VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
He would heal (qerapeusei). Future tense: whether he will heal, the reader being placed at the time of the watching, and looking forward to the future.
Hardness (pwrwsei). From pwrov, a kind of marble, and thence used of a callus on fractured bones. Pwrwsiv is originally the process by which the extremities of fractured bones are united by a callus. Hence of callousness, or hardness in general. The word occurs in two other passages in the New Testament, Rom. xi. 25; Eph. iv. 18, where the A.V. wrongly renders blindness, following the Vulgate caecitas. It is somewhat strange that it does not adopt that rendering here (Vulgate, caecitate) which is given by both Wyc. and Tynd. The Rev. in all the passages rightly gives hardening, which is better than hardness, because it hints at the process going on. Mark only records Christ's feeling on this occasion.
A great multitude (polu plhqov). Compare verse 8, where the order of the Greek words is reversed. In the former case the greatness of the mass of people is emphasized; in the latter, the mass of people itself.
Plagues (mastigav). Lit., scourges. Compare Acts xxii. 24; Hebrews xi. 36. Our word plague is from plhgh, Latin plaga, meaning a blow. Pestilence or disease is thus regarded as a stroke from a divine hand. Plhgh is used in classical Greek in this metaphorical sense. Thus Sophocles, "Ajax," 279: "I fear that a calamity (plhgh) is really come from heaven (qeou, God)." So of war. Aeschylus, " Persae," 251: " O Persian land, how hath the abundant prosperity been destroyed by a single blow (en mia plhgh). The word here, scourges, carries the same idea.
When they saw (otan eqewroun). More accurately as Rev., whenever they beheld. The imperfect tense denotes a repeated act. The an in otan gives an indefinite force: as often as they might see him.
That (ina). According to the A.V. and Rev. the that indicates the substance of Christ's charge. Properly, however, it indicates the intent of his charge. He charged them in order that they should not make him known.
Might send them forth (apostellh). As apostles. Compare the kindred noun ajpostoloi, apostles.
He surnamed them Boanerges (epeqhken autoiv onoma Boanhrgev). Lit., he put upon them the name. Some uncertainty attaches to both the origin and the application of the name. Most of the best texts read ojnomata, names, instead of name. This would indicate that each of the two was surnamed a "son of thunder." Some, however, have claimed that it was a dual name given to them as a pair, as the name Dioscuri was given to Castor and Pollux. The reason of its bestowal we do not know. It seems to have been intended as a title of honor, though not perpetuated like the surname Peter, this being the only instance of its occurrence; possibly because the inconvenience of a common surname, which would not have sufficiently designated which of them was intended, may have hindered it from ever growing into an appellation. It is justified by the impetuosity and zeal which characterized both the brothers, which prompted them to suggest the calling of fire from heaven to consume the inhospitable Samaritan village (Luke ix. 54); which marked James as the victim of an early martyrdom (Acts xii. 2); and which sounds in the thunders of John's Revelation. The Greek Church calls John Brontofwnov, the thunder-voiced. The phrase, sons of, is a familiar Hebrew idiom, ill which the distinguishing characteristic of the individual or thing named is regarded as his parent. Thus sparks are sons of fire (Job v. 7); threshed corn is son of the floor (Isa. xxi. 10). Compare son of perdition (John xvii. 12); sons of disobedience (Eph. ii. 2; v. 6).
Philip (Filippon). Another Greek name, meaning fond of horses. In ecclesiastical legend he is said to have been a chariot-driver.
Bartholomew. A Hebrew name - Bar Tolmai, son of Tolmai. Almost certainly identical with Nathanael. Philip and Nathanael are associated by John, as are Philip and Bartholomew in the parallel passages of the synoptics. Bartholomew is not mentioned in John's list of the twelve (xi. 2), but Nathanael is; while the synoptists do not mention Nathanael in their lists, but do mention Bartholomew. Probably he had two names.
Matthew. See on the superscription of Matthew's Gospel. Thomas. A Hebrew name, meaning twin, and translated by the Greek Didymus (John xi. 16).
Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus, as in Matt. x. 3. He is the Judas of John xiv. 22. Luther calls him der formme Judas (the good Judas). The two surnames, Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus, mean the same thing - beloved child.
Simon the Canaanite. Properly, Cananaean. See on Matt. x. 4: " No name is more striking in the list than that of Simon the Zealot, for to none of the twelve could the contrast be so vivid between their former and their new position. What revolution of thought and heart could be greater than that which had thus changed into a follower of Jesus one of the fierce war-party of the day, which looked on the presence of Rome in the Holy Land as treason against the majesty of Jehovah, a party who were fanatical in their Jewish strictures and exclusiveness? " (Geikie, " Life and Words of Christ ").
They said (elegon). Imperfect tense. Very graphic, they kept saying.
And. Not connecting two parts of one accusation, but two accusations, as is evident from the two otiv, which are equivalent to quotation marks.
His goods (ta skeuh). Lit., his vessels. So Wyc. Compare Mark x. 16; Acts ix. 15; x. 11; 2 Tim. ii. 20. The special object of the robber may be precious vessels of gold or silver; but the word is probably used in its general sense of household gear.
Eternal damnation (aiwniou amarthmatov). An utterly false rendering. Rightly as Rev., of an eternal sin. So Wyc., everlasting trespass. The A.V. has gone wrong in following Tyndale, who, in turn, followed the erroneous text of Erasmus, krisewv, judgment, wrongly rendered damnation. See Matt. xxiii. 33, and compare Rev. there.
31, 32. They sent unto him calling him. and a multitude was sitting about him. Detail by Mark only; as also the words in verse 34, Looking round on them which sat round about him.