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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 1)

1:1 {Peter} (Petros). Greek form for the Aramaic (Chaldaic) Cˆphƒs, the nickname given Simon by Jesus when he first saw him (Joh 1:42) and reaffirmed in the Greek form on his great confession (Mt 16:18), with an allusion to petra, another form for a rock, ledge, or cliff. In 2Pe 1:1 we have both Sim“n and Petros. Paul in his Epistles always terms himself Paul, not Saul. So Peter uses this name, not Cephas or Simon, because he is writing to Christians scattered over Asia Minor. The nominative absolute occurs here as in Jas 1:1, but without chairein as there, the usual form of greeting in letters (Ac 23:26) so common in the papyri.
{An apostle of Jesus Christ} (apostolos Iˆsou Christou). This is his official title, but in 2Pe 1:1 doulos is added, which occurs alone in Jas 1:1. In II and III John we have only ho presbuteros (the elder), as Peter terms himself sunpresbuteros in 1Pe 5:1. Paul's usage varies greatly: only the names in I and II Thessalonians, the title apostolos added and defended in Galatians and Romans as also in I and II Corinthians and Colossians and Ephesians and II Timothy with "by the will of God" added, and in I Timothy with the addition of "according to the command of God." In Philippians Paul has only "\doulos (slave) Christou Iˆsou," like James and Jude. In Romans and Titus Paul has both doulos and apostolos, like II Peter, while in Philemon he uses only desmios (prisoner) Iˆsou Christou.
{To the elect} (eklektois). Without article (with the article in Mt 24:22,24,31) and dative case, "to elect persons" (viewed as a group). Bigg takes eklektois (old, but rare verbal adjective from ekleg“, to pick out, to select) as an adjective describing the next word, "to elect sojourners." That is possible and is like genos eklekton in 2:9. See the distinction between klˆtoi (called) and eklektoi (chosen) in Mt 22:14.
{Who are sojourners} (parepidˆmois). Late double compound adjective (para, epidˆmountes, Ac 2:10, to sojourn by the side of natives), strangers sojourning for a while in a particular place. So in Polybius, papyri, in LXX only twice (Ge 23:4; 38 or 39 12), in N.T. only here, 2:11; Heb 11:13. The picture in the metaphor here is that heaven is our native country and we are only temporary sojourners here on earth.
{Of the Dispersion} (diasporƒs). See Joh 7:35 for literal sense of the word for scattered (from diaspeir“, to scatter abroad, Ac 8:1) Jews outside of Palestine, and Jas 1:1 for the sense here to Jewish Christians, including Gentile Christians (only N T. examples). Note absence of the article, though a definite conception (of the Dispersion). The Christian is a pilgrim on his way to the homeland. These five Roman provinces include what we call Asia Minor north and west of the Taurus mountain range (Hort). Hort suggests that the order here suggests that Silvanus (bearer of the Epistle) was to land in Pontus from the Euxine Sea, proceed through Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, to Bithynia, where he would re-embark for Rome. This, he holds, explains the separation of Pontus and Bithynia, though the same province. Only Galatia and Asia are mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. as having Christian converts, but the N.T. by no means gives a full account of the spread of the Gospel, as can be judged from Col 1:6,23.

