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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 2)

2:1 {Putting away therefore} (apothemenoi oun). Second aorist middle participle of apotithˆmi, old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cleanse defilements (3:21; Jas 1:21) or to put off clothing (Ro 13:12; Col 3:5ff.; Eph 4:22). Either sense suits here. Therefore (oun) because of the new birth (1:23) and the new life demanded.
{Wickedness} (kakian). This old word, from kakos (evil), in the ancients meant vice of any kind and note pƒsan (all) here.
{Guile} (dolon). Old word (from del“, to catch with bait), deceit. {Hypocrisies} (hupokriseis). Singular (hupokrisin) in the best MSS. See 1:22 (anupokriton) and Mr 7:6f. for Christ's denunciation of hypocrites which the disciples did not understand, including Peter (Mt 15:16ff.).
{Envies} (phthonous). Genuine here, not phonous (murders), as B has it. For the word see Mt 27:18.
{Evil speakings} (katalalias). Late word (from katalalos, defamer, Ro 1:30), in N.T. only here and 2Co 12:20. "Backbitings." For verb see 2:12.

2:2 {As newborn babes} (h“s artigennˆta brephˆ). Brephos, old word, originally unborn child (Lu 1:41-44), then infant (Lu 2:12), here figuratively, like nˆpioi. Artigennˆta is a late and rare compound (Lucian, imperial inscription) from arti and genna“, with evident allusion to anagegennˆmenoi in 1:23, probably meaning that they were recent converts, possibly slight proof that the Epistle written before Romans by Paul (Kuhl). {Long for} (epipothˆsate). First aorist (constative) active imperative of epipothe“, old verb for intense yearning (Php 2:26).
{The spiritual milk which is without guile} (to logikon adolon gala). Gala is old word for milk as in 1Co 9:7 and as metaphor in 1Co 3:2. Adolos is an old compound (here alone in N.T.) adjective (alpha privative and dolos deceit), unadulterated milk which, alas, is so hard to get. Logikon is an old adjective in -ikos, from logos (reason, speech), in N.T. only here and Ro 12:1, used here with allusion to logou (1:23) and rˆma (1:25), "the sincere milk of the word" ("the milk belonging to the word," either the milk which is the word or the milk contained in the word, that is Christ). So Bigg holds. But in Ro 12:1 Paul uses logikon in the sense of "rational" or "spiritual," and that idea is possible here as Hort holds. In the Pelagia legend (Usener) we have the phrase t“n logik“n probat“n tou Christou (the spiritual or rational sheep of Christ).
{That ye may grow thereby} (hina en aut“i auxˆthˆte). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of auxan“, old and common verb to grow. See this same metaphor in Col 2:19; Eph 4:15. Peter uses the word of God as the food for growth, especially for babes in Christ, not emphasizing the distinction from solid food (br“ma) made in 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:13. Salvation (s“tˆrian) here is final salvation.

2:3 {If ye have tasted} (ei egeusasthe). Condition of first class with ei and first aorist middle indicative of geu“ in figurative sense as in Heb 6:4f. "A taste excites the appetite" (Bengel).
{Gracious} (chrˆstos). Quotation from Ps 34:8. The Hebrew for the LXX chrˆstos is simply "tobh" (good). Plato used the word for food also, and Peter carries out the metaphor in gala (milk) as in Lu 5:39.

2:4 {Unto whom} (pros hon). The Lord, carrying on the imagery and language of the Psalm.
{Coming} (proserchomenoi). Present middle participle masculine plural of proserchomai (proselthate in the Psalm) agreeing with the subject of oikodomeisthe.
{A living stone} (lithon z“nta). Accusative case in apposition with hon (whom, the Lord Christ). There is apparent an intentional contradiction between "living" and "stone." Cf. "living hope" in 1:3 and "living word" in 1:23. {Rejected indeed of men} (hupo anthr“p“n men apodedokimasmenon). Perfect passive participle of apodokimaz“, old verb to repudiate after test (Lu 9:22), in the accusative case agreeing with lithon.
{But with God} (para de the“i). "By the side of God," as he looks at it, in contrast with the rejection "by men" (hupo anthr“p“n).
{Elect} (eklekton). From Isa 28:6 as in entimon (precious, for which see Lu 7:2) rather than dokimon (proved) expected after apodedokimasmenon as meaning far more in God's sight, "a pre-eminence of position with" (Hort).

