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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 5)



5:1 {Who am a fellow-elder} (ho sunpresbuteros). Earliest use of this compound in an inscription of B.C. 120 for fellow-elders (alderman) in a town, here only in N.T., in eccles. writers. For the word presbuteros in the technical sense of officers in a Christian church (like elder in the local synagogues of the Jews) see Ac 11:30; 20:17. It is noteworthy that here Peter the Apostle (1:1) calls himself an elder along with (sun) the other "elders."
{A witness} (martus). This is what Jesus had said they must be (Ac 1:8) and what Peter claimed to be (Ac 3:15; 10:39). So Paul was to be a martus (Ac 22:15).
{Who am also a partaker} (ho kai koin“nos). "The partner also," "the partaker also." See Lu 5:10; 2Co 1:7; 2Pe 1:4. See same idea in Ro 8:17. In Ga 3:23; Ro 8:18 we have almost this about the glory about to be revealed to us where mell“ as here is used with the infinitive.

5:2 {Tend} (poimanate). First aorist active imperative of poimain“, old verb, from poimˆn (shepherd) as in Lu 17:7. Jesus used this very word to Peter in the interview by the Sea of Galilee (Joh 21:16) and Peter doubtless has this fact in mind here. Paul used the word to the elders at Miletus (Ac 20:28). See 2:25 for the metaphor.
{Flock} (poimnion). Old word, likewise from poimˆn, contraction of poimenion (Lu 12:32). {Exercising the oversight} (episkopountes). Present active participle of episkope“, old word (in Heb 12:15 alone in N.T.), omitted here by Aleph B.
{Not by constraint} (mˆ anagkast“s). Negative because of the imperative. Old adverb from verbal adjective anagkastos, here alone in N.T.
{But willingly} (alla hekousi“s). By contrast. Old adverb, in N.T. only here and Heb 10:26.
{Nor yet for filthy lucre} (mˆde aischrokerd“s). A compound adverb not found elsewhere, but the old adjective aischrokerdˆs is in 1Ti 3:8; Tit 1:7. See also Tit 1:11 "for the sake of filthy lucre" (aischrou kerdous charin). Clearly the elders received stipends, else there could be no such temptation.
{But of a ready mind} (alla prothum“s). Old adverb from prothumos (Mt 26:41), here only in N.T.

5:3 {Lording it over} (katakurieuontes). Present active participle of katakurieu“, late compound (kata, kurios) as in Mt 20:25.
{The charge allotted to you} (t“n klˆr“n). "The charges," "the lots" or "the allotments." See it in Ac 1:17,25 in this sense. The old word meant a die (Mt 27:25), a portion (Col 1:12; 1Pe 1:4), here the charges assigned (cf. Ac 17:4). From the adjective klˆrikos come our cleric, clerical, clerk. Wycliff translated it here "neither as having lordship in the clergie."
{Making yourselves ensamples} (tupoi ginomenoi). Present active participle of ginomai and predicate nominative tupoi (types, models) for which phrase see 1Th 1:7. Continually becoming. See 2:21 for hupogrammos (writing-copy).
{To the flock} (tou poimniou). Objective genitive.

5:4 {When the chief Shepherd shall be manifested} (phaner“thentos tou archipoimenos). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle of phanero“, to manifest, and genitive of archipoimˆn, a compound (archi, poimˆn) after analogy of archiereus, here only in N.T., but in "Testam. of Twelve Patrs". (Jud. 8) and on a piece of wood around an Egyptian mummy and also on a papyrus A.D. 338 (Deissmann, "Light, etc.", p. 100). See Heb 13:20 for ho poimˆn ho megas (the Shepherd the great).
{Ye shall receive} (komieisthe). Future of komiz“ (1:9, which see).
{The crown of glory that fadeth not away} (ton amarantinon tˆs doxˆs stephanon). For "crown" (stephanos) see Jas 1:12; 1Co 9:25; 2Ti 4:8; Re 2:10; 3:10; 4:4. In the Gospels it is used only of the crown of thorns, but Jesus is crowned with glory and honor (Heb 2:9). In all these passages it is the crown of victory as it is here. See 1:4 for amarantos, unfading. Amarantinos is made from that word as the name of a flower amaranth (so called because it never withers and revives if moistened with water and so used as a symbol of immortality), "composed of amaranth" or "amarantine," "the amarantine (unfading) crown of glory."