1:2 {According to} (kata). Probably to be connected with eklektois rather than with apostolos in spite of a rather loose arrangement of words and the absence of articles in verses 1,2.
{The foreknowledge} (progn“sin). Late substantive (Plutarch, Lucian, papyri) from progin“sk“ (1:20), to know beforehand, only twice in N.T. (here and Ac 2:23 in Peter's sermon). In this Epistle Peter often uses substantives rather than verbs (cf. Ro 8:29).
{Of God the Father} (theou patros). Anarthous again and genitive case. See patˆr applied to God also in 1:3,17 as often by Paul (Ro 1:7, etc.). Peter here presents the Trinity (God the Father, the Spirit, Jesus Christ). {In sanctification of the Spirit} (en hagiasm“i pneumatos). Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like theou patros. Late word from hagiaz“, to render holy (hagios), to consecrate, as in 1Th 4:7. The subjective genitive here, sanctification wrought by the Spirit as in 2Th 2:13 (where the Trinity mentioned as here).
{Unto obedience} (eis hupakoˆn). Obedience (from hupakou“, to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 1:22 "to the truth," result of "the sanctification."
{And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ} (rantismon haimatos Iˆsou Christou). Late substantive from rantiz“, to sprinkle (Heb 9:13), a word used in the LXX of the sacrifices (Nu 19:9,13,20, etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Heb 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Heb 9:19f.; 12:24 with allusion to Ex 24:3-8. Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does (Mt 26:28; Mr 14:24). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Re 7:14f.; 12:11, but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon progn“sis theou, hagiasmos pneumatos, haima Christou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ.
{Be multiplied} (plˆthuntheiˆ). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of plˆthun“, old verb (from plˆthus, fulness), in a wish. So in 2Pe 1:2; Jude 1:2, but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (charis kai eirˆnˆ) occur together in 2Pe 1:2, in 2Jo 1:2 (with eleos), and in all Paul's Epistles (with eleos added in I and II Timothy).

1:3 {Blessed be} (eulogˆtos). No copula in the Greek (est“, let be, or estin, is, or eiˆ, may be). The verbal adjective (from euloge“) occurs in the N.T. only of God, as in the LXX (Lu 1:68). See also 2Co 1:3; Eph 1:3.
{The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ} (ho theos kai patˆr tou kuriou hˆm“n Iˆsou Christou). This precise language in 2Co 1:3; Eph I:3; and part of it in 2Co 11:31; Ro 15:6. See Joh 20:17 for similar language by Jesus.
{Great} (polu). Much.
{Begat us again} (anagennˆsas hˆmƒs). First aorist active articular (ho, who)
participle of anagenna“, late, and rare word to beget again, in Aleph for "Sirach" ("Prol". 20), in Philo, in Hermetic writings, in N.T. only here and verse 23. "It was probably borrowed by the New Paganism from Christianity" (Bigg). The Stoics used anagennˆsis for palingenesia (Tit 3:5). If an“then in Joh 3:3 be taken to mean "again," the same idea of regeneration is there, and if "from above" it is the new birth, anyhow.
{Unto a living hope} (eis elpida z“san). Peter is fond of the word "living" (present active participle of za“) as in 1:23; 2:4,5,24; 4:5,6. The Pharisees cherished the hope of the resurrection (Ac 23:6), but the resurrection of Jesus gave it proof and permanence (1Co 15:14,17). It is no longer a dead hope like dead faith (Jas 2:17,26). This revival of hope was wrought "by the resurrection of Jesus Christ" (dia anastase“s). Hope rose up with Christ from the dead, though the disciples (Peter included) were slow at first to believe it.

1:4 {Unto an inheritance} (eis klˆronomian). Old word (from klˆronomos, heir) for the property received by the heir (Mt 21:38), here a picture of the blessedness in store for us pilgrims (Ga 3:18).
{Incorruptible} (aphtharton). Old compound adjective (alpha privative and phtheir“, to corrupt), imperishable. So many inheritances vanish away before they are obtained.
{Undefiled} (amianton). Old verbal adjective (note alliteration) from alpha privative and miain“, to defile, without defect or flaw in the title, in N.T. only here, Jas 1:27; Heb 13:4.
{That fadeth not away} (amaranton). Alliterative and verbal adjective again from alpha privative and marain“ (to dry up, to wither, as in Jas 1:11), late and rare word in several inscriptions on tombs, here only in N.T. These inscriptions will fade away, but not this inheritance in Christ. It will not be like a faded rose.
{Reserved} (tetˆrˆmenˆn). Perfect passive participle of tˆre“, old verb, to take care of, to guard. No burglars or bandits can break through where this inheritance is kept (Mt 6:19f.; Joh 17:11f.). Cf. Col 1:5, where laid away" (apokeimenˆn) occurs.
{For you} (eis humas). More graphic than the mere dative.

