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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 3)

3:1 {Faithful is the saying} (pistos ho logos). Here the phrase points to the preceding words (not like 1:15) and should close the preceding paragraph.
{If a man seeketh} (ei tis oregetai). Condition of first class, assumed as true. Present middle indicative of oregō, old verb to reach out after something, governing the genitive. In N.T. only here, 6:10; Heb 11:16. {The office of a bishop} (episkopēs). Genitive case after oregetai. Late and rare word outside of LXX and N.T. (in a Lycaonian inscription). From episkopeō and means "over-seership" as in Ac 1:20.

3:2 {The bishop} (ton episkopon). The overseer. Old word, in LXX, and inscriptions and papyri. Deissmann ("Bible Studies", pp. 230f.) has shown it is applied to communal officials in Rhodes. See Ac 20:28 for its use for the elders (presbyters) in verse 17. So also in Tit 1:5,7. See Php 1:1. The word does not in the N.T. have the monarchical sense found in Ignatius of a bishop over elders.
{Without reproach} (anepilēmpton). Accusative case of general reference with dei and einai. Old and common verbal (a privative and epilambanō, not to be taken hold of), irreproachable. In N.T. only here, 5:7; 6:14.
{Of one wife} (mias gunaikos). One at a time, clearly.
{Temperate} (nēphalion). Old adjective. In N.T. only here, verse 11; Tit 2:2. But see nēphō, to be sober in 1Th 5:6,8.
{Soberminded} (sōphrona). Another old adjective (from saos or sōs, sound, phrēn, mind) in N.T. only here, Tit 1:8; 2:2,5.
{Orderly} (kosmion). See on ¯2:9. Seemly, decent conduct.
{Given to hospitality} (philoxenon). Old word (see philoxenia in Ro 12:13), from philos and xenos, in N.T. only here, Tit 1:8; 1Pe 4:9.
{Apt to teach} (didaktikon). Late form for old didaskalikos, one qualified to teach. In Philo and N.T. only (1Ti 3:2; 2Ti 2:24).

3:3 {No brawler} (mē paroinon). Later word for the earlier paroinios, one who sits long at (beside, para) his wine. In N.T. only here and Tit 1:3.
{No striker} (mē plēktēn). Late word from plēssō, to strike. In N.T. only here and Tit 1:3. {Gentle} (epieikē). See on ¯Php 4:5 for this interesting word. {Not contentious} (amachon). Old word (from a privative and machē), not a fighter. In N.T. only here and Tit 3:2.
{No lover of money} (aphilarguron). Late word (a privative and compound phil-arguros) in inscriptions and papyri (Nageli; also Deissmann, "Light", etc., pp. 85f.). In N.T. only here and Heb 13:5.

3:4 {Ruling} (proistamenon). Present middle participle of proistēmi, old word to place before and (intransitive as here) to stand before. See 1Th 5:12; Ro 12:8.
{In subjection} (en hupotagēi). See verse 11.

3:5 {If a man knoweth not} (ei tis ouk oiden). Condition of first class, assumed as true.
{How to rule} (prostēnai). Second aorist active infinitive of same verb proistēmi and with oiden means "know how to rule," not "know that he rules."
{How} (pōs). Rhetorical question expecting negative answer.
{Shall he take care of} (epimelēsetai). Future middle of epimeleomai, old compound (epi, direction of care towards) verb, in LXX, in N.T. only here and Lu 10:34f.
{The church of God} (ekklēsias theou). Anarthrous as in verse 15, elsewhere with article (1Co 10:32; 15:9; 2Co 1:1; Ga 1:13). The local church described as belonging to God. No one in N.T. but Paul (Ac 20:28) so describes the church. This verse is a parenthesis in the characteristics of the bishop.

3:6 {Not a novice} (mē neophuton). Our "neophyte." Vernacular word from Aristophanes on, in LXX, and in papyri in the original sense of "newly-planted" (neos, phuō). Only here in N.T.
{Lest} (hina mē). "That not."
{Being puffed up} (tuphōtheis). First aorist passive participle of tuphoō, old word (from tuphos, smoke, pride), to raise a smoke or mist (a smoke-screen of pride). In N.T. only here; 6:4; 2Ti 3:4.
{He fall into} (empesēi eis). Second aorist active subjunctive with hina mē, negative purpose, of empiptō, old verb, to fall into. Note both en and eis as in Mt 12:11; Lu 10:36.
{The condemnation of the devil} (krima tou diabolou). See Ro 3:8 for krima. Best to take tou diabolou as objective genitive, though subjective in verse 7, "the condemnation passed on or received by the devil" (not just "the slanderer," any slanderer).