5:5 {Be subject} (hopotagˆte). Second aorist passive imperative of hupotass“.
{Unto the elder} (presbuterois). Dative case. Here the antithesis between younger and elder shows that the word refers to age, not to office as in 5:1. See a like change in meaning in 1Ti 5:1,17.
{All} (pantes). All ages, sexes, classes.
{Gird yourselves with humility} (tˆn tapeinophrosunˆn egkomb“sasthe). First aorist middle imperative of egkomboomai, late and rare verb (in Apollodorus, fourth cent. B.C.), here only in N.T., from en and kombos (knot, like the knot of a girdle). Egkomb“ma was the white scarf or apron of slaves. It is quite probable that Peter here is thinking of what Jesus did (Joh 13:4ff.) when he girded himself with a towel and taught the disciples, Peter in particular (Joh 13:9ff.), the lesson of humility (Joh 13:15). Peter had at last learned the lesson (Joh 21:15-19).
{The proud} (huperˆphanois). Dative plural of huperˆphanos (Jas 4:6; Ro 1:30) after antitassetai (present middle indicative of antitass“ as in Jas 4:6 (quoted there as here from Pr 3:34).

5:6 {Humble yourselves therefore} (tapein“thˆte oun). First aorist passive imperative of tapeino“, old verb, for which see Mt 18:4. Peter is here in the role of a preacher of humility. "Be humbled."
{Under the mighty hand of God} (hupo tˆn krataian cheira tou theou). Common O.T. picture (Ex 3:19; 20:33, etc.). {That he may exalt you} (hina hups“sˆi). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of hupso“. Cf. Lu 14:11; Php 2:9.
{In due time} (en kair“i). Same phrase in Mt 24:45.

5:7 {Casting} (epiripsantes). First aorist active participle of epiript“, old verb, to throw upon, in N.T. only here and Lu 19:35 (casting their clothes on the colt), here from Ps 55:22. For merimna see Mt 6:25,31,34.
{He careth} (aut“i melei). Impersonal verb melei (present active indicative) with dative aut“i, "it is a care to him." God does care (Lu 21:18).

5:8 {Be watchful} (grˆgorˆsate). First aorist active imperative of grˆgore“, late present imperative from perfect egrˆgora (to be awake) from egeir“ (to arouse), as in Mt 24:42. For nˆpsate see 1:13; 4:7.
{Your adversary} (ho antidikos hum“n). Old word for opponent in a lawsuit (Mt 5:25).
{The devil} (diabolos). Slanderer. See on »Mt 4:1.
{As a roaring lion} (h“s “ruomenos le“n). But Jesus is also pictured as the Lion of the tribe of Judah (Re 5:5). But Satan {roars} at the saints. Present middle participle “ruomai, old verb, here only in N.T., to howl like a wolf, dog, or lion, of men to sing loud (Pindar). See Ps 22:13.
{Whom he may devour} (katapiein). Second aorist active infinitive of katapin“, to drink down. B does not have tina, Aleph has tina (somebody), "to devour some one," while A has interrogative tina, "whom he may devour" (very rare idiom). But the devil's purpose is the ruin of men. He is a "peripatetic" (peripatei) like the peripatetic philosophers who walked as they talked. Satan wants all of us and sifts us all (Lu 22:31).

5:9 {Whom withstand} (h“i antistˆte). Imperative second aorist active (intransitive) of anthistˆmi; same form in Jas 4:7, which see. Dative case of relative (h“i). For the imperative in a subordinate clause see verse 12; 2Th 3:10; 2Ti 4:15; Heb 13:7. Cowardice never wins against the devil (2Ti 1:7), but only courage.
{Steadfast in your faith} (stereoi tˆi pistei). Locative case pistei. Stereos is old adjective for solid like a foundation (2Ti 2:19).
{The same sufferings} (ta auta t“n pathˆmat“n). An unusual construction with the genitive rather than the usual ta auta pathˆmata, perhaps as Hofmann suggests, "the same tax of sufferings" ("the same things in sufferings"). Probably this is correct and is like Xenophon's phrase in the "Memorabilia" (IV. 8. 8), ta tou gˆr“s epiteleisthai (to pay the tax of old age).
{Are accomplished} (epiteleisthai). Present (and so process) middle (you are paying) or passive (is paid) infinitive of epitele“, old verb, to accomplish (2Co 7:1).
{In your brethren who are in the world} (tˆi en t“i kosm“i hum“n adelphotˆti). Associate-instrumental case adelphotˆti (in N.T. only here and 2:17, which see) after ta auta (like 1Co 11:5) or dative after epiteleisthai. Even so eidotes (second perfect active participle of oida) with an infinitive usually means "knowing how to" (object infinitive) as in Lu 12:56; Php 3:18 rather than "knowing that" (indirect assertion) as taken above.