1:5 {By the power of God} (en dunamei theou). No other dunamis (power) like this (Col 1:3).
{Are guarded} (phrouroumenous). Present (continuous process) passive articular (tous) participle of phroure“, to garrison, old verb (from phrouros sentinel), a military term (Ac 9:24; 2Co 11:32), used of God's love (Php 4:7) as here. "The inheritance is kept; the heirs are guarded" (Bengel).
{Through faith} (dia piste“s). Intermediate agency (dia), the immediate being (en, in, by) God's power.
{Unto a salvation} (eis s“tˆrian). Deliverance is the goal (eis) of the process and final salvation here, consummation as in 1Th 5:8, from s“tˆr (Saviour, from s“z“, to save).
{Ready} (hetoimˆn). Prepared awaiting God's will (Ga 3:23; Ro 8:18).
{To be revealed} (apokaluphthˆnai). First aorist passive infinitive of apokalupt“, to unveil. Cf. Col 3:4 for phanero“ (to manifest) in this sense.
{In the last time} (en kair“i eschat“i). This precise phrase nowhere else, but similar ones in Joh 6:39; Ac 2:17; Jas 5:3; 2Ti 3:1; 2Pe 3:3; He 1:2; Jude 1:18; 1Jo 2:18. Hort translates it here "in a season of extremity," but it is usually taken to refer to the Day of Judgment. That day no one knows, Jesus said.

1:6 {Wherein} (en h“i). This translation refers the relative h“i to kair“i, but it is possible to see a reference to Christou (verse 3) or to theou (verse 5) or even to the entire content of verses 3-5. Either makes sense, though possibly kair“i is correct.
{Ye greatly rejoice} (agalliƒsthe). Present middle indicative (rather than imperative) of agalliaomai, late verb from agallomai, to rejoice, only in LXX, N.T., and ecclesiastical literature as in Mt 5:12.
{Now for a little while} (oligon arti). Accusative case of time (oligon) probably as in Mr 6:31, though it can be used of space (to a small extent) as in Lu 5:3.
{If need be} (ei deon). Present active neuter singular participle of dei (it is necessary). Some MSS. have estin after deon (periphrastic construction). Condition of first class.
{Though ye have been put to grief} (lupˆthentes). First aorist passive participle (concessive circumstantial use) of lupe“, to make sorrowful (from lupˆ, sorrow), old and common verb. See 2Co 6:10.
{In manifold temptations} (en poikilois peirasmois). Just the phrase in Jas 1:2, which see for discussion. "Trials" clearly right here as there. Seven N.T. writers use poikilos (varied).

1:7 {The proof of your faith} (to dokimion hum“n tˆs piste“s). The identical phrase in Jas 1:3 and probably derived from there by Peter. See there for discussion of to dokimion (the test or touchstone of faith).
{Being more precious} (polutimoteron). No word for "being" (on) in the Greek. The secondary uncials have polu timi“teron. The text is the comparative of polutimos, late adjective (Plutarch) from polu and timˆ (of great price) as in Mt 13:46.
{Than gold} (chrusiou). Ablative case after the comparative adjective.
{That perisheth} (tou apollumenou). Present middle articular participle of apollumi to destroy. Even gold perishes (wears away).
{Though it is proved by fire} (dia puros de dokimazomenou). Present passive articular participle (in the ablative like chrusiou) of dokimaz“ (common verb for testing metals) with de, which gives a concessive sense to the participle. Faith stands the test of fire better than gold, but even gold is refined by fire.
{That might be found} (hina heurethˆi). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of heurisk“, common verb, to find. As in 2Pe 3:14, this is the result of the probation by God as the Refiner of hearts.
{Unto praise and glory and honour} (eis epainon kai doxan kai timˆn). Here probably both to God and man in the result. Cf. Mt 5:11f.; Ro 2:7,10; 1Ti 1:17.
{At the revelation of Jesus Christ} (en apokalupsei Iˆsou Christou). So also in 1:13; 4:13; 2Th 1:7; 1Co 1:7; Lu 17:30 of the second coming of Christ as the Judge and Rewarder (Bigg).

