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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Jude: Chapter 1)



1:1 {Servant} (doulos). Precisely as James (Jas 1:1), only James added kuriou (Lord).
{Brother of James} (adelphos Iak“bou). Thus Jude identifies himself. But not the "Judas of James" (Lu 6:16; Ac 1:13).
{To them that are called} (tois--klˆtois). But this translation (treating klˆtois as a substantive like Ro 1:6; 1Co 1:24) is by no means certain as two participles come in between tois and klˆtois. Klˆtois may be in the predicate position (being called), not attributive. But see 1Pe 1:1.
{Beloved in God the Father} (en the“i patri ˆgapˆmenois). Perfect passive participle of agapa“, but no precise parallel to this use of en with agapa“.
{Kept for Jesus Christ} (Iˆsou Christ“i tetˆrˆmenois). Perfect passive participle again with dative, unless it is the instrumental, "kept by Jesus Christ," a quite possible interpretation.

1:2 {Be multiplied} (plˆthuntheiˆ). First aorist passive optative of plˆthun“ as in 1Pe 1:2; 2Pe 1:2.

1:3 {Beloved} (agapˆtoi). As in 3Jo 1:2.
{All diligence} (pƒsan spoudˆn). As in 2Pe 1:5.
{Of our common salvation} (peri tˆs koinˆs hˆm“n s“tˆrias). See this use of koinos (common to all) in Tit 1:4 with pistis, while in 2Pe 1:1 we have isotimon pistin, which see.
{I was constrained} (anagkˆn eschon). "I had necessity" like Lu 14:18; Heb 7:27.
{To contend earnestly} (epag“nizesthai). Late and rare (in Plutarch, inscriptions) compound, here only in N.T. A little additional (epi) striving to the already strong ag“nizesthai (ag“n contest). Cf. 1Ti 6:12 ag“nizou ton kalon ag“na.
{For the faith} (tˆi--pistei). Dative of advantage. Here not in the original sense of trust, but rather of the thing believed as in verse 20; Ga 1:23; 3:23; Php 1:27.
{Once for all delivered} (hapax paradotheisˆi). First aorist passive participle feminine dative singular of paradid“mi, for which see 2Pe 2:21. See also 2Th 2:15; 1Co 11:2; 1Ti 6:20.

1:4 {Are crept in} (pareiseduˆsan). Second aorist passive indicative of pareisdu“ (-n“), late (Hippocrates, Plutarch, etc.) compound of para (beside) and eis (in) and du“ to sink or plunge, so to slip in secretly as if by a side door, here only in N.T.
{Set forth} (progegrammenoi). Perfect passive participle of prograph“, to write of beforehand, for which verb see Ga 3:1; Ro 15:4.
{Unto this condemnation} (eis touto to krima). See 2Pe 2:3 for krima and ekpalai. Palai here apparently alludes to verses 14,15 (Enoch).
{Ungodly men} (asebeis). Keynote of the Epistle (Mayor), in 15 again as in 2Pe 2:5; 3:7.
{Turning} (metatithentes). Present active participle of metatithˆmi, to change, for which verb see Ga 1:6. For the change of "grace" (charita) into "lasciviousness (eis aselgeian) see 1Pe 2:16; 4:3; 2Pe 2:19; 3:16.
{Our only Master and Lord} (ton monon despotˆn kai kurion hˆm“n). For the force of the one article for one person see on 2Pe 1:1. For despotˆn of Christ see 2Pe 2:1.
{Denying} (arnoumenoi). So 2Pe 2:1. See also Mt 10:33; 1Ti 5:8; Tit 1:16; 1Jo 2:22.

1:5 {To put you in remembrance} (hupomnˆsai). See 2Pe 1:12 hupomimnˆskein (present active infinitive there, first aorist active infinitive here).
{Though ye know all things once for all} (eidotas hapax panta). Concessive perfect (sense of present) active participle as in 2Pe 1:12, but without kaiper.
{The Lord} (kurios). Some MSS. add Iˆsous. The use of kurios here is usually understood to mean the Lord Jesus Christ, as Clement of Alex. ("Adumbr". p. 133) explains, Ex 23:20, by ho mustikos ekeinos aggelos Iˆsous (that mystical angel Jesus). For the mystic reference to Christ see 1Co 10:4,9; Heb 11:26. Some MSS. here add theos instead of Iˆsous.
{Afterward} (to deuteron). Adverbial accusative, "the second time." After having saved the people out of Egypt.
{Destroyed} (ap“lesen). First aorist active indicative of apollumi, old verb, to destroy. {Them that believed not} (tous mˆ pisteusantas). First aorist active articular participle of pisteu“. The reference is to Nu 14:27-37, when all the people rescued from Egypt perished except Caleb and Joshua. This first example by Jude is not in II Peter, but is discussed in 1Co 10:5-11; Heb 3:18-4:2.