2:5 {Ye also as living stones} (kai autoi h“s lithoi z“ntes). Peter applies the metaphor about Christ as the living stone to the readers, "ye yourselves also."
{Are built up a spiritual house} (oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). Present passive indicative second person plural of oikodome“, the very verb used by Jesus to Peter in Mt 16:18 (oikodomˆs“) of building his church on the rock. If the metaphor of a house of living stones seems "violent" (Vincent), it should be remembered that Jesus employed the figure of a house of believers. Peter just carried it a bit farther and Paul uses a temple for believers in one place (1Co 3:16) and for the kingdom of God in general (Eph 2:22), as does the author of Hebrews (Heb 3:6). This "spiritual house" includes believers in the five Roman provinces of 1:1 and shows clearly how Peter understood the metaphor of Christ in Mt 16:18 to be not a local church, but the church general (the kingdom of Christ).
{To be a holy priesthood} (eis hierateuma hagion). Late word (from hierateu“, to serve as priest, Lu 1:8 alone in N.T.), in LXX (Ex 19:6), in N.T. only here and verse 9, either the office of priest (Hort) or an order or body of priests. At any rate, Peter has the same idea of Rev 1:6 (hiereis, priests) that all believers are priests (Heb 4:16) and can approach God directly.
{To offer up} (anenegkai). First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of anapher“, the usual word for offering sacrifices (Heb 7:27). Only these are "spiritual" (pneumatikas) as pictured also in Heb 13:15f.
{Acceptable} (euprosdektous). Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (eu, pros, dechomai) as in 2Co 6:2.

2:6 {It is contained} (periechei). Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of periech“, old verb, to surround, transitive in Lu 5:9 to seize (only other N.T. example). The formula with periechei is in Josephus ("Ant". XI. 7). This Scripture (en graphˆi) is Isa 28:16 with some changes. Peter had in verse 4 already quoted eklekton and entimon. Now note akrog“niaion (a chief corner stone), a word apparently invented by Isaiah (from akros, highest, and g“niaios, Attic word for corner stone). Paul in Eph 2:20 uses the same word, making Christ the chief corner stone (the only other N.T. example). In Isaiah the metaphor is rather a foundation stone. Peter and Paul make it "the primary foundation stone at the structure" (W. W. Lloyd).
{On him} (ep' aut“i). That is, "on it" (this corner stone, that is, Christ).
{Shall not be put to shame} (ou mˆ kataischunthˆi). Strong negatives ou mˆ with first aorist passive subjunctive of kataischun“, old verb, to put to shame (Ro 5:5).

2:7 {The preciousness} (hˆ timˆ). Or "the honour." Explanation of entimon and ou mˆ kataischunthˆi and only true "for you which believe" (tois pisteuousin ethical dative of articular present active participle of pisteu“ to believe).
{But for such as disbelieve} (apistousin de). Dative present active participle again of apiste“, opposite of pisteu“ (Lu 24:11).
{Was made the head of the corner} (egenˆthˆ eis kephalˆn g“nias). This verse is from Ps 118:22 with evident allusion to Isa 28:16 (kephalˆn g“nias=akrog“niaion). See Mt 21:42; Mr 12:10; Lu 20:17, where Jesus himself quotes Ps 118:22 and applies the rejection of the stone by the builders (hoi oikodomountes, the experts) to the Sanhedrin's conduct toward him. Peter quoted it also (and applied it as Jesus had done) in his speech at the Beautiful Gate (Ac 4:11). Here he quotes it again to the same purpose.

2:8 {And} (kai). Peter now quotes Isa 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed "a stone of stumbling (lithos proskommatos) and rock of offence (petra skandalou)," quoted also by Paul in Ro 9:32f., which see for discussion. Proskomma (from proskopt“, to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while skandalon is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between lithos (a loose stone in the path) and petra (a ledge rising out of the ground).
{For they} (hoi). Causal use of the relative pronoun. {Stumble at the word, being disobedient} (proskoptousin t“i log“i apeithountes). Present active indicative of proskopt“ with dative case, log“i, and present active participle of apeithe“ (cf. apistousin in 2:7) as in 3:1. T“i log“i can be construed with apeithountes (stumble, being disobedient to the word).
{Whereunto also they were appointed} (eis ho kai etethˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of tithˆmi. See this idiom in 1Ti 2:7. "Their disobedience is not ordained, the penalty of their disobedience is" (Bigg). They rebelled against God and paid the penalty.

