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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 4)

4:1 {Expressly} (rētōs). Late adverb, here alone in N.T., from verbal adjective rētos (from root reō). The reference is to the Holy Spirit, but whether to O.T. prophecy (Ac 1:16) or to some Christian utterance (2Th 2:2; 1Co 14:1ff.) we do not know. Parry recalls the words of Jesus in Mt 24:10,24.
{In later times} (en husterois kairois). Old adjective (Mt 21:31) usually as adverb, husteron (Mt 4:2). Relative time from the prediction, now coming true (a present danger).
{Some shall fall away} (apostēsontai tines). Future middle of aphistēmi, intransitive use, shall stand off from, to fall away, apostatize (2Co 12:8).
{From the faith} (tēs pisteōs). Ablative case (separation). Not creed, but faith in God through Christ.
{Giving heed} (prosechontes). Supply ton noun (the mind) as in 3:8. {Seducing spirits} (pneumasin planois). Old adjective (planē, wandering)
, here active sense (deceiving). As substantive in 2Co 6:8. Probably some heathen or the worst of the Gnostics. {Doctrines of devils} (didaskaliais daimoniōn). "Teachings of daimons." Definite explanation of the preceding. Cf. 1Co 10:20f.

4:2 {Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies} (en hupokrisei pseudologōn). For hupokrisis, see Ga 2:13. Pseudologos (pseudēs, legō) "Koinē" word from Aristophanes on. Here only in N.T. "A good classical word for liars on a large scale" (Parry).
{Branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron} (kekaustēriasmenōn tēn idian suneidēsin). Accusative case suneidēsin retained with the perfect passive participle of kaustēriazō, a rare verb only here and once in Strabo. Branded with the mark of Satan (2Ti 2:26) as Paul was with the marks of Christ (Ga 6:17). Agreeing in case with pseudologōn.

4:3 {Forbidding to marry} (kōluontōn gamein). Present active participle of common verb kōluō, to hinder, genitive case agreeing with pseudologōn. See Col 2:16,21f., where Paul condemns the ascetic practices of the Gnostics. The Essenes, Therapeutae and other oriental sects forbade marriage. In 1Co 7 Paul does not condemn marriage.
{To abstain from meats} (apechesthai brōmatōn). Infinitive dependent, not on kōluontōn, but on the positive idea keleuontōn (implied, not expressed). Ablative case of brōmatōn after apechesthai (present direct middle, to hold oneself away from). See 1Co 8-10; Ro 14; 15 for disputes about "meats offered to idols" and Co 1:22f. for the Gnostic asceticism.
{Which God created} (ha ho theos ektisen). First active indicative of ktizō (Co 1:16). Cf. 1Co 10:25.
{To be received} (eis metalēmpsin). "For reception." Old word, only here in N.T.
{By them that believe and know} (tois pistois kai epegnōkosi). Dative case, "for the believers and those who (one article unites closely) have known fully" (perfect active participle of epiginōskō), a Pauline use of the word (Col 1:6).

4:4 {Creature} (ktisma). Late word from ktizō, result of creating. See Ge 1:31; Mr 7:15; Ro 14:14 for the idea stated. {To be rejected} (apoblēton). Old verbal adjective in passive sense from apoballō, to throw away, here only in N.T.
{If it be received} (lambanomenon). "Being received." Present passive participle of lambanō, in conditional sense, "with thanksgiving."

4:5 {It is sanctified} (hagiazetai). Present passive indicative of hagiazō, here "rendered holy" rather than "declared holy." Cf. verse 4.
{Through the word of God and prayers} (dia logou theou kai enteuxeōs). See 2:1 for enteuxis. Paul seems to refer to Genesis 1. It is almost a hendiadys "by the use of Scripture in prayer."