1:8 {Whom} (hon). Relative referring to Christ just before and accusative case, object of both idontes and agapate (ye love).
{Not having seen} (ouk idontes). Second aorist active participle of hora“, to see, with ouk rather than because it negatives an actual experience in contrast with mˆ hor“ntes (though not seeing, hypothetical case). On whom (eis hon) with pisteuontes common construction for "believing on" (pisteu“ eis). It is possible that Peter here has in mind the words of Jesus to Thomas as recorded in Joh 20:29 ("Happy are those not seeing and yet believing"). Peter was present and heard the words of Jesus to Thomas, and so he could use them before John wrote his Gospel.
{Ye rejoice greatly} (agalliƒte). Same form as in verse 6, only active here instead of middle.
{With joy} (charƒi). Instrumental case (manner).
{Unspeakable} (aneklalˆt“i). Late and rare double compound verbal (alpha privative and eklale“), here only in N.T., in Dioscorides and Heliodorus, "unutterable," like Paul's "indescribable" (anekdiˆgˆtos) gift (2Co 9:15, here alone in N.T.).
{Full of glory} (dedoxasmenˆi). Perfect passive participle of doxaz“, to glorify, "glorified joy," like the glorified face of Moses (Ex 34:29ff.; 2Co 3:10).

1:9 {Receiving} (komizomenoi). Present middle participle of komiz“, old verb, to receive back, to get what is promised (5:4; Heb 10:36).
{The end of your faith} (to telos tˆs piste“s). The conclusion, the culmination of faith (2Co 3:13; Ro 2:21f.; 10:4). See Heb 12:2 of Jesus as "Pioneer and Perfecter of Faith."
{Even the salvation of your souls} (s“tˆrian psuch“n). No "even" in the text, just the accusative of apposition with telos, viz., final salvation.

1:10 {Concerning which salvation} (peri hˆs s“tˆrias). Another relative clause (taking up s“tˆria from verse 9 and incorporating it) in this long sentence (verses 3-12, inclusive, all connected by relatives). Peter lingers over the word s“tˆria (salvation) with something new to say each time (Bigg). Here it is the general sense of the gospel of grace. {Sought} (exezˆtˆsan). First aorist active indicative of ekzˆte“, to seek out (Ac 15:17), late and rare compound, only in LXX and N.T. save once in Aristides.
{Searched diligently} (exˆraunˆsan). First aorist active indicative of exerauna“, old and common compound (exereuna“), to search out diligently, here only in N.T. Both of these words occur together in I Macc. 9:26.
{Of the grace that should come unto you} (peri tˆs eis humas charitos). "Concerning the for you grace" (meant for you).

1:11 {Searching} (eraun“ntes). Present active participle of erauna“, late form for older ereuna“ (both in the papyri), uncompounded verb (Joh 7:52), the compound occurring in verse 10 above.
{What time or what manner of time} (eis tina ˆ poion kairon). Proper sense of poios (qualitative interrogative) kept here as in 1Co 15:35, Ro 3:27, though it is losing its distinctive sense from tis (Ac 23:34). The prophets knew what they prophesied, but not at what time the Messianic prophecies would be fulfilled.
{The Spirit of Christ which was in them} (to en autois pneuma Christou). Peter definitely asserts here that the Spirit of Jesus Christ (the Messiah) was in the Old Testament prophets, the Holy Spirit called the Spirit of Christ and the Spirit of God (Ro 8:9), who spoke to the prophets as he would speak to the apostles (Joh 16:14).
{Did point unto} (edˆlou). Imperfect active of dˆlo“, to make plain, "did keep on pointing to," though they did not clearly perceive the time.
{When it testified beforehand} (promarturomenon). Present middle participle of promarturomai, a late compound unknown elsewhere save in a writer of the fourteenth century (Theodorus Mech.) and now in a papyrus of the eighth. It is neuter here because pneuma is neuter, but this grammatical gender should not be retained as "it" in English, but should be rendered "he" (and so as to Ac 8:15). Here we have predictive prophecy concerning the Messiah, though some modern critics fail to find predictions of the Messiah in the Old Testament.
{The sufferings of Christ} (ta eis Christon pathˆmata). "The sufferings for (destined for) Christ" like the use of eis in verse 10 (eis humas for you).
{The glories that should follow them} (tas meta tauta doxas). "The after these things (sufferings) glories." The plural of doxa is rare, but occurs in Ex 15:11; Ho 9:11. The glories of Christ followed the sufferings as in 4:13; 5:1,6.