3:7 {From them that are without} (apo tōn exōthen). "From the outside (of the church) ones." Paul's care for the witness of outsiders is seen in 1Th 4:12; 1Co 10:32; Col 4:5. There are, of course, two sides to this matter.
{Reproach} (oneidismon). Late word from oneidizō. See Ro 15:3.
{The snare of the devil} (pagida tou diabolou). Here subjective genitive, snare set by the devil. Pagis, old word from pēgnumi, to make fast. So a snare for birds (Lu 21:35), any sudden trap (Ro 11:9), of sin (1Ti 6:9), of the devil (1Ti 3:7; 2Ti 2:26). Ancients used it of the snares of love. The devil sets special snares for preachers (conceit verse 6, money 6:9, women, ambition).

3:8 {Deacons} (diakonous). Accusative case of general reference like the preceding with dei einai understood. Technical sense of the word here as in Php 1:1 which see (two classes of church officers, bishops or elders, deacons).
{Grave} (semnous). See Php 4:8. Repeated in verse 11; Tit 2:2.
{Not double-tongued} (mē dilogous). Rare word (dis, legō) saying same thing twice. Xenophon has dilogeō and dilogia. In Pollux, but LXX has diglōssos (double-tongued, Latin "bilinguis"). Only here in N.T. One placed between two persons and saying one thing to one, another to the other. Like Bunyan's Parson "Mr. Two-Tongues." {Not given to much wine} (mē oinōi pollōi prosechontas). "Not holding the mind (ton noun understood as usual with prosechō, 1Ti 1:4) on much wine" (oinōi, dative case). That attitude leads to over-indulgence.
{Not greedy of filthy lucre} (mē aischrokerdeis). Old word from aischros (Eph 5:12) and kerdos (Php 1:21). "Making small gains in mean ways" (Parry). Not genuine in verse 3. In N.T. only here and Tit 1:7 (of bishops).

3:9 {The mystery of the faith} (to mustērion tēs pisteōs). "The inner secret of the faith," the revelation given in Christ. See for mustērion in Paul (2Th 2:7; 1Co 2:7; Ro 16:25; Col 1:26; Eph 3:9).
{In a pure conscience} (en katharāi suneidēsei). See 1:19. "The casket in which the jewel is to be kept" (Lock).

3:10 {First be proved} (dokimazesthōsan prōton). Present passive imperative third plural of dokimazō, old and common verb, to test as metals, etc. (1Th 2:4, and often in Paul). How the proposed deacons are to be "first" tested before approved Paul does not say. See Php 1:10 for the two senses (test, approve) of the word.
{Let them serve as deacons} (diakoneitōsan). Present active imperative of diakoneō (same root as diakonos), common verb, to minister, here "to serve as deacons." Cf. diakonein in Ac 6:2. See also verse 13.
{If they be blameless} (anegklētoi ontes). "Being blameless" (conditional participle, ontes). See 1Co 1:8; Col 1:22 for anegklētos.

3:11 {Women} (gunaikas). Accusative with dei einai understood (hosautōs, likewise) as in verse 8. Apparently "women as deacons" (Ro 16:1 about Phoebe) and not women in general or just "wives of deacons." See Pliny ("Ep". X. 97) "ministrae". {Not slanderers} (mē diabolous). Original meaning of diabolos (from diaballō, Lu 16:1), the devil being the chief slanderer (Eph 6:11). "She-devils" in reality (Tit 2:3). "While men are more prone to be dilogous, double-tongued, women are more prone than men to be slanderers" (White).
{Faithful in all things} (pistas en pāsin). Perhaps as almoners (Ellicott) the deaconesses had special temptations.

3:12 {Of one wife} (mias gunaikos). At a time as in verse 2. {Ruling well} (proistamenoi kalōs). As in 4.

3:13 {Gain to themselves} (heautois peripoiountai). Present middle indicative of peripoieō, old verb, to make besides (peri, around, over), to lay by. Reflexive (indirect) middle with reflexive pronoun (heautois) repeated as often happens in the "Koinē". In N.T. only here, Lu 17:33; Ac 20:28 (Paul also, quoting Isa 43:21).
{A good standing} (bathmon kalon). Late word from bainō, in LXX for steps at a door (1Sa 5:5). In plural the steps of a stair. In the inscriptions it means a good foothold or standing. The ecclesiastical writers (Theodoret) take it to be a higher grade or rank, but it is doubtful if Paul means that here.
{Much boldness} (pollēn parrēsian). A Pauline phrase (2Co 3:12; 7:4; Php 1:20).
{In the faith which is in Christ Jesus} (en pistei tēi en Christōi Iēsou). Pauline phrase again (Ac 26:18; Ga 3:26; Col 1:4; Eph 1:15; 2Ti 1:13; 3:15).

