limits tuphlos as a short-sighted man screwing up his eyes because of the light.
{Having forgotten} (lˆthˆn lab“n). "Having received forgetfulness." Second aorist active participle of lamban“ and accusative lˆthˆn, old word, from lˆthomai, to forget, here only in N.T. See 2Ti 1:5 for a like phrase hupomnˆsin lab“n (having received remembrance). {The cleansing} (tou katharismou). See Heb 1:3 for this word for the expiatory sacrifice of Christ for our sins as in 1Pe 1:18; 2:24; 3:18. In 1Pe 3:21 Peter denied actual cleansing of sin by baptism (only symbolic). If there is a reference to baptism here, which is doubtful, it can only be in a symbolic sense.
{Old} (palai). Of the language as in Heb 1:1.

1:10 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of the exhortation and argument in verses 5-9.
{Give the more diligence} (mƒllon spoudasate). "Become diligent (first aorist ingressive active imperative of spoudaz“ as in 2Ti 2:15; 2Pe 1:15) the more" (mallon, not less).
{To make} (poieisthai). Present middle infinitive of poie“, to make for yourselves.
{Calling and election} (klˆsin kai eklogˆn). Both words (klˆsin, the invitation, eklogˆn, actual acceptance). See for eklogˆ 1Th 1:4; Ro 9:11.
{If ye do} (poiountes). Present active circumstantial (conditional) participle of poie“, "doing."
{Ye shall never stumble} (ou mˆ ptaisˆte pote). Strong double negative (ou mˆ pote) with first aorist active subjunctive of ptai“, old verb to stumble, to fall as in Jas 2:10; 3:2.

1:11 {Thus} (hout“s). As shown in verse 10.
{Shall be supplied} (epichorˆgˆthˆsetai). Future passive of epichorˆge“, for which see verse 5. You supply the virtues above and God will supply the entrance (hˆ eisodos, old word already in 1Th 1:9, etc.).
{Richly} (plousi“s). See Col 3:16 for this adverb.
{Into the eternal kingdom} (eis tˆn ai“nion basileian). The believer's inheritance of 1Pe 1:4 is here termed kingdom, but "eternal" (ai“nion feminine same as masculine). Curiously again in the Stratonicea inscription we find tˆs ai“niou archˆs (of the eternal rule) applied to "the lords of Rome." But this is the spiritual reign of God in men's hearts here on earth (1Pe 2:9) and in heaven.
{Of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ} (tou kuriou hˆm“n kai s“tˆros Iˆsou Christou). For which idiom see on 1:1.

1:12 {Wherefore} (dio). Since they are possessed of faith that conduces to godliness which they are diligently practising now he insists on the truth and proposes to do his part by them about it.
{I shall be ready always} (mellˆs“ aei). Future active of mell“ (Mt 24:6), old verb, to be on the point of doing and used with the infinitive (present, aorist, or future). It is not here a periphrastic future, but rather the purpose of Peter to be ready in the future as in the past and now (Zahn).
{To put you in remembrance} (humas hupomimnˆskein). Present active infinitive of hupomimnˆsk“, old causative compound (hupo, mimnˆsk“, like our suggest), either with two accusatives (Joh 14:26) or peri with the thing as here), "to keep on reminding you of those things" (peri tout“n).
{Though ye know them} (kaiper eidotas). Second perfect active concessive participle of oida, agreeing (acc. plural), with humas. Cf. Heb 5:8.
{Are established} (estˆrigmenous). Perfect passive concessive participle of stˆriz“ (1Pe 5:10). The very verb (stˆrison) used by Jesus to Peter (Lu 22:32).
{In the truth which is with you} (en tˆi parousˆi alˆtheiƒi). "In the present truth" (the truth present to you), parousˆi present active participle of pareimi, to be beside one. See Col 1:6 for this use of par“n. Firmly established in the truth, but all the same Peter is eager to make them stronger.

1:13 {I think it right} (dikaion hˆgoumai). Peter considers this to be his solemn duty, "right" (dikaion). Cf. Php 3:1; Eph 6:1.
{So long as} (eph' hoson). For this phrase see Mt 9:15; Ro 11:13.
{Tabernacle} (skˆn“mati). Old word, in literal sense in De 33:18 for the usual skˆnˆ (Peter's word at the Transfiguration, Mr 9:5), earliest use (in N.T. only here, verse 14; Ac 7:46 of the tabernacle of the covenant) in this metaphorical sense of life as a pilgrimage (1Pe 1:1; 2:11), though Paul has skˆnos, so in 2Co 5:1,4. Peter feels the nearness of death and the urgency upon him.
{To stir you up} (diegeirein humas). Present active infinitive of diegeir“, late (Arist., Hippocr., Herodian, papyri), perfective (dia = thoroughly) compound, to wake out of sleep (Mr 4:39), "to keep on rousing you up."
{By putting you in remembrance} (en hupomnˆsei). Old word, from hupomimnˆsk“ (verse 12), in N.T. only here, 3:1; 2Ti 1:5. "By way of reminding you."