1:12 {To whom} (hois). Dative plural of the relative pronoun. To the prophets who were seeking to understand. Bigg observes that "the connexion between study and inspiration is a great mystery." Surely, but that is no argument for ignorance or obscurantism. We do the best that we can and only skirt the shore of knowledge, as Newton said.
{It was revealed} (apekaluphthˆ). First aorist passive indicative of apokalupt“, old verb, to reveal, to unveil. Here is revelation about the revelation already received, revelation after research.
{Did they minister} (diˆkonoun). Imperfect active of diakone“, old verb, to minister, "were they ministering."
{Have been announced} (anˆggelˆ). Second aorist passive indicative of {anaggell“}, to report, to bring back tidings (Joh 4:25).
{Through them} (dia t“n). Intermediate agent (dia), "the gospelizers" (t“n euaggelisamen“n, articular first aorist middle participle of euaggeliz“, to preach the gospel).
{By the Holy Ghost} (pneumati hagi“i). Instrumental case of the personal agent, "by the Holy Spirit" (without article).
{Sent forth from heaven} (apostalenti). Second aorist passive participle of apostell“ in instrumental case agreeing with pneumati hagi“i (the Spirit of Christ of verse 11).
{Desire} (epithumousin). Eagerly desire (present active indicative of epithume“, to long for). {To look into} (parakupsai). First aorist active infinitive of parakupt“, old compound to peer into as in Lu 24:12; Joh 20:5,11; Jas 1:25, which see. For the interest of angels in the Incarnation see Lu 2:13f.

1:13 {Wherefore} (dio). "Because of which thing," the glorious free grace opened for Gentiles and Jews in Christ (verses 3-12).
{Girding up} (anaz“samenoi). First aorist middle participle of anaz“nnumi, late and rare verb (Jud 18:16; Pr 29:35; 31:17), here only in N.T., vivid metaphor for habit of the Orientals, who quickly gathered up their loose robes with a girdle when in a hurry or starting on a journey.
{The loins} (tas osphuas). Old word for the part of the body where the girdle (z“nˆ) was worn. Metaphor here as in Lu 12:35; Eph 6:14.
{Mind} (dianoias). Old word for the faculty of understanding, of seeing through a thing (dia, noe“) as in Mt 22:37.
{Be sober} (nˆphontes). "Being sober" (present active participle of nˆph“, old verb, but in N.T. always as metaphor (1Th 5:6,8, etc., and so in 4:7).
{Perfectly} (telei“s). Adverb, old word (here alone in N.T.), from adjective teleios (perfect), connected with elpisate (set your hope, first aorist active imperative of elpiz“) in the Revised Version, but Bigg, Hort, and most modern commentators take it according to Peter's usual custom with the preceding verb, nˆphontes ("being perfectly sober," not "hope perfectly").
{That is to be brought} (tˆn pheromenˆn). Present passive articular participle of pher“, picturing the process, "that is being brought." For "revelation" (apokalupsei) see end of verse 7.