1:6 {And angels} (aggelous de). The second example in Jude, the fallen angels, accusative case after tetˆrˆken (perfect active indicative of tˆre“, for which verb see 2Pe 2:4,7) at the end of the verse (two emphatic positions, beginning and end of the clause).
{Kept not} (mˆ tˆrˆsantas). First aorist active participle with negative , with play on "kept not" and "he hath kept."
{Principality} (archˆn). Literally, "beginning," "rule," (first place of power as in 1Co 15:24; Ro 8:38). In Ac 10:11 it is used for "corners" (beginnings) of the sheet. In Eph 6:12 the word is used for evil angels. See De 32:8. Both Enoch and Philo (and Milton) discuss the fallen angels.
{But left} (alla apolipontas). Second aorist active participle of apoleip“, old verb, to leave behind (2Ti 4:13,20).
{Their own proper habitation} (to idion oikˆtˆrion). Old word for dwelling-place (from oikˆtˆr, dweller at home, from oikos), in N.T. only here and 2Co 5:2 (the body as the abode of the spirit).
{In everlasting bonds} (desmois aidiois). Either locative (in) or instrumental (by, with). Aidios (from aei, always), old adjective, in N.T. only here and Ro 1:20 (of God's power and deity). It is synonymous with ai“nios (Mt 25:46). Mayor terms aidios an Aristotelian word, while ai“nios is Platonic.
{Under darkness} (hupo zophon). See 2Pe 2:4 for zophos. In Wisd. 17:2 we find desmioi skotous (prisoners of darkness).
{Great} (megalˆs). Not in 2Pe 2:9, which see for discussion.

1:7 {Even as} (h“s). Just "as." The third instance (Jude passes by the deluge) in Jude, the cities of the plain.
{The cities about them} (hai peri autas poleis). These were also included, Admah and Zeboiim (De 29:23; Ho 11:8). Zoar, the other city, was spared.
{In like manner} (ton homoion tropon). Adverbial accusative (cf. h“s). Like the fallen angels.
{Having given themselves over to fornication} (ekporneusasai). First aorist active participle feminine plural of ekporneu“, late and rare compound (perfective use of ek, outside the moral law), only here in N.T., but in LXX (Ge 38:24; Ex 34:15f., etc.). Cf. aselgeian in verse 4.
{Strange flesh} (sarkos heteras). Horrible licentiousness, not simply with women not their wives or in other nations, but even unnatural uses (Ro 1:27) for which the very word "sodomy" is used (Ge 19:4-11). The pronoun heteras (other, strange) is not in 2Pe 2:10.
{Are set forth} (prokeintai). Present middle indicative of prokeimai, old verb, to lie before, as in Heb 12:1f.
{As an example} (deigma). Predicate nominative of deigma, old word (from deiknumi to show), here only in N.T., sample, specimen. 2Pe 2:6 has hupodeigma (pattern).
{Suffering} (hupechousai). Present active participle of hupech“, old compound, to hold under, often with dikˆn (right, justice, sentence 2Th 1:9) to suffer sentence (punishment), here only in N.T.
{Of eternal fire} (puros ai“niou). Like desmois aidiois in verse 7. Cf. the hell of fire (Mt 5:22) and also Mt 25:46. Jude has no mention of Lot.

1:8 {Yet} (mentoi). See Joh 4:27. In spite of these warnings. {In like manner} (homoi“s). Like the cities of the plain. {These also} (kai houtoi). The false teachers of verse 4.
{In their dreamings} (enupniazomenoi). Present middle participle of enupniaz“, to dream (from enupnion dream, Ac 2:17, from en and hupnos, in sleep), in Aristotle, Hippocrates, Plutarch, papyri, LXX (Joe 2:28), here only in N.T. Cf. Col 2:18.
{Defile} (miainousin). Present active indicative of minain“, old verb, to stain, with sin (Tit 1:15) as here. 2Pe 2:10 has miasmou.
{Set at nought} (athetousin). Present active indicative of athete“, to annul. Both kuriotˆs (dominion) and doxai (dignities) occur in 2Pe 2:10, which see for discussion.

1:9 {Michael the archangel} (ho Michael ho archaggelos). Michael is mentioned also in Da 10:13,21; 12:1; Re 12:7. Archaggelos in N.T. occurs only here and 1Th 4:16, but in Da 10:13,20; 12:1.
{Contending with the devil} (t“i diabol“i diakrinomenos). Present middle participle of diakrin“, to separate, to strive with as in Ac 11:2. Dative case diabol“i. {When he disputed} (hote dielegeto). Imperfect middle of dialegomai as in Mr 9:34.
{Concerning the body of Moses} (peri tou M“use“s s“matos). Some refer this to Zec 3:1, others to a rabbinical comment on De 34:6. There is a similar reference to traditions in Ac 7:22; Ga 3:19; Heb 2:2; 2Ti 3:8. But this explanation hardly meets the facts.
{Durst not bring} (ouk etolmˆsen epenegkein). "Did not dare (first aorist active indicative of tolma“), to bring against him" (second aorist active infinitive of epipher“).
{A railing accusation} (krisin blasphˆmias). "Charge of blasphemy" where 2Pe 2:11 has "\blasphˆmon krisin
." Peter also has para kuri“i (with the Lord), not in Jude.
{The Lord rebuke thee} (epitimˆsai soi kurios). First aorist active optative of epitima“, a wish about the future. These words occur in Zec 3:1-10 where the angel of the Lord replies to the charges of Satan. Clement of Alex. ("Adumb. in Ep. Judae") says that Jude quoted here the "Assumption of Moses", one of the apocryphal books. Origen says the same thing. Mayor thinks that the author of the "Assumption of Moses" took these words from Zechariah and put them in the mouth of the Archangel Michael. There is a Latin version of the "Assumption". Some date it as early as B.C. 2, others after A.D. 44.