1:14 {The putting off of my tabernacle} (hˆ apothesis tou skˆnn“matos mou). For apothesis see on 1Pe 3:21 and for skˆn“ma verse 13. For the metaphor see 2Co 5:3f.
{Cometh swiftly} (tachinˆ estin). Late adjective (Theocritus, LXX, inscription), in N.T. only here and 2:1. It is not clear whether tachinos means soon or speedy as in Isa 59:7 and like tachus in Jas 1:19, or sudden, like tachus in Plato ("Republ". 553 D). Either sense agrees with the urgent tone of Peter here, whether he felt his death to be near or violent or both.
{Signified unto me} (edˆl“sen moi). First aorist active indicative of dˆlo“, old verb (from delos), as in 1Pe 1:11. Peter refers to the incident told in Joh 21:18f., which he knew by personal experience before John wrote it down.

1:15 Peter may also have had an intimation by vision of his approaching death (cf. the legend "Domine quo vadis") as Paul often did (Ac 16:9; 18:9; 21:11; 23:11; 27:23).
{At every time} (hekastote). As need arises, old adverb, here alone in N.T. {After my decease} (meta tˆn emˆn exodon). For exodos meaning death see Lu 9:31, and for departure from Egypt (way out, ex, hodos) see Heb 11:22, the only other N.T. examples. Here again Peter was present on the Transfiguration mount when the talk was about the "exodus" of Jesus from earth.
{That ye may be able} (echein humas). Literally, "that ye may have it," the same idiom with ech“ and the infinitive in Mr 14:8; Mt 18:25. It is the object-infinitive after spoudas“ (I will give diligence, for which see verse 10).
{To call these things to remembrance} (tˆn tout“n mnˆmˆn poieisthai). Present middle infinitive of poie“ (as in verse 10). Mnˆmˆ is an old word (from mnaomai), here alone in N.T. This idiom, like the Latin "mentionem facere", is common in the old writers (papyri also both for "mention" and "remembrance"), here only in N.T., but in Ro 1:20 we have mneian poioumai (I make mention). Either sense suits here. It is possible, as Irenaeus (iii. I. I) thought, that Peter had in mind Mark's Gospel, which would help them after Peter was gone. Mark's Gospel was probably already written at Peter's suggestion, but Peter may have that fact in mind here.

1:16 {We did not follow} (ouk exakolouthˆsantes). First aorist active participle of exakolouthe“, late compound verb, to follow out (Polybius, Plutarch, LXX, papyri, inscriptions as of death following for any Gentile in the temple violating the barrier), with emphatic negative ouk, "not having followed." See also 2:2 for this verb.
{Cunningly devised fables} (sesophismenois muthois). Associative instrumental case of muthos (old term for word, narrative, story, fiction, fable, falsehood). In N.T. only here and the Pastoral Epistles (1Ti 1:4, etc.). Perfect passive participle of sophiz“, old word (from sophos), only twice in N.T., in causative sense to make wise (2Ti 3:15), to play the sophist, to invent cleverly (here) and so also in the old writers and in the papyri. Some of the false teachers apparently taught that the Gospel miracles were only allegories and not facts (Bigg). Cf. 2:3 for "feigned words."
{When we made known unto you} (egn“risamen humin). First aorist active indicative of gn“riz“, to make known unto you. Possibly by Peter himself.
{The power and coming} (tˆn dunamin kai parousian). These words can refer (Chase) to the Incarnation, just as is true of epiphaneia in 2Ti 1:10 (second coming in 1Ti 6:14), and is true of parousia (2Co 7:6 of Titus). But elsewhere in the N.T. parousia (technical term in the papyri for the coming of a king or other high dignitary), when used of Christ, refers to his second coming (2Pe 3:4,12).
{But we were eye-witnesses} (all' epoptai genˆthentes). First aorist passive participle of ginomai, "but having become eye-witnesses." Epoptai, old word (from epopt“ like epopteu“ in 1Pe 2:12; 3:2), used of those who attained the third or highest degree of initiates in the Eleusinian mysteries (common in the inscriptions). Cf. autoptˆs in Lu 1:2.
{Of his majesty} (tˆs ekeinou megaleiotˆtos). Late and rare word (LXX and papyri) from megaleios (Ac 2:11), in N.T. only here, Lu 9:43 (of God); Ac 19:27 (of Artemis). Peter clearly felt that he and James and John were lifted to the highest stage of initiation at the Transfiguration of Christ. Emphatic ekeinou as in 2Ti 2:26.