4:6 {If thou put the brethren in mind of these things} (tauta hupotithemenos tois adelphois). Present middle participle of hupotithēmi, to place under, to suggest, old and common verb, here only in N.T., "suggesting these things to the brethren." {Thou shalt be a good minister of Christ Jesus} (kalos esēi diakonos Christou Iēsou). This beautiful phrase covers one's whole service for Christ (3:1-7).
{Nourished in} (entrephomenos). Present passive participle of entrephō, old verb, to nourish in, used by Plato of "nourished in the laws," here only in the N.T.
{The words of the faith} (tois logois tēs pisteōs). Locative case. The right diet for babes in Christ. The Bolshevists in Russia are feeding the children on atheism to get rid of God.
{Which thou hast followed} (hēi parēkolouthēkas). Perfect active indicative of parakoloutheō, old verb, to follow beside, of persons (often in old Greek) or of ideas and things (Lu 1:3; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 3:10). With associative instrumental case hēi (which).

4:7 {Refuse} (paraitou). Present middle imperative second person singular of paraiteō, old verb, to ask of one and then to beg off from one as in Lu 14:18f.; Ac 25:11; 1Ti 4:7; 5:11; Tit 3:10; 2Ti 2:23.
{Profane} (bebēlous). See 1:9.
{Old wives' fables} (graōdeis muthous). On muthos, see 1:4. Graōdeis, late word (Strabo, Galen) from graus, old woman, and eidos (look, appearance). Such as old women tell to children like the Gnostic aeons.
{Exercise thyself} (gumnaze seauton). Present active imperative of gumnazō, originally to exercise naked (gumnos). Old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and Heb 5:14; 12:11.

4:8 {Bodily exercise} (hē sōmatikē gumnasia). Gumnasia (from gumnazō), also a common old word, here only in N.T. So also sōmatikē (from sōma, body) in N.T. only here and Lu 3:22. {Profitable} (ōphelimos). Another old word (from ōpheleō, to help, to profit), in N.T. only here, Tit 3:8; 2Ti 3:16.
{For a little} (pros oligon). "For little." Probably extent in contrast to pros panta (for all things), though in Jas 4:14 it is time "for a little while."
{Which now is} (tēs nun). "The now life."
{Of that which is to come} (tēs mellousēs). "Of the coming (future) life."

4:9 See 1:15 for these very words, but here the phrase points to the preceding words, not to the following as there.

4:10 {To this end} (eis touto). The godliness (eusebeia) of verse 8. See 2Co 6:10 as Paul's own commentary.
{We labour} (kopiōmen, Col 1:29) {and strive} (kai agōnizometha, Col 1:29). Both Pauline words.
{Because we have set our hope} (hoti elpikamen). Perfect active indicative of elpizō (Ro 15:12). {Saviour of all men} (sōtēr pantōn anthrōpōn). See 1:1 for sōtēr applied to God as here. Not that all men "are saved" in the full sense, but God gives life (6:13) to all (Ac 17:28). {Specially of them that believe} (malista pistōn). Making a distinction in the kinds of salvation meant. "While God is potentially Saviour of all, He is actually Saviour of the pistoi" (White). So Jesus is termed "Saviour of the World" (Joh 4:42). Cf. Ga 6:10.

4:12 {Despise} (kataphroneitō). Imperative active third singular of kataphroneō, old verb, to think down on, to despise (Ro 2:4).
{Thy youth} (sou tēs neotētos). Genitive case of old word (from neos) as in Mr 10:20.
{Be thou} (ginou). Present middle imperative of ginomai. "Keep on becoming thou." {An ensample} (tupos). Old word from tuptō, a type. Pauline use of the word (1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9; Php 3:17; Tit 2:7).
{To them that believe} (tōn pistōn). Objective genitive.
{In word} (en logōi). In conversation as well as in public speech.
{In manner of life} (en anastrophēi). "In bearing" (Ga 1:13; Eph 4:22). {In purity} (en hagneiāi). Old word from hagneuō (hagnos). Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Nu 6:2,21). Only here and 5:2 in N.T.