1:14 {As children of obedience} (h“s tekna hupakoˆs). A common Hebraism (descriptive genitive frequent in LXX and N.T., like huioi tˆs apeitheias, children of disobedience, in Eph 2:2) suggested by hupakoˆn in verse 2, "children marked by obedience."
{Not fashioning yourselves} (mˆ sunschˆmatizomenoi). Usual negative with the participle (present direct middle of sunschˆmatiz“, a rare (Aristotle, Plutarch) compound (sun, schˆmatiz“, from schˆma from ech“), in N.T. only here and Ro 12:2 (the outward pattern in contrast with the inward change metamorpho“). See Php 2:6f. for contrast between schˆma (pattern) and morphˆ (form). {According to your former lusts} (tais proteron epithumiais). Associative instrumental case after sunschˆmatizomenoi and the bad sense of epithumia as in 4:2; 2Pe 1:4; Jas 1:14f.
{In the time of your ignorance} (en tˆi agnoiƒi hum“n). "In your ignorance," but in attributive position before "lusts." Agnoia (from agnoe“, to be ignorant) is old word, in N.T. only here, Ac 3:17; 17:30; Eph 4:18.

1:15 {But like as he which called you is holy} (alla kata ton kalesanta humas hagion). This use of kata is a regular Greek idiom (here in contrast with sunschˆmatizomenoi). "But according to the holy one calling you or who called you" (first aorist articular participle of kale“, to call). God is our standard or pattern (kata), not our lusts.
{Be ye yourselves also holy} (kai autoi hagioi genˆthˆte). First aorist (ingressive) passive imperative of ginomai, to become with allusion (kai also)
to kata (God as our example), "Do ye also become holy." For anastrophˆ (manner of life) see verse 18; 2:12; 3:1-16; Jas 3:13; 2Pe 2:7. Peter uses anastrophˆ eight times. The original meaning (turning up and down, back and forth) suited the Latin word "conversatio" ("converto"), but not our modern "conversation" (talk, not walk).

1:16 {Because it is written} (dioti gegraptai). "Because (dioti stronger than hoti below) it stands written" (regular formula for O.T. quotation, perfect passive indicative of graph“). The quotation is from Le 11:44; 19:2; 20:7. Reenforced by Jesus in Mt 5:48. The future esesthe here is volitive like an imperative.

1:17 {If ye call} (ei epikaleisthe). Condition of first class and present middle indicative of epikale“, to call a name on, to name (Ac 10:18).
{As Father} (patera). Predicate accusative in apposition with ton--krinonta.
{Without respect of persons} (apros“polˆmpt“s). Found nowhere else except in the later Ep. of Clem. of Rome and Ep. of Barn., from alpha privative and pros“polˆmptˆs (Ac 10:34. See Jas 2:9 for pros“polˆmpte“ and 1:1 for pros“polˆmpsia) from pros“pon lamban“ (in imitation of the Hebrew).
{According to each man's work} (kata to hekastou ergon). "According to the deed of each one" God judges (krinonta) just as Christ judges also (2Co 5:10).
{Pass} (anastraphˆte). Second aorist passive imperative of anastreph“, metaphorical sense as in 2Co 1:12; 2Pe 2:18. {The time} (ton chronon). Accusative case of extent of time. {Of your sojourning} (tˆs paroikias hum“n). A late word, found in LXX (Ps 119:5) and in N.T. only here and Ac 13:17 and in ecclesiastical writers (one late Christian inscription). It comes from paroike“, old verb, to dwell beside (in one's neighbourhood), and so of pilgrims or strangers (paroikos Ac 7:6)
as of Jews away from Palestine or of Christians here on earth, then of a local region (our "parish"). Peter here recurs to 1:1 ("sojourners of the Dispersion").
{In fear} (en phob“i). Emphatic position at beginning of the clause with anastraphˆte at the end.

