VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
1-3. Peculiar to Luke.
Preaching (khrusswn). Or proclaiming, as a herald. Compare ch. iv. 18, and see on 1 Pet. ii. 5.
And the twelve were with him. The were is supplied by the translators. Better, "he himself went about," etc., "and the twelve (went) with him;" or, as Rev., and with him the twelve.
4-18. Compare Matt. xiii. 1-23; Mark iv. 1-25.
Were come (epiporeuomenwn). The present participle denoting something in progress. They kept coming. Rev., resorted.
His seed. Peculiar to Luke.
By the way-side. See on Matt. xiii. 4.
Was trodden down. A rendering which would apply better to standing grain. Render, as Rev., trodden under foot. Peculiar to Luke.
Sprung up (fuen). Lit., having sprung up. Rev., better, grew. Sprung up is Matthew's ejxaneteilen. Only here and Heb. xii. 15, where it is a quotation from the Septuagint. See on Matt. xiii. 7.
Moisture (ikmada). Only here in New Testament. Matthew and Mark have depth of earth. The word is the medical expression for juices of the body, of plants, and of the earth. Aristophanes, metaphorically, the juice of thought ("Clouds," 233). Hippocrates uses this and the preceding word together, comparing the juices of the body with those of the earth.
Sprung up with it (sumfueisai). Only here in New Testament. See on ver. 6, and Matt. xiii. 7. The technical word among physicians for closing of wounds or ulcers, and uniting of nerves or bones. Dioscorides uses it, as here, of plants growing in the same place: "The hellebore grows together with the vines."
Choked (apepnixan). Lit., choked off. Matthew has the simple epnixan, choked; and Mark sunepnixan; the sun, together, emphasizing the idea of compression. Luke is very fond of compounds and sonorous words. See on ch. xxiii. 51.
Understand (suniwsin). See on understanding, the kindred noun, Mark xii. 33.
In time of temptation. Matthew and Mark have, when tribulation or persecution cometh.
Fall away. Lit., withdraw or stand aloof. Matthew and Mark have stumble.
Choked with (upo, under). Implying the impulse under which they pursue their course.
Bring (no fruit) to perfection (telesforousin). Only here in New Testament. Matthew and Mark have, it becometh unfruitful. The verb literally means to bring to an end or accomplishment.
Honest and good heart. Peculiar to Luke. Honest; lit., fair, noble.
Honest, not in the popular sense, but in the sense of the Latin honestus; noble, virtuous, worthy.
Keep (katecousin). Much better Rev., hold it fast, giving the force of the compound verb.
With patience. Or in patience. Peculiar to Luke. In contrast with fall away, ver. 13.
Candlestick (lucniav). Correctly, as Rev., a stand. See on Matthew v. 15.
Seemeth (dokei). Peculiar to Luke. Rev. renders "thinketh he hath," as Jas. i. 26, on which see note. Wyc., guesseth; Tynd., supposeth.
19-21. Compare Matt. xii. 46-50; Mark iii. 31-35.
Come at him (suntucein). Only here in New Testament. The word properly carries the idea of an accidental meeting, and slightly so here. Jesus was lost in the crowd, and his friends could not fall in with him.
22-25; ix. 57-62. Compare Matt. viii. 18-27; Mark iv. 35-41.
Launched forth (anhcqhsan). See on ch. v. 3. The verb literally means to lead up; hence to lead up to the high sea, or take to sea; put to sea. It is the word used of Jesus' being led up into the wilderness and the mount of temptation (Matt. iv. 1; Luke ii. 22); also of bringing up a sacrifice to an idol-altar (Acts vii. 41). Often in Acts in the accounts of Paul's voyages.
Came down (katebh). More vivid than either Matthew or Mark, who have there arose. The word describes the action of the sudden storms which literally came down from the heights surrounding the lake. See on Matt. viii. 24.
Storm (lailay). See on Mark iv. 37. Matthew has seismov, a shaking.
See on Matt. viii. 24.
They were filling with water (suneplhrounto). Used by Luke only.
Mark, as usual, goes into minuter detail, and describes how the waves beat into the boat. Note the imperfects: they were filling; they were beginning to be in danger, contrasted with the instantaneous descent of the storm expressed by the aorist came down.
Rebuked. Compare the more detailed narrative of Mark, iv. 39, and see notes there. Wyc., blamed.
The raging (kludwni). See on Jas. i. 6.
Arose (diegerqeiv). Wrong. It is the word used just before, awoke. Lit., having been thoroughly awakened. Rev., correctly, he awoke. Luke is especially fond of compounds with dia.
A calm. Matthew and Mark have "a great calm."
Over against (antipera). Only here in New Testament.
Which had devils long time. The best texts insert kai, and, after devils (demons), and read "who had demons, and for a long time he had worn," etc. Long (ikanw). See on ch. vii. 16.
Tombs. See on Matt. viii. 28. Compare Mark v. 4-6.
Cried out (anakraxav). The compound verb with ajna, up, implies what is conveyed by our phrase, lifting up the voice. See on Mark v. 5.
What have I to do with thee? See on Mark v. 7.
Torment (basanishv). See on Matt. iv. 24. Luke never uses the word of sickness, as Matt. viii. 6. See on ch. iv. 41.
It had seized (sunhrpakei). Used by Luke only. See Acts vi. 12; xxvii. 15. The verb literally means to snatch and carry away with (sun).
He was kept bound (edesmeueto fulassomenov). Lit., he was bound, being guarded. Rev., was kept under guard and bound. The A.V. does not sufficiently bring out the vigilance with which he was attended.
Chains and fetters. See on Mark v. 4.
Breaking (diarrhsswn). Compare Mark iv. 4, and see note there.
Was driven, etc. Peculiar to Luke.
The deep (abusson). Lit., the bottomless. Transcribed into our abyss, as Rev. Mark has a quite different request, that he would not send them out of the country (v. 10). In Rom. x. 7, used of Hades, to which Christ descended; and in Revelation always of the bottomless pit. The demons refer to their place of abode and torment.
A steep place. See on Matt. ix. 32.
Was healed (eswqh). See on ch. vi. 19.
Throughout the whole city. Mark says in Decapolis.
How great things (osa). Lit., how many things, and thus according with recount. Declared all things throughout, as many as Jesus had done.
41-56. Compare Matt. ix. 18-26; Mark v. 22-43.
Stanched (esth). A common medical term.
Throng and press (sunecousinapoqlibousin). On the former word, see ver. 37, and ch. iv. 38. Rev. renders the latter, which occurs here only, more literally, crush. It means to squeeze out, as wine from grapes. See on tribulation, Matt. xiii. 21.
Virtue (dunamin). Rev., power. The evangelists use the word frequently of miracles - mighty works. It is used here in the sense of virtue, according to its use by naturalists and physicians. Still, too much stress must not be laid upon it as a mark of Luke's professional accuracy, as Dean Plumptre in "The Expositor," iv. 139; since Mark uses it in his narrative of the same incident, and in the same sense (Mark v. 30).
Dead. Placed first in the Greek order, for emphasis. "Dead is thy daughter."
Trouble. See on Matt. ix. 36; Mark v. 35. Tyndale renders dis-ease, in the old verbal sense of disturb.
So, rightly, Rev. Compare on bewailing, Mark v. 38.