Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT


1-11. Compare Matt. iv. 18-22; Mark i. 16-20.

vers 1.
Pressed (epikeisqai). Lit., were laid upon.

To hear. The A.V. is correct according to the reading tou ajkouein, which it follows. The true reading is kai ajkouein, and heard. So Rev.

He stood (autov hn estwv). The pronoun distinguishes him from the crowd which pressed upon him: he on his part stood. Render the participle and finite verb as Rev., was standing.

Lake (limnhn). An illustration of the more classical style of Luke as compared with Matthew and Mark. They and John also use qalassa, sea. See on Matt. iv. 18.

vers 2.
Ships (ploia). Used of vessels in general. Some texts read ploiapia, a diminutive form, meaning little boats.

Were washing. From the sand and pebbles accumulated during the night's work. Luke uses four different words for washing or cleansing: plunw, here, see also Apoc. vii. 14; ajpomassw, of wiping the dust from the feet, only at chapter x. 11; ejkmassw, of the woman wiping Christ's feet with her hair, chapter vii. 38, 44; ajpolouw, of washing away sins, Acts xxii. 16; louw, of washing the prisoners' stripes and the body of Dorcas, Acts xvi. 33; ix. 37. The reading ajpoplunw is rejected by the best texts, so that ajpomassw is the only one peculiar to Luke. All the words were common in medical language.

vers 3.
Thrust out (epanagagein). Rev., put out. The special nautical word for putting out to sea.

Taught (edodasken). The imperfect. He continued the teaching he had begun on the shore.

vers 4.
Launch out. Rev., put out. The singular number, addressed to Peter as master of the craft.

Let down (calasate). The plural, addressed to the whole of the boat's crew. Originally, to slacken or loosen, as a bow-string or the reins of horses; hence to let sink as a net. Also of unbarring a door. Metaphorically, to be indulgent, to pardon. The word occurs in the New Testament seven times, and five of these in Luke. He uses it of letting down Paul in a basket at Damascus (Acts ix. 25); of striking a ship's sails, and of letting down a boat into the sea (Acts xxvii. 17, 30). Matthew, Mark, and John use ballw or ajmfiballw, for casting a net (Matt. iv. 18; xiii. 47; Mark i. 16; John xxi. 6), which appears also in the compound noun for a casting net (amfiblhstron, see on Matt. iv. 18). The word used by Luke was in common use in medical writings, to denote relaxation of the limbs; loosening of bandages; abatement of sickness; letting herbs down into a vessel to be steeped.

vers 5.
Master (epistata). Used by Luke only, and always with reference to Jesus. He never uses Rabbi, as John especially. Wyc., commander.

Toiled (kopiasantev). From korov, suffering, weariness; and therefore indicating exhausting toil.

At thy word (epi). Relying on: on the ground of.

The net (diktuon). A general term for a net, whether for fish or fowl. See on Matt. iv. 18. Some, as Rev., read ta diktua, the nets.

Brake (dierrhgnuto). Some texts read dierhsseto, from the later form of the verb. The difference is unimportant. The A.V. fails to give the force of the imperfect, were breaking, as Rev.; or even better, possible, began to break. Trench suggests were at the point to break. The word occurs also at chapter viii. 29; Acts xiv. 14, and only twice beside in the New Testament. Luke alone uses the two compounds perirjrJhgnumi, of rending off clothes (Acts xvi. 22), and prosrhgnumi, to beat violently (chapter vi. 48, 49). See on those passages. All the words occure in medical writings.

vers 7.
They beckoned (kateneusan). The word originally means to nod assent, and so, generally, to make a sign. They made signs because of the distance of the other boat; hardly, as has been suggested, because they were too much amazed to speak.

Help (sullabesqai). Lit., take hold with. Compare Philip. iv. 3. Began to sink (buqizwsqai). Only here and 1 Tim. vi. 9, of drowning men in destruction. From buqov, the depth. Wyc., thy were almost drenched.

vers 8.
Fell down at Jesus' knees. Compare Sophocles, "Oedipus at Colonus," 1605:

"Zeus from the dark depths thundered, and the girls Heard it, and shuddering, at their father's knees Falling, they wept."

vers 9.
He was astonished (qambov periescen auton). Lit., amazement encompassed him. See on 1 Pet. ii. 6.

The draught (th agra). The word is used both of the act of catching and of that which is caught. In verse 4 it has the former sense: "let down your net for catching:" here, the latter, the catch or haul.

vers 10.
Partners (koinwnoi). In verse 7 the word rendered partners is metocoi; from meta, with, and ecw, to have. The word here denotes a closer association, a common interest. The kindred noun, koinwnia, fellowship, is used of the fellowship of believers with Christ (1 Corinthians i. 9); the communion of the body and blood of Christ (1 Corinthians x. 16); the communion of the Holy Ghost (2 Corinthians xiii. 14). The persons referred to in verse 7 might have been only hired workmen (Mark i. 20), temporarily associated with the principals.