2:9 {But ye} (humeis de). In contrast with the disobedient ones.
{An elect race} (genos eklekton). From Isa 43:20. The blood relation of the spiritual Israel (not the Jewish race) through the new birth (1:23).
{A royal priesthood} (basileion hierateuma). From Ex 19:6 (cf. Re 1:6; 5:10). The official in Christian churches is presbuteros=episcopos, not hiereus. We are all hiereis (priests). Cf. 2:5.
{A holy nation} (ethnos hagion). Also from Ex 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles).
{A people for God's own possession} (laos eis peripoiˆsin). The idea here occurs in Ex 19:5; De 7:6; 14:2; 26:18, where we have laos periousios as in Tit 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Mal 3:17 we find eis peripoiˆsin (for a possession). Periousios laos is a people over and above the others and peripoiˆsis is a possession in a special sense (Eph 1:14). See Paul's use of periepoiˆsato in Ac 20:28. The old rendering, "a peculiar people," had this idea of possession, for "peculiar" is from "pecus" (Latin for flock). {That ye may shew forth} (hop“s exaggeilˆte). Purpose clause with hop“s, rather than hina, with the first aorist active subjunctive of exaggell“, old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.
{The excellencies} (tas aretas). From Isa 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for "virtue," but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2Pe 1:3,5; Php 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isa 42:12. See Ac 2:11 ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God).
{Darkness} (skotous). Heathenism.
{His marvellous light} (to thaumaston autou ph“s). Christianity. For thaumaston (from thaumaz“) see Mt 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Col 1:12; Eph 5:8-14.

2:10 {Which in time past} (hoi pote). "Who once upon a time." {No people} (ou laos). This phrase from Hos 2:23. Note use of ou (not oudeis) with laos like Hebrew negative.
{Which had not obtained mercy} (hoi ouk eleˆmenoi). Perfect passive articular participle of elee“ and the emphatic negative ou, with which compare Paul's use of Ho 1; 2 in Ro 9:25, which may have been known to Peter or not.
{But now have obtained mercy} (nun de eleˆthentes). Change to first aorist passive participle from "the long antecedent state" to "the single event of conversion which ended it" (Hort).

2:11 {As sojourners and pilgrims} (h“s paroikous kai parepidˆmous). This combination from the LXX (Ge 33:4; Ps 39:13). See 1:1 for parepidˆmos and 1:17 for paroikia and Eph 2:19 for paroikos (only there and here in N.T., Christians whose fatherland is heaven).
{To abstain from} (apechesthai). Present middle (direct) infinitive of apech“, old verb, to hold back from (1Th 4:3). In indirect command (to keep on abstaining from) after parakal“ (I beseech). With the ablative case t“n sarkik“n epithumi“n, the grosser sins of the flesh (for sarkikos see 1Co 3:3) like the list in 4:3. {Which} (haitines). "Which very ones." Like Latin "quippe qui". {War against the soul} (strateuontai kata tˆs psuchˆs). Present middle indicative of strateu“, to carry on a campaign (Jas 4:1). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Ga 5:16-24.

2:12 {Seemly} (kalˆn). Predicate adjective with anastrophˆn, for which see 1:15,18. The Gentiles are on the watch for slips in moral conduct by the Christians.
{That} (hina). Final conjunction with doxas“sin (they may glorify, first aorist active subjunctive of doxaz“, the purpose of the Christians about the Gentiles).
{Wherein} (en h“i). "In what thing."
{As evil-doers} (h“s kakopoi“n). As they did and do, old word (from kakon and poie“, Joh 18:30), in N.T. only here and verse 14 in correct text. Heathen talk against us (katalalousin) gleefully.
{By your good works} (ek t“n kal“n erg“n). "Out of (as a result of) your good (beautiful) deeds."
{Which they behold} (epopteuontes). Present active participle of epopteu“, old verb (from, epoptˆs, overseer, spectator, 2Pe 1:16), to be an overseer, to view carefully, in N.T. only here and 3:2.
{In the day of visitation} (en hˆmerƒi episkopˆs). From Isa 10:33. Cf. its use in Lu 19:44, which see for the word episkopˆ (from episkope“, to inspect Heb 12:15). Clear echo here of Mt 5:16.

