The Berean Expositor
Volume 38 - Page 112 of 249
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generally considered to be formed from the Greek word that means "one" even as de
which so often follows it, is but a shortened form of duo "two". "On the other hand" is a
somewhat clumsy way of expressing these two words in English. De is frequently
employed, when something new is subjoined, distinct or different from what proceeds,
though not strictly its very opposite.
An example of the us of men . . . . . de is found in Rom. 6: 11.
"Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed (men) unto sin, but (de) alive
unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord."
An example of the way in which men . . . . . de is not fully translated in the A.V. is
provided in Rom. 5: 16.
"For the judgment (on the one hand) was by one to condemnation, but (on the other
hand) the free gift is of many offences unto justification" (Rom. 5: 16).
We will not multiply examples, but give a few further references, where the A.V.
gives no sign that the words men . . . . . de are in the original.  I Cor. 1: 12, 18, 23;
Gal. 4: 8, 23, 24; Phil. 1: 16, 28; 3: 13, are passages that should be examined and
noted. In Hebrews there are eighteen passages where these discriminating particles
men . . . . . de occur, but in six passages only is there an English equivalent in the A.V.
It will not be possible, neither is it necessary, that we should give examples or tabulate
the many logical particles that are found in the N.T.; we will be content with one more,
and that the word "IF". Shakespeare, that master of words, says "there is much virtue in
your if", and the old saying has it, that:
"If `ifs' and `ans' were pots and pans,
All the world would tinkers be."
"If" ei puts the condition simply, "for if, when we were enemies we were reconciled to
God" (Rom. 5: 10). "For if through the offence of one many be dead" (Rom. 5: 15).
Here "if" assumes the hypothesis as an actual fact, no doubt being thrown upon the
supposition "for if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised" (I Cor. 15: 16). If of course
the word is followed by the subjunctive or the optative mood, then conjecture and
uncertainty necessarily enter.
Ean, is strictly a combination of ei "if" and an "haply". Ean implies an objective
possibility, and refers therefore to something future.  It is usually followed by the
subjunctive mood, which expresses a condition of uncertainty. "For circumcision verily
profiteth, if thou keep the law" (Rom. 2: 25). "But if the husband be dead, she is loosed
from the law of her husband" (Rom. 7: 2).
Other variants are eige and eite. Eige "If at least", "if indeed", "If ye have heard of
the dispensation" (Eph. 3: 2). Eite "whether", "if a man speak in an unknown tongue"
(I Cor. 14: 27). We leave the student the happy labour of patiently examining the
epistles of Paul and of extracting from them the many and varied particles of speech that