Thou shalt catch (esh zwgrwn). Lit., thou shalt be catching, the participle and finite verb denoting that this is to be his habitual calling. Both Matthew and Mark make the promise to be addressed to Peter and his companions; Luke to Peter alone. The verb zwgrew, to catch, is compounded of zwov, living, and ajgreuw, to catch or take. Hence, lit., to take alive: in war, to take captive, instead of killing. Thus Homer, when Menelaus threatens the prostate Adrastus:

"Adrastus clasped the warrior's knees and said, O son of Atreus, take me prisoner" (zwgrei).

Iliad, vi., 45, 6; compare Iliad, v., 378.

So Herodotus: "The Persians took Sardis, and captured Croesus himself alive" (ezwgrhsan). - i. 86. There is certainly a reason for the use of this term, as indicating that Christ's ministers are called to win men to life. Compare 2 Tim. ii. 26, where, according to the best supported rendering, the servant of God is represented as taking men alive out of the power of Satan, to be preserved unto the will of God; i.e., as instruments of his will (compare A.V. and Rev.). The word thus contains in itself an answer to the sneering remark of the Apostate Julian, that Christ aptly termed his apostles fishers; "for, as the fisherman draws out the fish from waters where they were free and happy, to an element in which they cannot breathe, but must presently perish, so did these."

12-16. Compare Matt. viii. 2-4; Mark i. 40-45.

vers 12.
Full of leprosy. Matthew and Mark have simply a leper. The expression, full of leprosy, seems to be used here with professional accuracy. Leprosy was known among physicians under three forms: th dull white, the clear white, and the black. Luke means to describe an aggravated case. The word full in this connection is often used by medical writers, as, full of disease; the veins full of blood; the ears full of roaring. Make me clean (kaqarisai).All three evangelists say cleanse instead of heal, because of the notion of uncleanness which specially attached to this malady.

vers 13.
I will (qelw). See on Matt. i. 19.

Be thou clean (kaqarisqhti). Rev., more accurately, gives the force of the passive voice, be thou made clean.

vers 14.
He charged (parhggeilen). A strong word, often, of military orders. Aristotle uses it of a physician: to prescribe. Mark has ejmbrimhsamenov, strictly or sternly charged. See on Mark i. 43.

No one (mhdeni). The conditional negative: no one that he might chance to meet.

Go, shew thyself. A lively change from the narrative to direct address.

vers 15.
Went abroad (dihrceto). Dia, throughout the region. Wyc., the word walked about.

Came together (sunhrconto) Imperfect. Kept coming together, or were coming.

To be healed (qerapeuesqai). Originally, to be an attendant, to do service; and therefore of a physician, to attend upon, or treat medically. In classical writers it has also the meaning to heal, as undoubtedly in the New Testament, and in Luke (xiii. 14; Acts iv. 14, etc.). See on Matt. viii. 7, and compare ijaomai, to heal, in verse 17.

Infirmities (asqeneiwn). A strictly literal rendering; aj, not, and sqenov, strength, exactly answering to the Latin in, not, and firmus, strong.

vers 16.
Withdrew (hn upocwrwn). The participle with the imperfect of the finite verb denoting something in progress, and thus corresponding to the imperfect in verse 15. The multitudes were coming together, but he was engaged in retirement and prayer, so that he was inaccessible. The word occurs only in Luke, the usual New Testament word for withdraw being ajnacwrew. See Matt. ii. 12; xii. 15; Mark iii. 7.

17-26. Compare Mark ii. 1-12.

vers 17.
He was teaching. The pronoun has a slightly emphatic force: he as distinguished from the Pharisees and teachers of the law.

Doctors of the law (nomodidaskaloi). Only in Luke and 1 Timothy i. 7. Luke often uses nomikov, conversant with the law, but in the other word the element of teaching is emphasized, probably in intentional contrast with Christ's teaching.

Judaea and Jerusalem. The Rabbinical writers divided Judaea proper into three parts - mountain, sea-shore, and valley - Jerusalem being regarded as a separate district. "Only one intimately acquainted with the state of matters at the time, would, with the Rabbis, have distinguished Jerusalem as a district separate from all the rest of Judaea, as Luke markedly does on several occasions (Acts i. 8; x. 39): (Edersheim, "Jewish Social Life").

Was present to heal them. The A.V. follows the reading, aujtouv, them; i.e., the sufferers who were present, referring back to verse 15. The best texts, however, read aujton, him, referring to Christ, and meaning was present that he should heal; i.e., in aid of his healing. So Rev.

vers 18.
Taken with a palsy (paralelumenov). Rev., more neatly, palsied.

Whenever Luke mentions this disease, he uses the verb and not the adjective paralutikov, paralytic (as Matt. iv. 24; viii. 6; Mark ii. 3-10; compare Acts viii. 7; ix. 33); his usage in this respect being in strict accord with that of medical writers.

vers 19.
Tiles. Wyc., has sclattis, slates.