2:13 {Be subject to} (hupotagˆte). Second aorist passive imperative second person plural of hupotass“, to subject to, as in 3:22.
{Every ordinance of man} (pasˆi anthr“pinˆi ktisei). Dative case of old and common word ktisis (from ktiz“, to create, to found), act of creation (Ro 1:20), a creature or creation (Ro 1:25), all creation (Col 1:15), an institution as here (in Pindar so). For anthr“pinos (human) see Jas 3:7. Peter here approves no special kind of government, but he supports law and order as Paul does (Ro 13:1-8) unless it steps in between God and man (Ac 4:20).
{For the Lord's sake} (dia ton kurion). For Jesus' sake. That is reason enough for the Christian not to be an anarchist (Mt 22:21). The heathen were keen to charge the Christians with any crime after Nero set the fashion. "It should not be forgotten that, in spite of the fine language of the philosophers, the really popular religions in Greece and Rome were forms of devil-worship, intimately blended with magic in all its grades" (Bigg).
{As supreme} (h“s huperechonti). Dative singular of present active participle of huperech“, old verb (intransitive), to stand out above (to have it over), as in Ro 13:1. It is not the divine right of kings, but the fact of the king as the outstanding ruler.

2:14 {Unto governors} (hˆgemosin). Dative again of hˆgem“n, a leader (from hˆgeomai, to lead), old and common word (Mt 10:18).
{As sent by him} (h“s di' autou pempomenois). Present passive participle of pemp“. Di' autou is "by God," as Jesus made plain to Pilate; even Pilate received his authority ultimately "from above" (Joh 18:11).
{For vengeance on evil-doers} (eis ekdikˆsin kakopoi“n). Objective genitive with ekdikˆsin, for which see Lu 18:7f.
{For praise to them that do well} (epainon agathopoi“n). Objective genitive again, agathopoios, a late word (Plutarch, Sirach) from agathon and poie“ here only in N.T. Found in a magical papyrus.

2:15 {By well-doing} (agathopoiountas). Present active participle of agathopoie“, only in LXX and N.T. (Mr 3:4). In accusative case agreeing with humas understood, accusative of general reference with phimoin, present active infinitive (epexegetic infinitive after to thelˆma tou theou, the will of God), late and rare verb (from phimos muzzle), as in Mt 22:12.
{The ignorance of foolish men} (tˆn t“n aphron“n anthr“p“n agn“sian). Agn“sia is late and rare word (in the papyri) from alpha privative and gn“sis (knowledge), in N.T. only here and 1Co 15:24 (disgraceful ignorance in both instances). Note alliteration.

2:16 {As free} (h“s eleutheroi). Note nominative again connected with hupotagˆte in verse 13, not with phimoin in verse 14 (a parenthesis in fact). For this ethical sense of eleutheros see Ga 4:26.
{And not using your freedom} (kai mˆ echontes tˆn eleutherian). "And not holding your liberty" (present active participle of ech“, with usual negative with participle).
{For a cloke of wickedness} (h“s epikalumma tˆs kakias). Epikalumma (from epikalupt“ Ro 4:7) is a rare word (Aristotle, LXX) for veil, here only in N.T. and in figurative sense for pretext to do wickedness under, a thing, alas, that sometimes happens.
{But as bondservants of God} (all' h“s theou douloi). Paul's proud title. There is no such thing as absolute freedom (personal freedom), for that is anarchy. Cf. Ro 6:22 "enslaved to God."

2:17 {Honour all men} (pantas timˆsate). Not with the same honour. Constative use of the aorist imperative.
{Love the brotherhood} (tˆn adelphotˆta agapƒte). Present active imperative of agapa“, keep on doing it. Note the abstract adelphotˆs (from adelphos, brother) in the collective sense, rare save in ecclesiastical literature, though in I Macc. 12:10; IV Macc. 10:3, and in late papyri. It is a word for all Christians.
{Fear God} (ton theon phobeisthe). In both senses of reverence and dread, and keep it up (present middle imperative).
{Honour the king} (ton basilea timƒte). Keep that up also. A fine motto in this verse.