3:14 {Shortly} (en tachei). Old idiom (locative case of tachos, quickness, speed). See Ro 16:20. A pseudonymous writer would hardly have put in this phrase. Paul's hopes were not to be realized, but he did not know that.

3:15 {But if I tarry long} (ean de bradunō). Condition of third class with ean and the present active subjunctive of bradunō, old verb, to be slow (usually intransitive), from bradus (slow, dull, Lu 24:25), in N.T. only here and 2Pe 3:9.
{That thou mayest know} (hina eidēis). Final clause with hina and second perfect active subjunctive of oida, to know.
{How men ought} (pōs dei). "How it is necessary for thee" (supply se more naturally than tina, any one). Indirect question.
{To behave themselves} (anastrephesthai). Present middle (direct) infinitive of anastrephō, old verb, to turn up and down. See 2Co 1:12; Eph 2:3.
{In the house of God} (en oikōi theou). Probably here "household of God," that is "the family of God" rather than "the house (or temple) of God." Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and oikos commonly means "household." Christians are the naos (sanctuary) of God (1Co 3:16f.; 2Co 6:16), and Paul calls them oikeioi tou theou (Eph 2:19) "members of God's family." It is conduct as members of God's family (oikos) that Paul has in mind.
{Which} (hētis). "Which very house of God," agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word ekklēsia (church).
{The church of the living God} (ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in verse 5.
{The pillar and ground of the truth} (stulos kai hedraiōma tēs alētheias). Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to ekklēsia and oikos. On stulos, old word for pillar, see Ga 2:9; Re 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). Hedraiōma, late and rare word (from hedraioō, to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See Co 1:23; 2Ti 2:19 for similar idea. See also Mt 16:18f.

3:16 {Without controversy} (homologoumenōs). Old adverb from the participle homologoumenos from homologeō. Here only in N.T. "Confessedly."
{Great} (mega). See Eph 5:32. "A great mystery."
{The mystery of godliness} (to tēs eusebeias mustērion). See verse 9 "the mystery of the faith," and 2:2 for eusebeia. Here the phrase explains "a pillar and stay of the truth" (verse 15). See in particular Co 1:27. "The revealed secret of true religion, the mystery of Christianity, the Person of Christ" (Lock).
{He who} (hos). The correct text, not theos (God) the reading of the Textus Receptus (Syrian text) nor ho (neuter relative, agreeing with mustērion) the reading of the Western documents. Westcott and Hort print this relative clause as a fragment of a Christian hymn (like Eph 5:14) in six strophes. That is probably correct. At any rate hos (who) is correct and there is asyndeton (no connective) in the verbs. Christ, to whom hos refers, is the mystery (Col 1:27; 2:2).
{Was manifested} (ephanerōthē). First aorist passive indicative of phaneroō, to manifest. Here used to describe the incarnation (en sarki) of Christ (an answer also to the Docetic Gnostics). The verb is used by Paul elsewhere of the incarnation (Ro 16:26; Col 1:26) as well as of the second coming (Col 3:4).
{Justified in the spirit} (edikaiōthē en pneumati). First aorist passive indicative of dikaioō, to declare righteous, to vindicate. Christ was vindicated in his own spirit (Heb 9:14) before men by overcoming death and rising from the dead (Ro 1:3f.).
{Seen of angels} (ōphthē aggelois). First aorist passive indicative of horaō, to see, with either the instrumental or the dative case of angels (aggelois). The words were probably suggested by the appearance of Jesus (ōphthē, the usual form for the resurrection appearances of Christ)
of the angels at the tomb and at the ascension of Christ. See Php 2:10; 1Pe 3:22 for the appearance of Jesus to the angels in heaven at the ascension. Some would take "angels" here to be "messengers" (the women).
{Preached among the nations} (ekēruchthē en ethnesin). First aorist passive indicative of kērussō, to proclaim. The word ethnos may mean "all creation" (Col 1:23) and not just Gentiles as distinct from Jews. Paul had done more of this heralding of Christ among the Gentiles than any one else. It was his glory (Eph 3:1,8). Cf. 2:7. {Believed on in the world} (episteuthē en kosmōi). First aorist indicative passive again of pisteuō, to believe (2Th 1:10). Cf. 1:15; 2Co 5:19.
{Received up in glory} (anelēmphthē en doxēi). First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn). Cf. Ro 8:29f. This time the verb is analambanō, the verb used of the ascension (Ac 1:11,22, which see). In a wonderful way this stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 3)

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