1:18 {Knowing} (eidotes). Second perfect active participle of oida, causal participle. The appeal is to an elementary Christian belief (Hort), the holiness and justice of God with the added thought of the high cost of redemption (Bigg).
{Ye were redeemed} (elutr“thˆte). First aorist passive indicative of lutro“, old verb from lutron (ransom for life as of a slave, Mt 20:28), to set free by payment of ransom, abundant examples in the papyri, in N.T. only here, Lu 24:21; Tit 2:14. The ransom is the blood of Christ. Peter here amplifies the language in Isa 52:3f.
{Not with corruptible things} (ou phthartois). Instrumental case neuter plural of the late verbal adjective from phtheir“ to destroy or to corrupt, and so perishable, in N.T. here, verse 23; 1Co 9:25; 15:53f.; Ro 1:23. Arguri“i ˆ chrusi“i (silver or gold) are in explanatory apposition with phthartois and so in the same case. Slaves were set free by silver and gold.
{From your vain manner of life} (ek tˆs mataias hum“n anastrophˆs). "Out of" (ek), and so away from, the pre-Christian anastrophˆ of verse 15, which was "vain" (mataias. Cf. Eph 4:17-24).
{Handed down from your fathers} (patroparadotou). This adjective, though predicate in position, is really attributive in idea, like cheiropoiˆtou in Eph 2:11 (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 777), like the French idiom. This double compound verbal adjective (pater, para, did“mi), though here alone in N.T., occurs in Diodorus, Dion. Halic, and in several inscriptions (Moulton and Milligan's "Vocabulary"; Deissmann, "Bible Studies", pp. 266f.). The Jews made a wrong use of tradition (Mt 15:2ff.), but the reference here seems mainly to Gentiles (1Pe 2:12).

1:19 {But with precious blood} (alla timi“i haimati). Instrumental case of haima after elutr“thˆte (repeated from verse 18). Peter here applies the old adjective timios (from timˆ, of Christ in 1Pe 2:7) to Christ as in 1:7 polutimoteron to testing of faith. The blood of anyone is "precious" (costly), far above gold or silver, but that of Jesus immeasurably more so.
{As of a lamb} (h“s amnou). This word occurs in Le 12:8; Nu 15:11; De 14:4 of the lamb prescribed for the passover sacrifice (Ex 12:5). John the Baptist applies it to Jesus (Joh 1:29,36). It occurs also in Ac 8:32 quoted from Isa 53:7f. Undoubtedly both the Baptist and Peter have this passage in mind. Elsewhere in the N.T. arnion is used of Christ (Re 5:6,12). Jesus is the Paschal Lamb. Peter sees clearly that it was by the blood of Christ that we are redeemed from sin. {Without blemish} (am“mou). Without (alpha privative) spot (m“mos) as the paschal lamb had to be (Le 22:21). So Heb 9:14.
{Without spot} (aspilou). Without (alpha privative) stain (spilos spot) as in Jas 1:27; 2Pe 3:14; 1Pe 6:14.
{Even the blood of Christ} (Christou). Genitive case with haimati, but in unusual position for emphasis and clearness with the participles following.

1:20 {Who was foreknown indeed} (proegn“smenou men). Perfect passive participle (in genitive singular agreeing with Christou) of progin“sk“, old verb, to know beforehand (Ro 8:29; 2Pe 3:17). See progn“sin theou in verse 2.
{Before the foundation of the world} (pro katabolˆs kosmou). This precise curious phrase occurs in Joh 17:24 in the Saviour's mouth of his preincarnate state with the Father as here and in Eph 1:4. We have apo katabolˆs kosmou in Mt 25:34 (kosmou omitted in Mt 13:35)
; Lu 11:50; Heb 4:3; 9:26; Re 13:8; 17:8. Katabolˆ (from kataball“) was originally laying the foundation of a house (Heb 6:1). The preincarnate Messiah appears in the counsels of God also in 1Co 2:7; Col 1:26f.; Eph 1:9f.; 3:9-11; Ro 16:25; 1Ti 1:9.
{But was manifested} (phaner“thentos de). First aorist (ingressive) passive participle of phanero“, referring to the Incarnation in contrast with the preexistence of Christ (cf. Joh 1:31; 1Jo 3:5,8).
{At the end of the times} (ep' eschatou t“n chron“n). Like ep' eschatou t“n hˆmer“n (Heb 1:2). The plural chronoi, doubtless referring to successive periods in human history until the fullness of the time came (Ga 4:4).
{For your sake} (di' humƒs). Proof of God's love, not of their desert or worth (Ac 17:30f.; Heb 11:39f.).