2:18 {Servants} (hoi oiketai). Note article with the class as with andres (3:7), though not with gunaikes (3:1). Oiketˆs, old word from oikos (house), means one in the same house with another (Latin "domesticus"), particularly house servants (slaves) in distinction from the general term doulos (slave). "Ye domestics." See similar directions to Christian servants (slaves) in Col 3:22-25; Eph 6:5-7; 1Ti 6:1f.; Tit 2:9f. Oiketˆs in N.T. occurs only here, Lu 16:13; Ac 10:7; Ro 14:4.
{Be in subjection} (hupotassomenoi). Present middle participle of hupotass“, common late compound to subject oneself to one (Lu 2:51). Either the participle is here used as an imperative (so in 3:1,7) as in Ro 12:16f., or the imperative este has to be supplied (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 945).
{To your masters} (tois despotais). Dative case of despotˆs, old word for absolute owner in contrast with doulos. It is used also of God (Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24,29) and of Christ (2Pe 2:1; Jude 1:4). Kurios has a wider meaning and not necessarily suggesting absolute power.
{To the good and gentle} (tois agathois kai epieikesin). Dative case also with the article with class. For epieikˆs see on ŻJas 3:17. There were slave-owners (masters) like this as there are housekeepers and employers of workmen today. This is no argument for slavery, but only a sidelight on a condition bad enough at its best.
{To the froward} (tois skoliois). "To the crooked." Old word, also in Lu 3:5; Ac 2:40; Php 2:15. Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are employers today, like this group. The test of obedience comes precisely toward this group.

2:19 {For this is acceptable} (touto gar charis). "For this thing (neuter singular touto, obedience to crooked masters) is grace" (charis is feminine, here "thanks" as in Ro 7:25). "Acceptable" calls for euprosdekton (2:5), which is not the text here.
{If a man endureth griefs} (ei huopherei tis lupas). Condition of first class with ei and present active indicative of hupopher“, old verb, to bear up under, in N.T. only here, 1Co 10:13; 2Ti 3:11. Note plural of lupˆ (grief).
{For conscience toward God} (dia suneidˆsin theou). Suffering is not a blessing in and of itself, but, if one's duty to God is involved (Ac 4:20), then one can meet it with gladness of heart. Theou (God) is objective genitive. For suneidˆsis (conscience) see on ŻAc 23:1; 1Co 8:7. It occurs again in 1Pe 3:16.
{Suffering wrongfully} (pasch“n adik“s). Present active participle of pasch“ and the common adverb adik“s, unjustly, here alone in N.T. This is the whole point, made clear already by Jesus in Mt 5:10-12, where Jesus has also "falsely" (pseudomenoi). See also Lu 6:32-34.

2:20 {For what glory} (poion gar kleos). Qualitative interrogative (what kind of glory). "What price glory?" Kleos is old word from kle“ (kale“, to call), report, praise, glory, here only in N.T.
{If ye shall take it patiently} (ei hupomeneite). First-class condition with ei and future active indicative of hupomen“, for which see Jas 1:12. Same condition also in next sentence (all' ei, etc.).
{When ye sin} (hamartanontes). Present active participle of hamartan“ (continued repetition).
{And are buffeted for it} (kai kolaphizomenoi). Present passive participle of kolaphiz“, late word (from kolaphos fist), only in N.T. (cf. Mt 26:67) and ecclesiastical writers. Repeated action again. No posing as a martyr allowed here. Christians do sometimes deserve persecution, as Jesus implied (Mt 5:10-12).
{When ye do well} (agathopoiountes). Present active participle of agathopoie“ as in verse 15.
{And suffer for it} (kai paschontes). Present active participle of pasch“ (verse 19). No "for it" in the Greek here or in the previous sentence.
{This is acceptable with God} (touto charis para the“i). "This thing (neuter) is thanks (verse 19) by the side of (para) God (as God looks at it)."

2:21 {For hereunto were ye called} (eis touto gar eklˆthˆte). First aorist indicative of kale“, to call. They were called to suffer without flinching (Hort), if need be.
{Because} (hoti). The fact that Christ suffered (epathen) lifts their suffering to a new plane.
{Leaving you an example} (humin hupolimpan“n hupogrammon). Present active participle of the late Ionic verb hupolimpan“ (in the papyri) for the common hupoleip“, to leave behind (under), here only in N.T. Hupogrammos is also a late and rare word (from hupograph“, to write under), a writing-copy for one to imitate, in II Macc. 2:28; Philo, Clement of Rome, here only in N.T. Clement of Alex. ("Strom". V. 8. 49) uses it of the copy-head at the top of a child's exercise book for the child to imitate, including all the letters of the alphabet. The papyri give many examples of hupographˆ and hupograph“ in the sense of copying a letter.
{That ye should follow his steps} (hina epakolouthˆsˆte tois ichnesin autou). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of epakolouthe“, old verb, to follow closely upon, with the associative-instrumental (1Ti 5:10,24) or the locative here. Ichnos is old word (from hik“, to go), tracks, footprints, in N.T. only here, 2Co 12:18; Ro 4:12. Peter does not mean that Christ suffered only as an example (1:18), but he did leave us his example for our copying (1Jo 2:6).