4:13 {Till I come} (heōs erchomai). "While I am coming" (present indicative with heōs), not "till I come" (heōs elthō).
{Give heed} (proseche). Present active imperative, supply ton noun, "keep on putting thy mind on."
{The reading} (tēi anagnōsei). Old word from anaginōskō. See 2Co 3:14. Probably in particular the public reading of the Scriptures (Ac 13:15), though surely private reading is not to be excluded.
{To exhortation} (tēi paraklēsei), {to teaching} (tēi didaskaliāi). Two other public functions of the minister. Probably Paul does not mean for the exhortation to precede the instruction, but the reverse in actual public work. Exhortation needs teaching to rest it upon, a hint for preachers today.

4:14 {Neglect not} (mē amelei). Present active imperative in prohibition of ameleō, old verb, rare in N.T. (Mt 22:5; 1Ti 4:14; Heb 2:3; 8:9). From amelēs (a privative and melei, not to care). Use with genitive.
{The gift that is in thee} (tou en soi charismatos). Late word of result from charizomai, in papyri (Preisigke), a regular Pauline word in N.T. (1Co 1:7; 2Co 1:11; Ro 1:11; etc.). Here it is God's gift to Timothy as in 2Ti 1:6.
{By prophecy} (dia prophēteias). Accompanied by prophecy (1:18), not bestowed by prophecy.
{With the laying on of the hands of the presbytery} (meta epitheseōs tōn cheirōn tou presbuteriou). In Ac 13:2f., when Barnabas and Saul were formally set apart to the mission campaign (not then ordained as ministers, for they were already that), there was the call of the Spirit and the laying on of hands with prayer. Here again meta does not express instrument or means, but merely accompaniment. In 2Ti 1:6 Paul speaks only of his own laying on of hands, but the rest of the presbytery no doubt did so at the same time and the reference is to this incident. There is no way to tell when and where it was done, whether at Lystra when Timothy joined Paul's party or at Ephesus just before Paul left Timothy there (1:3). Epithesis (from epitithēmi, to lay upon) is an old word, in LXX, etc. In the N.T. we find it only here, 2Ti 1:16; Ac 8:18; Heb 6:2, but the verb epitithēmi with tas cheiras more frequently (Ac 6:6 of the deacons; 8:19; 13:3; 1Ti 5:22, etc.). Presbuterion is a late word (ecclesiastical use also), first for the Jewish Sanhedrin (Lu 22:66; Ac 22:5), then (here only in N.T.) of Christian elders (common in Ignatius), though presbuteros (elder) for preachers (bishops) is common (Ac 11:30; 15:2; 20:17, etc.).

4:15 {Be diligent in these things} (tauta meleta). Old verb from meletē (care, practice), present active imperative, "keep on practising these things." In N.T. only here and Ac 4:25. {Give thyself wholly to them} (en toutois isthi). Present imperative second person singular of eimi, "keep on in these things." Note five uses of en in verse 12 and three datives in verse 14. Plutarch (Pomp. 656 B) says Caesar was en toutois ("in these things"). It is like our "up to his ears" in work (in medias res) and sticking to his task.
{Thy progress} (sou hē prokopē). "Koinē" word from prokoptō, to cut forward, to blaze the way, in N.T. only here and Php 1:12,25. Paul's concern (purpose, hina and present subjunctive ēi of eimi) is that Timothy's "progress" may be "manifest to all." It is inspiring to see a young preacher grow for then the church will grow with him.

4:16 {Take heed to thyself} (epeche seautōi). Present active imperative of old verb epechō, to hold upon (Php 2:1,16), but here ton noun (the mind) must be supplied as in Ac 3:5 and as is common with prosechō. With dative case seautōi. "Keep on paying attention to thyself." Some young preachers are careless about their health and habits. Some are too finical.
{And to the teaching} (kai tēi didaskaliāi). This is important also. {Continue in these things} (epimene autois). Present active imperative of epimenō, old and common verb to stay by the side of a person or thing. See Ro 6:1; Col 1:23. "Stay by them," "stick to them," "see them through." "Stick to the business of framing your own life and your teaching on right lines" (Parry). {Thou shalt save} (sōseis). Future active of sōzō, effective future, finally save. Cf. 1Co 9:27; Joh 10:9.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 4)

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