5:10 {The God of all grace} (ho theos tˆs charitos). See 4:10 for poikilˆs charitos theou (of the variegated grace of God). {In Christ} (en Christ“i). A Pauline phrase (2Co 5:17-19), but Petrine also. For God's "calling" us (kalesas) see 1Th 5:23f.; 1Co 1:8f.; Ro 8:29f.
{After that ye have suffered a little while} (oligon pathontas). Second aorist active participle of pasch“, antecedent to the principal verbs which are future active (katartisei, to mend, Mr 1:19; Ga 6:1, stˆrixei, for which see Lu 9:51; 22:32, sthen“sei from sthenos and so far a hapax legomenon like enischu“ according to Hesychius). For oligon see 1:6.

5:11 {To him} (aut“i). To God (dative case). Note kratos in the doxology as in 1Ti 6:16 and briefer than the doxology in 1Pe 4:11, to Christ.

5:12 {By Silvanus} (dia Silouanou). Probably this postscript (12-14) is in Peter's own handwriting, as Paul did (2Th 3:17f.; Ga 6:11-18). If so, Silvanus (Silas) was the amanuensis and the bearer of the Epistle.
{As I account him} (h“s logizomai). Peter uses Paul's phrase (1Co 4:1; Ro 8:18) in giving approval to Paul's former companion (Ac 15:40).
{I have written} (egrapsa). Epistolary aorist applying to this Epistle as in 1Co 5:11 (not 1Co 5:9); 1Co 9:15; Ga 6:11; Ro 15:15; Phm 1:19,21.
{Briefly} (di' olig“n). "By few words," as Peter looked at it, certainly not a long letter in fact. Cf. Heb 13:22.
{Testifying} (epimartur“n). Present active participle of epimarture“, to bear witness to, old compound, here alone in N.T., though the double compound sunepimarture“ in Heb 2:4. {That this is the true grace of God} (tautˆn einai alˆthˆ charin tou theou). Infinitive einai in indirect assertion and accusative of general reference (tautˆn) and predicate accusative charin. Peter includes the whole of the Epistle by God's grace (1:10) and obedience to the truth (Joh 1:17; Gal 2:5; Col 1:6).
{Stand ye fast therein} (eis hˆn stˆte). "In which (grace) take your stand" (ingressive aorist active imperative of histˆmi).

5:13 {She that is in Babylon, elect together with you} (hˆ en Babul“ni suneklektˆ). Either actual Babylon or, as most likely, mystical Babylon (Rome) as in the Apocalypse. If Peter is in Rome about A.D. 65, there is every reason why he should not make that fact plain to the world at large and least of all to Nero. It is also uncertain whether hˆ suneklektˆ (found here alone), "the co-elect woman," means Peter's wife (1Co 9:5) or the church in "Babylon." The natural way to take it is for Peter's wife. Cf. eklektˆi kuriƒi in 2Jo 1:1 (also verse 2Jo 1:13).
{Mark my son} (Markos ho huios mou). So this fact agrees with the numerous statements by the early Christian writers that Mark, after leaving Barnabas, became Peter's "interpreter" and under his influence wrote his Gospel. We know that Mark was with Paul in Rome some years before this time (Col 4:10).

5:14 {With a kiss of love} (en philˆmati agapˆs). As in 1Co 16:20. The abuse of this custom led to its confinement to men with men and women with women and to its final abandonment ("Apost. Const". ii. 57, 12).
{That are in Christ} (tois en Christ“i). This is the greatest of all secret orders and ties, one that is open to all who take Christ as Lord and Saviour.


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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 5)



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