2:22 {Who did no sin} (hos hamartian ouk epoiˆsen). Quotation from Isa 53:9. He has already expressed the sinlessness of Christ in 1:19. The next clause is a combination of Isa 53:9; Zep 3:13. For "guile" (dolos) see verse 1.
{Was found} (heurethˆ). First aorist passive indicative of heurisk“. Christ's guilelessness stood the test of scrutiny (Vincent), as Peter knew (Mt 26:60; Joh 18:38; 19:4,6).

2:23 {When he was reviled} (loidoroumenos). Present passive participle of loidore“, old verb (from loidoros, reviler, 1Co 5:11) as in Joh 9:28.
{Reviled not again} (ouk anteloidorei). Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of antiloidore“, late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one papyrus example with compound following the simplex verb as here, Moulton and Milligan's "Vocabulary"), here only in N.T. Idiomatic use of anti (in turn, return, back).
{Threatened not} (ouk ˆpeilei). Imperfect again (repeated acts) of apeile“, old compound (from apeilˆ, threat, Ac 9:1), in N.T. only here and Ac 4:17.
{But committed himself} (paredidou de). Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of paradid“mi, to hand over, usually of one to a judge, but here not of another (as the Sanhedrin), but himself (supply heauton), for Jesus uses this very idea in Lu 23:46 as he dies. Jesus thus handed himself and his cause over to the Father who judges righteously (t“i krinonti dikai“s, dative of present active articular participle of krin“).

2:24 {Who his own self} (hos autos). Intensive pronoun with the relative referring to Christ (note relatives also in verses 22,23).
{Bare our sins} (anˆnegken tas hamartias hˆm“n). Second aorist active indicative of anapher“, common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar. Combination here of Isa 53:12; De 21:23. Jesus is the perfect sin offering (Heb 9:28). For Christ's body (s“ma) as the offering see 1Co 11:24. "Here St. Peter puts the Cross in the place of the altar" (Bigg).
{Upon the tree} (epi to xulon). Not tree here as in Lu 23:31, originally just wood (1Co 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Ac 5:30; 10:39; and by Paul in Ga 3:13 (quoting De 21:23).
{Having died unto sins} (tais hamartiais apogenomenoi). Second aorist middle participle of apoginomai, old compound to get away from, with dative (as here) to die to anything, here only in N.T.
{That we might live unto righteousness} (hina tˆi dikaiosunˆi zˆs“men). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of za“ with the dative (cf. Ro 6:20). Peter's idea here is like that of Paul in Ro 6:1-23, especially verses 2,10f.).
{By whose stripes ye were healed} (hou t“i m“l“pi iathˆte). From Isa 53:5. First aorist passive indicative of iaomai, common verb to heal (Jas 5:16) and the instrumental case of m“l“ps, rare word (Aristotle, Plutarch) for bruise or bloody wound, here only in N.T. Cf. 1:18. Writing to slaves who may have received such stripes, Peter's word is effective.

2:25 {For ye were going astray like sheep} (ˆte gar h“s probata plan“menoi). Brought from Isa 53:6, but changed to periphrastic imperfect indicative with ˆte and present middle participle of plana“, to wander away. Recall the words of Jesus in Lu 15:4-7.
{But are now returned} (alla epestraphˆte). Second aorist passive indicative of epistreph“, old verb, to turn, to return (Mt 10:13).
{Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls} (epi ton poimena kai episkopon t“n psuch“n hum“n). Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd (Joh 10:11, and see also Heb 13:20). Here alone is Christ called our "Bishop" (overseer). See both ideas combined in Eze 34:11. Philo calls God Episcopos. Jesus is also Apostolos Heb 3:1) and he deserves all other titles of dignity that we can give him.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 2)

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