1:17 {For he received} (lab“n gar). Second aorist active participle nominative singular of lamban“, "he having received," but there is no finite verb, anacoluthon, changing in verse 19 (after parenthesis in 18) to echomen bebaioteron rather than ebebai“sen.
{When there came such a voice to him} (ph“nˆs enechtheisˆs aut“i toiasde). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle feminine singular of pher“ (cf. 1Pe 1:13), repeated enechtheisan in verse 18. Ph“nˆ (voice) is used also of Pentecost (Ac 2:6). Toiosde (classical demonstrative) occurs here alone in the N.T.
{From the excellent glory} (hupo tˆs megaloprepous doxˆs). "By the majestic glory." Megaloprepˆs, old compound (megas, great, prepei, it is becoming), here only in N.T., several times in O.T., Apocr. (II Macc. 8:15), adverb in the inscriptions. Probably a reference to nephelˆ ph“teinˆ (bright cloud, shekinah) in Mt 17:5. The words given here from the "voice" agree exactly with Mt 17:5 except the order and the use of eis hon rather than en h“i. Mark (Mr 9:7) and Luke (Lu 9:35) have akouete. But Peter did not need any Gospel for his report here.

1:18 {This voice} (tautˆn tˆn ph“nˆn). The one referred to in verse 17.
{We heard} (ˆkousamen). First aorist active indicative of akou“, a definite experience of Peter.
{Brought} (enechtheisan). "Borne" as in verse 17.
{When we were with him} (sun aut“i ontes). Present active participle of eimi, "being with him."
{In the holy mount} (en t“i hagi“i orei). Made holy by the majestic glory. See Eze 28:14 for "holy mount of God," there Sinai, this one probably one of the lower slopes of Hermon. Peter's account is independent of the Synoptic narrative, but agrees with it in all essentials.

1:19 {The word of prophecy} (ton prophˆtikon logon). "The prophetic word." Cf. 1Pe 1:10, a reference to all the Messianic prophecies.
{Made more sure} (bebaioteron). Predicate accusative of the comparative adjective bebaios (2Pe 1:10). The Transfiguration scene confirmed the Messianic prophecies and made clear the deity of Jesus Christ as God's Beloved Son. Some with less likelihood take Peter to mean that the word of prophecy is a surer confirmation of Christ's deity than the Transfiguration.
{Whereunto} (h“i). Dative of the relative referring to "the prophetic word made more sure."
{That ye take heed} (prosechontes). Present active participle with noun (mind) understood, "holding your mind upon" with the dative (h“i).
{As unto a lamp} (h“s luchn“i). Dative also after prosechontes of luchnos, old word (Mt 5:15).
{Shining} (phainonti). Dative also present active participle of phain“, to shine (Joh 1:5). So of the Baptist (Joh 5:35).
{In a dark place} (en auchmˆr“i top“i). Old adjective, parched, squalid, dirty, dark, murky, here only in N.T., though in Aristotle and on tombstone for a boy.
{Until the day dawn} (he“s hou hˆmera diaugasˆi). First aorist active subjunctive of diaugaz“ with temporal conjunction he“s hou, usual construction for future time. Late compound verb diaugaz“ (Polybius, Plutarch, papyri) from dia and augˆ, to shine through, here only in N.T.
{The day-star} (ph“sphoros). Old compound adjective (ph“s, light, pher“, to bring), light-bringing, light-bearer (Lucifer) applied to Venus as the morning star. Our word phosphorus is this word. In the LXX he“sphoros occurs. Cf. Mal 4:2; Lu 1:76-79; Re 22:16 for "dawn" applied to the Messiah.
{Arise} (anateilˆi). First aorist active subjunctive of anatell“ (Jas 1:11; Mt 5:45).

1:20 {Knowing this first} (touto pr“ton gin“skontes). Agreeing with poieite like prosechontes in verse 19.
{No prophecy of Scripture} (pƒsa prophˆteia ou). Like the Hebrew "lo-k“l", but also in the papyri as in 1Jo 2:21 (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 753).
{Is} (ginetai). Rather "comes," "springs" (Alford), not "is" (estin).
{Of private interpretation} (idias epiluse“s). Ablative case of origin or source in the predicate as with gn“mˆs in Ac 20:3 and with tou theou and ex hˆm“n in 2Co 4:7. "No prophecy of Scripture comes out of private disclosure," not "of private interpretation." The usual meaning of epilusis is explanation, but the word does not occur elsewhere in the N.T. It occurs in the papyri in the sense of solution and even of discharge of a debt. Spitta urges "dissolved" as the idea here. The verb epilu“, to unloose, to untie, to release, occurs twice in the N.T., once (Mr 4:34) where it can mean "disclose" about parables, the other (Ac 19:39) where it means to decide. It is the prophet's grasp of the prophecy, not that of the readers that is here presented, as the next verse shows.

1:21 {For} (gar). The reason for the previous statement that no prophet starts a prophecy himself. He is not a self-starter. {Came} (ˆnechthˆ). First aorist passive indicative of pher“ (verses 17f.).
{By the will of man} (thelˆmati anthr“pou). Instrumental case of thelˆma. Prophecy is of divine origin, not of one's private origination (idias epiluse“s).
{Moved by the Holy Ghost} (hupo pneumatos hagiou pheromenoi). Present passive participle of pher“, moved from time to time. There they "spoke from God." Peter is not here warning against personal interpretation of prophecy as the Roman Catholics say, but against the folly of upstart prophets with no impulse from God.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Peter: Chapter 1)

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