VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Servant. He does not call himself an apostle, as Paul and Peter in their introductions, and seems to distinguish himself from the apostles in vv. 17, 18: "The apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, how that they said," etc. We are told that Christ's brethren did not believe on him (John vii. 5); and in Acts 1 the brethren of Jesus (ver. 14) are mentioned in a way which seems to separate them from the apostles. Doulov, bond-servant, occurs in the introductions to Romans, Philippians, Titus, James, and 2 Peter.
Brother of James. That Jude does not allude to his relationship to the Lord may be explained by the fact that the natural relationship in his mind would be subordinate to the spiritual (see Luke xi. 27, 28), and that such a designation would, as Dean Alford remarks, "have been in harmony with those later and superstitious feelings with which the next and following ages regarded the Lord's earthly relatives." He would shrink from emphasizing a distinction to which none of the other disciples or apostles could have a claim, the more so because of his former unbelief in Christ's authority and mission. It is noticeable that Jas. likewise avoids such a designation.
Kept. See on 1 Pet. i. 4. Compare John xvii. 6,12.
In Jesus Christ (Ihsou Cristw). The simple dative without preposition. Therefore for Jesus Christ; by the Father to whom Christ committed them (John xvii. 11). Compare 1 Thess. v. 23; Philippians i. 6, 10.
Called (klhtoiv). At the end of the verse, for emphasis.
When I gave all diligence (pasan spoudhn poioumenov). Lit., making all diligence; the phrase found only here. In Heb. vi. 11, we find "shew diligence" (endeiknusqai); and in 2 Pet. i. 5, "adding diligence." See note there.
The common salvation. The best texts add hJmwn, of us. So Rev., "our common salvation."
It was needful (anagkhn escon). Lit., I had necessity. Alford, I found it necessary. Rev., I was constrained.
Earnestly contend (epagwnizesqai). Only here in New Testament.
The faith. The sum of what Christians believe. See on Acts vi. 7.
Once (apax). Nor formerly, but once for all. So Rev., "No other faith will be given," says Bengel.
Crept in unawares (pareisedusan). Rev., privily. See on 2 Pet. ii. 1. The verb means to get in by the side (para), to slip in by a side-door. Only here in New Testament.
Ordained (progegrammenoi). The meaning is in dispute. The word occurs four times in New Testament. In two of these instances pro has clearly the temporal sense before (Rom. xv. 4; Eph. iii. 3). In Gal. iii. 1, it is taken by some in the sense of openly, publicly (see note there). It seems better, on the whole, to take it here in the temporal sense, and to render written of beforehand, i.e., in prophecy as referred to in vv. 14, 15. So the American Rev.
Lasciviousness. See on 1 Pet. iv. 3.
Lord God. God is omitted in the best texts. On Lord (despothn), see on 2 Peter ii. 1.
Habitation (oikhthrion). Only here and 2 Cor. v. 2.
Everlasting (aidioiv). Only here and Rom. i. 20. For a longer form ajeidiov, from ajei, always.
Under darkness (upo zofon). under carries the sense of the darkness brooking over the fallen spirits. On darkness, see on 2 Pet. ii. 4. Compare Heriod:
"There the Titanian gods, to murky gloom Condemned by will of cloud-collecting Jove, Lie hid in region foul." Theogony, v., 729.
Giving themselves over to fornication (ekporeusasai). Rev., more strictly, having given, etc. Only here in New Testament. The force of ejk is out and out; giving themselves up utterly. See on followed, 2 Pet. i. 16. Going after (apelqousai opisw). The aorist participle. Rev., having gone. The phrase occurs Mark i. 20; James and John leaving their father and going after Jesus. "The world is gone after him" (John xii. 19). Here metaphorical. The force of ajpo is away; turning away from purity, and going after strange flesh.
Strange flesh. Compare 2 Pet. ii. 10; and see Rom. i. 27; Leviticus xviii. 22, 23. Also Jowett's introduction to Plato's "Symposium;" Plato's "Laws," viii., 836, 841; Dollinger, "The Gentile and the Jew," Darnell's trans., ii., 238 sq.
Are set forth (prokeintai). The verb means, literally, to lie exposed. Used of meats on the table ready for the guests; of a corpse laid out for burial; of a question under discussion. Thus the corruption and punishment of the cities of the plain are laid out in plain sight.
As an example (deigma). Only here in New Testament. From deiknumai, to display or exhibit; something, therefore, which is held up to view as a warning.
Suffering the vengeance of eternal fire (purov aiwniou dikhn upecousai). Rev., rightly, substitutes punishment for vengeance, since dikh carries the underlying idea of right or justice, which is not necessarily implied in vengeance. Some of the best modern expositors render are set forth as an example of eternal fire, suffering punishment. This meaning seems, on the whole, more natural, though the Greek construction favors the others, since eternal fire is the standing term for the finally condemned in the last judgment, and could hardly be correctly said of Sodom and Gomorrah. Those cities are most truly an example of eternal fire. "A destruction so utter and so permanent as theirs has been, is the nearest approach that can be found in this world to the destruction which awaits those who are kept under darkness to the judgment of the great day" (Lumby). Suffering (upecousai). Only here in New Testament. The participle is present, indicating that they are suffering to this day the punishment which came upon them in Lot's time. The verb means, literally, to hold under; thence to uphold or support, and so to suffer or undergo.
A railing accusation (krisin blasfhmiav). Lit., a judgment of railing; a sentence savoring of impugning his dignity. Michael remembered the high estate from which he fell, and left his sentence to God.
They know not (ouk oidasin). Mental comprehension and knowledge, and referring to the whole range of invisible things; while the other verb in this verse, also translated by A.V. know (ejpistantai, originally of skill in handicraft), refers to palpable things; objects of sense; the circumstances of sensual enjoyment. Rev. marks the distinction by rendering the latter verb understand.
