Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT


1-13. Compare Matt. iv. 1-11; Mark i. 12-13.

vers 1.
Was led. So Matthew. Mark says, "The Spirit driveth, (ekballei) or thrusteth him forth.

By the Spirit (en tw pneumati). The American Revisers render in the spirit, indicating the sphere rather than the impulse of his action. Into the wilderness. The A.V. has followed the reading eijv, into. The proper reading is ejn, in. He was not only impelled into the wilderness, but guided in the wilderness by the Spirit.

Forty days. This should be joined with the preceding words, indicating the duration of his stay in the wilderness, not of his temptation, as A.V., being forty days tempted. Read as Rev., in the wilderness during forty days. The devil. See on Matt. iv. 1.

He did eat nothing. Mark does not mention the fast. Matthew uses the word nhsteusav, having fasted, which, throughout the New Testament, is used of abstinence for religious purposes; a ritual act accompanying seasons of prayer.

vers 3.
This stone. Matthew, these stones.

Bread (artov). Lit., a loaf. See on Matt. iv. 3. Matthew has the plural loaves.

vers 4.
It is written. See on Matt. iv. 4.

By bread (ep artw). Lit., "on bread," implying dependence. Compare, by every word (ejpi panti rJhmati, Matt. iv. 4).

vers 5.
The world. See on chapter ii. 1.

In a moment of time (en stigmh cronou). Peculiar to Luke. Stigmh is literally a mark made by a pointed instrument, a dot: hence a point of time. Only here in New Testament. Comapre stigmata, brand-marks, Gal. vi. 17. Tynd., in the twinkling of an eye.

vers 6.
Note the emphatic position of the pronouns: "To thee will I give - for to me it hath been delivered: thou, therefore, if thou wilt worship," etc. Luke, in his narrative, enlarges upon Matthew. Compare Matt. iv. 9.

vers 8.
Serve. See on chapter i. 74.

vers 9.
He brought (hgagen). Rev., led. See on paralambanei, taketh, Matt. iv. 5.

Pinnacle of the temple. See on Matt. iv. 5.

Down from hence. Matthew has down only.

vers 10.
To keep (diafulaxai). Only here in New Testament. Better as Rev., guard. See on 1 Pet. i. 4. The preposition implies close, careful guarding. The phrase, to guard thee, is wanting in Matthew.

vers 11.
In their hands (epi ceirwn). Rev., correctly, on. See on Matthew iv. 6.

vers 12.
It is said. For Matthew's it is written, Matt. iv. 7. Luke omits Matthew's again. See Matt. iv. 7.

vers 13.
Had ended all the temptation. Peculiar to Luke. The verb suntelesav, from sun, together, and telew, to accomplish, means to bring to one end together; hence to bring to an end utterly. Better therefore as Rev., completed. The temptations formed a complete cycle, so that it could afterward be said of Jesus that "he was in all points tried like as we are" (Hebrew iv. 15).

All the temptation (panta peirasmon). Incorrect, Rev., rightly, every temptation. So Wyc., Every temptation ended.

For a season (acri kairou). Peculiar to Luke. More strictly, until a convenient time; since Satan meant to assail him again, as he did in the person of Peter (Mark viii. 33); by the Pharisees (John viii. 40 sq.); and at Gethsemane. See chapter xxii. 53.

vers 15.
He taught (autov edidasken). Lit., "he himself taught," verifying the favorable reports about himself in person. The imperfect tense denotes a course of teaching.

16-31. Peculiar to Luke.

vers 16.
Nazareth. With the article; that Nazareth where he had been brought up.

Stood up. Not as a sign that he wished to expound, but being summoned by the superintendent of the synagogue.

To read (anagnwnai). Usually in New Testament of public reading. 7 After the liturgical services which introduced the worship of the synagogue, the "minister" took a roll of the law from the ark, removed its case and wrappings, and then called upon some one to read. On the Sabbaths, at least seven persons were called on successively to read portions of the law, none of them consisting of less than three verses. After the law followed a section from the prophets, which was succeeded immediately by a discourse. It was this section which Jesus read and expounded. See Acts xiii. 15; Nehamiah viii. 5, 8. For a detailed account of the synagogue-worship, see Edersheim, "Life and Times of Jesus," i., 430 sq.

vers 17.
The book (biblion). A diminutive of biblov, the inner bark of the papyrus, used for writing. Hence, a roll. The word is also used to denote a division of a work, and is therefore appropriate here to mark the writings of a single prophet as related to the whole body of the prophetic writings. Opened (anaptuxav). Lit., unrolled. Both this and the simple verb ptussw, to close, (verse 30), occure only once in the New Testament. The former word was used in medical language of the opening out of various parts of the body, and the latter of the rolling up of bandages. The use of these terms by Luke the physician is the more significant from the fact that elsewhere in the New Testament ajnoigw, is used for the opening of a book (Apoc. v. 2-5; x. 2, 8; xx. 12) and eijlissw, for rolling it up (Apoc. vi. 14).