1:21 {Who through him are believers in God} (tous di' autou pistous eis theon). Accusative case in apposition with humƒs (you), "the through him (that is Christ as in 1:8; Ac 3:16) believers (pistous correct text of A B) in God."
{Which raised} (ton egeiranta). Accusative singular articular (agreeing with theon) first aorist active participle of egeir“ (cf. di' anastase“s Iˆsou in verse 3).
{Gave glory to him} (doxan aut“i donta). Second aorist active participle of did“mi agreeing also with theon. See Peter's speech in Ac 3:13 about God glorifying (edoxasen) Jesus and also the same idea by Peter in Ac 2:33-36; 5:31.
{So that your faith and hope might be in God} (h“ste tˆn pistin hum“n kai elpida eis theon). H“ste with the infinitive (einai) and the accusative of general reference (pistin kai elpida) is used in the N.T. as in the "Koin‚" for either purpose (Mt 10:1) or usually result (Mr 4:37). Hence here result (so that is) is more probable than design.

1:22 {Seeing ye have purified} (hˆgnikotes). Perfect active participle of hagniz“, old verb from hagnos (pure), here with psuchas (souls), with kardias (hearts) in Jas 4:8 as in 1Jo 3:3 of moral cleansing also. See the ceremonial sense of the word as in LXX in Joh 11:55; Ac 21:24,26; 24:18.
{In your obedience} (en tˆi hupakoˆi). With repetition of the idea in 1:2,14 (children of obedience).
{To the truth} (tˆs aletheias). Objective genitive with which compare Joh 17:17,19 about sanctification in the truth and 2Th 2:12 about believing the truth. There is cleansing power in the truth of God in Christ.
{Unfeigned} (anupokriton). Late and rare double compound, here alone in Peter, but see Jas 3:17; 2Co 6:6, etc. No other kind of philadelphia (brotherly love) is worth having (1Th 4:9; Heb 13:1; 2Pe 1:7).
{From the heart fervently} (ek kardias ekten“s). Late adverb (in inscriptions, Polybius, LXX). The adjective ektenˆs is more common (1Pe 4:8).

1:23 {Having been begotten again} (anagegennˆmenoi). Perfect passive participle of anagenna“, which see in verse 2.
{Not of corruptible seed} (ouk ek sporƒs phthartˆs). Ablative with ek as the source, for phthartos see verse 18, and sporƒs (from speir“ to sow), old word (sowing, seed) here only in N.T., though sporos in Mr 4:26f., etc. For "incorruptible" (aphthartou) see verse 4; 3:4.
{Through the word of God} (dia logou theou). See Jas 1:18 for "by the word of truth," verse 25 here, and Peter's use of logos in Ac 10:36. It is the gospel message.
{Which liveth and abideth} (z“ntos kai menontos). These present active participles (from za“ and men“) can be taken with theou (God) or with logou (word). In verse 25 menei is used with rˆma (word). Still in Da 6:26 both men“n and z“n are used with theos. Either construction makes sense here.

1:24 24,25 Quotation from Isa 40:6-8 (partly like the LXX, partly like the Hebrew).
{For} (dioti). As in verse 16 (dia and hoti), "for that." So in 2:6. See a free use of this imagery about the life of man as grass and a flower in Jas 1:11. The best MSS. here read autˆs (thereof) after doxa (glory) rather than anthr“pou (of man).
{Withereth} (exˆranthˆ). First aorist (gnomic, timeless) passive indicative of xˆrain“ (see Jas 1:11).
{Falleth} (exepesen). Second aorist (gnomic, timeless) active indicative of ekpipt“ (see Jas 1:11). In verse 25 note eis humƒs (unto you) like eis humƒs in 1:4 (humin dative).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Peter: Chapter 1)

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