Naturally (fusikwv). Only here in New Testament. Compare fusika, natural, 2 Pet. ii. 12.
Ran greedily (execuqhsan). Lit., were poured out. Rev., ran riotously. A strong expression, indicating a reckless, abandoned devotion of the energies, like the Latin effundi. So Tacitus says of Maecenas, "he was given up to love for Bathyllus;" lit., poured out into love.
After. Better, as Rev., in; as, "in the way of Cain." The error was their sphere of action. Similarly, In the gainsaying (th antilogia). In the practice of gainsaying like Korah's.'Antilogia is from ajnti, against, and legw, to speak. Hence, literally, contradiction. Gainsay is a literal translation, being compounded of the Anglo-Saxon gegn, which reappears in the German gegen, against, and say.
Korah. Who spake against Moses (Num. xvi. 3). The water which Moses brought from the rock at Kadesh was called the water of Meribah (Strife), or, in Septuagint, Greek, the water of contradiction.
When they feast with you. See on 2 Pet. ii. 13.
Feeding (poimainontev). See on 1 Pet. v. 2. Lit., shepherding themselves; and so Rev., shepherds that feed themselves; further their own schemes and lusts instead of tending the flock of God. Compare Isa. lvi. 11.
Without fear (afobwv). Of such judgments as visited Ananias and Sapphira. Possibly, as Lumby suggests, implying a rebuke to the Christian congregations for having suffered such practices.
Clouds without water. Compare 2 Pet. ii. 17, springs without water. As clouds which seem to be charged with refreshing showers, but are born past (paraferomenai) and yield no rain.
Whose fruit withereth (fqinopwrina). From fqinw or fqiw, to waste away, pine, and ojpwra, autumn. Hence, literally, pertaining to the late autumn, and rightly rendered by Rev., autumn (trees). The A.V. is entirely wrong. Wyc., harvest trees. Tynd., trees without fruit at gathering-time. Twice dead. Not only the apparent death of winter, but a real death; so that it only remains to pluck them up by the roots.
Foaming out (epafrizonta). Only here in New Testament. Compare Isa. lvii. 20.
Shame (aiscunav). Lit., shames or disgraces.
Wandering stars. Compare 2 Pet. ii. 17. Possibly referring to comets, which shine a while and then pass into darkness. "They belong, not to the system: they stray at random and without law, and must at last be severed from the lights which rule while they are ruled" (Lumby).
Blackness (zofov). See on 2 Pet. ii. 4.
Of darkness (tou skotouv). Lit., "the darkness," the article pointing back to the darkness already mentioned, ver. 6.
With ten thousands of his saints (ejn ajgiaiv muriasin). Lit., in or among holy myriads. Compare Deut. xxxiii. 2; Zech. xiv. 5.
Ungodly (asebeiv) - ungodly deeds (ergwn ajsebeiav, lit., works of ungodliness) which they have ungodly committed (hsebhsan), and of all their hard speeches which ungodly (asebeiv) sinners, etc. The evident play upon the word ungodly can be rendered but clumsily into English. Rev., translates, All the ungodly, of all their works of ungodliness which they have ungodly wrought, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. The words ungodly sinners are placed in an unusual position, at the end of the sentence, for emphasis; ungodliness being the key-note of the writer's thought.
Hard (twn sklhrwn). Speeches is supplied. Lit., hard things. So Rev. The railing, gainsaying; the profane and vain babblings (2 Tim. ii. 16). Compare John vi. 60, a hard saying, where the word means not abusive but difficult. In Jas. iii. 4, rough, used of the winds. In Acts xxvi. 14, of Saul of Tarsus; "hard to kick against the pricks."
Complainers (memyimoiroi). From memfomai, to find fault with, and moira, a part or lot. Lit., blamers of their lot.
Great swelling words. See on 2 Pet. ii. 18.
Having men's persons in admiration (qaumazontev proswpa). The Rev., shewing respect of persons, is neater, but the A.V. more literal: admiring the countenances. Compare Gen. xix. 21, Sept., "I have accepted thee:" lit., have admired thy face.
Because of advantage. See 2 Pet. ii. 3, 14.
Beloved. Compare ver. 3.
Ungodly lusts (epiqumiav twn asebeiwn). Lit., lusts of ungodlinesses.
Sensual (yucikoi). See on Mark xii. 30. As yuch denotes life in the distinctness of individual existence, "the center of the personal being, the I of each individual," so this adjective derived from it denotes what pertains to man as man, the natural personality as distinguished from the renewed man. So 1 Cor. ii. 14; xv. 44. The rendering sensual, here and James iii. 15, is inferential: sensual because natural and unrenewed. In contrast with this is The spirit. The higher spiritual life. So the adjective pneumatikov, spiritual, is everywhere in the New Testament opposed to yucikov, natural. See 1 Cor. xv. 44, 46.
With fear (en fobw). Lit., in fear; i.e., of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them.
Spotted (espilwmenon). Only here and Jas. iii. 6. See on 2 Pet. ii. 13.
Exceeding joy (agalliasei). See on 1 Pet. i. 6.
LIST OF GREEK WORDS USED BY JUDE ONLY
---------- ajpodiorizw, to separate, 19 aptaistov, without falling, 24 goggusthv, murmurer, 16 deigma, example, 7 ejkporneuw, to give over to fornication, 7 ejnupniazw, to dream, 8 ejpagwnizomai, earnestly contend, 3 ejpafrizw to foam out, 13 memyimoirov, complainer, 16 pareisduw to creep in unawares, 4 planhthv a wanderer, 13 spilav, rock, 12 uJpecw, to suffer, undergo, 7 fqinopwrinov autumnal, 12 fusikwv, naturally, 10