Found. As if by chance: reading at the place where the roll opened of itself, and trusting to divine guidance.

Was written (hn gegrammenon). Lit., was having been written; i.e., stood written.

vers 18.
Anointed. See on Christ, Matt. i. 1.

To preach good tidings. See on Gospel, Superscription of Matthew.

To the poor (ptwcoiv). See on Matt. v. 3.

To heal the broken hearted. The best texts omit. So Rev.

To preach (khruxai). Better as Rev., proclaim, as a herald. See on 2 Peter ii. 5.

To the captives (aicmalwtoiv). From aijcmh, a spear point, and aJliskomai, to be taken or conquered. Hence, properly, of prisoners of war. Compare Isa. xlii. 7: "To bring out captives from the prison, and those who sit in darkness from the house of restraint." The allusion is to Israel, both as captive exiles and as prisoners of Satan in spiritual bondage. Wyc. has caytifs, which formerly signified captives.

To set at liberty (aposteilai). Lit., to send away in discharge. Inserted from the Sept. of Isa. lviii. 6. See on chapter iii. 3, and Jas. v. 15. Them that are bruised (teqrausmenouv). Lit., broken in pieces. Only here in New Testament. Wyc., to deliver broken men into remission. The same Hebrew word is used in Isa. xlii. 3. "a crushed seed shall he not break," which the Septuagint translates by teqlasmenon, a word which does not occur in the New Testament. In the citation of this latter passage (Matt. xii. 20, on which see) the word for bruised is suntribw, which the Septuagint uses for break.

vers 19.
To preach (Rev., proclaim).the acceptable year of the Lord. As on the first day of the year of Jubilee, when the priests went through the land proclaiming, with sound of trumpet, the blessings of the opening year (Lev. xxv. 8-17). Note verse 10, where liberty is to be proclaimed to all in that year. Wyc., the year of the Lord pleasant. A literal interpretation of the word year gave rise among some of the Christian fathers to the theory that our Lord's ministry lasted but a single year.

vers 20.
He closed (ptuxav). See on verse 17.

Minister (uphreth). See on Matt. v. 25. Lit., as Rev., attendant.

Minister is likely to be misunderstood as referring to the president of the congregation, who, as the teaching elder, would have addressed the people if Jesus had not done so. It means the attendant who had charge of the sacred rolls. He was a salaried officer, a kind of chapel-clerk.

Sat down. As about to teach; that being the habitual position of a Jewish teacher.

Were fastened (hsan atenizontev). The participle and finite verb denoting continuous, steadfast attention. The verb, from teinw, to stretch, denotes fixed attention. Indeed, the word attention itself, etymologically considered, conveys the same idea.

vers 21.
He began. Not necessarily denoting his first words, but indicating a solemn and weighty opening.

vers 22.
Bare him witness. Compare verse 14. They confirmed the reports which had been circulated about him. Note the imperfect tense. There was a continuous stream of admiring comment. Similarly, were wondering. At the gracious words (logoiv thv caritov). Literally and correctly, as Rev., words of grace. See on chapter i. 30.

Is not (ouci). Expecting an affirmative answer.

vers 23.
Surely (pantwv). Lit., by all means. Rev., doubtless.

Proverb (parabolhn). Rev., parable. See on Matt. xiii. 3. Wyc., likeness.

Physician, heal thyself. A saying which Luke alone records, and which would forcibly appeal to him as a physician. Galen speaks of a physician who should have cured himself before he attempted to attend patients. The same appeal was addressed to Christ on the cross (Matt. xxvii. 40, 42).

vers 25.
A great famine was throughout all the land (egeneto limov megav epi pasan thn ghn). More literally and correctly, as Rev., there came (or arose) a great famine over all the land.

vers 27.
Lepers. Wyc., renders meselis, the middle English word for a leper, and derived from misellus, a diminutive of the Latin miser, wretched.

vers 29.
The brow (ofruov). Only here in New Testament. Wyc., cope, which is originally cap or hood. The word is used in medical language both of the eyebrows and of other projections of the body. It would naturally occur to a physician, especially since the same epithets were applied to the appearance of the eyebrows in certain diseases as were appplied to hills. Thus Hippocrates, describing a deadly fever, says, "The eyebrows in elephantiasis, depicts them as problhtev, projecting, and ojcqwdeiv, like mounds. Stanley says: "Most readers probably from these words imagine a town built on the summit of a mountain, from which summit the intended precipitation was to take place. This is not the situation of Nazareth; yet its position is still in accordance with the narrative. It is built upon, that is, on the side of a mountain, but the brow is not beneath, but over the town, and such a cliff as is here implied is found in the abrupt face of a limestone rock about thirty or forty feet high, overhanging the Maronite convent at the southwest corner of the town" ("Sinai and Palestine").