Couch (klinidiw). Luke uses four words for the beds of the sick: klinh, as verse 18, the general word for a bed or couch; krabbatov (Acts v. 15; ix. 33), a rude pallet (see on Mark ii. 4); klinidion, a small couch or litter, as here, a couch so light that a woman could lift and carry it away. Thus, in the "Lysistrata" of Aristophanes, 916, Myrrine says: "Come now, let me carry our couch" (klinidion). The fourth term, klinarion (Acts v. 15), cannot be accurately distinguished from the last. The last two are peculiar to Luke.

Into the midst before Jesus. See on Mark ii. 4.

vers 21.
To reason. See on Mark ii. 6. The words who is this that speaketh blasphemy, form an iambic verse in the Greek.

vers 22.
Perceived. See on Mark ii. 8.

vers 23.
Walk (peripatei). Lit., walk about.

vers 24.
Unto thee (soi). Standing first for emphasis. Luke emphasizes the direct address to the man: unto thee I say, in contrast with the apparently less direct, thy sins be forgiven thee. In Jesus' mind the connection was assumed; now he brings out the personal side of the connection. In forgiving the man's sins he had healed him radically. The command to rise and walk was of the same piece.

vers 26.
They were all amazed (ekstasiv elaben apantav). Lit., amazement took hold on all, as Rev. On ekstasiv, amazement, see on Mark v. 42.

Strange things (paradoxa). From para, contrary to, and doxa, opinion. Something contrary to received opinion, and hence strange.

Compare the English paradox. Only here in New Testament.

27, 28. Compare Matt. ix. 9; Mark ii. 13, 14.

vers 27.
He saw (eqeasato). Better, as Rev., beheld, since the verb denotes looking attentively. See on Matt. xi. 7.

A publican. See on chapter iii. 12.

Receipt of custom. See on Matt. ix. 9.

vers 28.
He followed (hkolouqei). Imperfect. He began to follow, and continued following.

29-39. Compare Matt. ix. 10-17; Mark ii. 15-22.

vers 29.
Feast (dochn). Only here and chapter xiv. 13. From the same root as decomai, to receive. A reception.

vers 31.
They that are whole. (oi ugiainontev). Both Matthew and Mark use ijscuontev, the strong. This use of the verb in its primary sense, to be in sound health, is found in Luke vii. 10; xv. 27; and once in John, 3 Ep. verse 2. For this meaning it is the regular word in medical writings. Paul uses it only in the metaphorical sense: sound doctrine, sound words, sound in faith, etc. See 1 Tim. i. 10; vi. 3; Tit. i. 13, etc.

vers 33.
Often (pukna). Only here, Acts xxiv. 26; 1 Tim. v. 23. The word literally means close-packed, as a thicket, or the plumage of a bird.

Prayers (dehseiv). Used by no other evangelist. From deomai, to want, and hence distinctively of petitionary prayer. In classical Greek the word is not restricted to sacred uses, but is employed of requests preferred to men. Rev., more correctly, supplications.

vers 34.
Children of the bride-chamber. Better, as Rev., sons (niouv). See on Mark ii. 19.

vers 35.
But the days will come when, etc. (eleusontai de hmerai kai otan). The A.V. follows a reading which omits kai, and, which is inserted in all the best texts. The thought is broken off. "The days shall come - and when the bridegroom shall be taken away, then shall they fast." So Rev.

vers 36.
A parable. "From a garment and from wine, especially appropriate at a banquet" (Bengel).

Putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old (epi blhma imatiou kainou epiballei epi imation palaion). The best texts, however, insert scisav, having rent, which directly governs ejpiblhma, piece; so that the rendering is, No man having rent a piece from a new garment, putteth it, etc. So Rev., No man rendeth a piece and putteth. Both Matthew and Mark have cloth instead of garment, by the use of which latter term "the incongruity of the proceeding comes more strongly into prominence" (Meyer). jEpiblhma, a piece, is literally, a patch, from ejpi, upon, and ballw, to throw: something clapped on. Compare the kindred verb here, ejpiballei, putteth upon.

The new maketh a rent (to kainon scizei). The best texts read scisei, will rend, governing the new instead of being used intransitively. Render, as Rev., He will rend the new.

Agreeth not (ou sumfwnei). The best texts read sumfwnhsei, the future; will not agree. So Rev.

In Matthew and Mark there is only a single damage, that, namely, to the old garment, the rent in which is enlarged. In Luke the damage is twofold; first, in injuring thenew garment by cutting out a piece; and second, in making the old garment appear patched, instead of widening the rent, as in Matthew and Mark.

Bottles (askouv). Rev., wine skins. See on Matt. ix. 17.

vers 39.
Better (crhstoterov). The best texts read crhstov, good. See on Matt. xi. 30.

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