Cast him down headlong (katakrhmnisai). Only here in New Testament, and in the Septuagint only in 2 Chron. xxv. 12.

31-37. Compare Mark i. 21-28.

vers 31.
Taught (hn didaskwn). Correctly, as Rev., was teaching. The finite verb and participle denoting continuance.

On the Sabbath-days (toiv sabbasin). Rev., day. The word is often used in the plural form for the single day, as in verse 16; probably after the analogy of plural names of festivals, as ta azuma, the feast of unleavened bread; ta genesia, the birthday; or perhaps following the Aramaic plural.

vers 32.
They were astonished (exeplhssonto). See on Matt. vii. 28.

vers 33.
A spirit of an unclean devil. Where the rendering should be demon. This is the only case in which Luke adds to that word the epithet unclean.

vers 34.
What have we to do with thee (ti hmin kai soi)? Lit., what is there to us and to thee? i.e., what have we in common? So Wyc.

vers 35.
Hold thy peace (fimwqhti). Lit., be muzzled or gagged. See on Matt. xxii. 12.

Had thrown (riyan). Used in connection with disease by Luke only, and only here. In medical language, of convulsions, fits, etc.

Hurt him not (mhden blayan auton). Lit., in no possible way. Mark omits this detail, which a physician would be careful to note. Blaptein, to injure, occurs but twice in New Testament - here and Mark xvi. 18. It is common in medical language, opposed to wjfelein, to benefit, as of medicines or diet hurting or benefiting.

vers 36.
They were all amazed (egeneto qambov epi pantav). Lit., as Rev., amazement came upon all. Qambov, amazement, is used by Luke only. The kindred verb, qambeomai, to be amazed, occurs only once in Luke (Acts ix. 6), and three times in Mark; while Mark alone has the strong compound ejkqambew, to be greatly amazed (Mark ix. 15).

vers 37.
The fame (hcov). Lit., noise. Rev., rumor. Only here, chapter xxi. 25, where the correct reading is hcouv, the roaring, and Acts ii. 2. Hebrews xii. 19 is a quotation from the Septuagint. It is the word used in Acts ii. 2 of the mighty rushing wind at Pentecost. Mark uses ajkoh, in its earlier sense of a report. The same word occurs in Luke, but always in the sense in which medical writers employed it - hearing or the ears. See chapter vii. 1; Acts xvii. 20; xxviii. 26. Hcov was the medical tem for sound in the ears or head. Hippocrates uses both words together: "the ears (akoai) are full of sound (hcou);' and Aretaeus of the noise of the sea, as Luke xxi. 25.

38-41. Compare Matt. viii. 14-17; Mark i. 29-34.

vers 38.
Taken (sunecomenh). Rev., holden. So Wyc. See on Matt. iv. 24. The word is used nine times by Luke, and only three times elsewhere. Paul uses it of the constraining of Christ's love (2 Cor. v. 14), and of being in a strait (Philip. i. 23). In Acts xxviii. 8, it is joined with fever, as here, and is a common medical term in the same sense.

A great fever (puretw megalw). Another mark of the physician. The epithet great is peculiar to Luke. The ancient physicians distinguished fevers into great and small.

vers 39.
He stood over her. As a physician might do. Peculiar to Luke.

Rebuked. Peculiar to Luke.

vers 40.
When the sun was setting. The people brought their sick at that hour, not only because of the coolness, but because it was the end of the Sabbath, and carrying a sick person was regarded as work. See John v. 10. Diseases (nosoiv). See on Matt. iv. 23. Wyc., Sick men with divers languishings.

Laid his hands on. Peculiar to Luke.

Everyone. "Implying the solicitude and indefatigableness of this miraculous ministry of love" (Meyer).

vers 41.
Crying out (kraugazonta). The inarticulate demoniac scream.

Saying. The articulate utterance.

Mr. Hobart ("Medical Language of St. Luke") remarks that the medical bias of Luke may be seen from the words he abstains from using as well as from those he does use in respect of disease. Thus he never uses malakia for sickness, as Matthew does (iv. 23; ix. 35; x. 1), since this word is never so used in medical language, but is confined to the meaning of delicacy, effeminacy. So, too, he never uses basanizein, to torment, of sickness, as Matthew does (viii. 6), as it is never so used in medical language, the word there meaning to examine some part of the body or some medical question.

42-44. Compare Mark i. 35-39.

vers 42.
Sought after (epezhtoun). Imperfect tense: were seeking.

Came unto him (hlqon ewv autou). Stronger than came to; for ewv is even up to, showing that they did not discontinue their search until they found him. Mark's narrative here is fuller and more graphic.

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