1:10 {Whatsoever things they know not} (hosa ouk oidasin). Here 2Pe 2:12 has en hois agnoousin. The rest of the sentence is smoother than 2Pe 2:12.
{Naturally} (phusik“s). Here only in N.T. 2Pe 2:12 has gegennˆmena phusika. Jude has the article ta with aloga z“a and the present passive phtheirontai instead of the future passive phtharˆsontai.

1:11 {Woe to them} (ouai autois). Interjection with the dative as is common in the Gospels (Mt 11:21).
{Went} (eporeuthˆsan). First aorist passive (deponent) indicative of poreuomai.
{In the way of Cain} (tˆi hod“i tou Kain). Locative case hod“i. Cain is Jude's fourth example. Not in II Peter, but in Heb 11:4; 1Jo 3:11f. From Ge 4:7.
{Ran riotously} (exechuthˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of ekche“, to pour out, "they were poured out," vigorous metaphor for excessive indulgence. But it is used also of God's love for us (Ro 5:5).
{In the error of Balaam} (tˆi planˆi tou Balaam). The fifth example in Jude. In II Peter also (2Pe 2:15). Either locative case (in) or instrumental (by). Planˆ (in Peter also) is the common word for such wandering (Mt 24:4ff., etc.).
{Perished} (ap“lonto). Second aorist middle (intransitive) of apollumi.
{In the gainsaying of Korah} (tˆi antilogiƒi tou Kore). Again either locative or instrumental. The word antilogia is originally answering back (Heb 6:16), but it may be by act also (Ro 10:21) as here. This is the sixth example in Jude, not in II Peter.

1:12 {Hidden rocks} (spilades). Old word for rocks in the sea (covered by the water), as in Homer, here only in N.T. 2Pe 2:13 has spiloi.
{Love-feasts} (agapais). Undoubtedly the correct text here, though A C have apatais as in 2Pe 2:14. For disorder at the Lord's Supper (and love-feasts?) see 1Co 11:17-34. The Gnostics made it worse, so that the love-feasts were discontinued.
{When they feast with you} (suneu“choumenoi). See 2Pe 2:13 for this very word and form. Masculine gender with houtoi hoi rather than with the feminine spilades. Cf. Re 11:4. Construction according to sense. {Shepherds that feed themselves} (heautous poimainontes). "Shepherding themselves." Cf. Re 7:17 for this use of poimain“. Clouds without water (nephelai anudroi). Nephelˆ common word for cloud (Mt 24:30). 2Pe 2:17 has pˆgai anudroi (springs without water) and then homichlai (mists) and elaunomenai (driven) rather than peripheromenai here (borne around, whirled around, present passive participle of peripher“ to bear around), a powerful picture of disappointed hopes. {Autumn trees} (dendra phthinop“rina). Late adjective (Aristotle, Polybius, Strabo) from phthin“, to waste away, and op“ra, autumn, here only in N.T. For akarpa (without fruit) see 2Pe 1:8.
{Twice dead} (dis apothanonta). Second aorist active participle of apothnˆsk“. Fruitless and having died. Having died and also "uprooted" (ekriz“thenta). First aorist passive participle of ekrizo“, late compound, to root out, to pluck up by the roots, as in Mt 13:29.

1:13 {Wild waves} (kumata agria). Waves (Mt 8:24, from kue“, to swell) wild (from agros, field, wild honey Mt 3:4) like untamed animals of the forest or the sea.
{Foaming out} (epaphrizonta). Late and rare present active participle of epaphriz“, used in Moschus for the foaming waves as here. Cf. Isa 57:20.
{Shame} (aischunas). Plural "shames" (disgraces). Cf. Php 3:19.
{Wandering stars} (asteres planˆtai). "Stars wanderers." Planˆtˆs, old word (from plana“), here alone in N.T. Some refer this to comets or shooting stars. See Isa 14:12 for an allusion to Babylon as the day-star who fell through pride.
{For ever} (eis ai“na). The rest of the relative clause exactly as in 2Pe 2:17.

1:14 {And to these also} (de kai toutois). Dative case, for these false teachers as well as for his contemporaries.
{Enoch the seventh from Adam} (hebdomos apo Adam Hen“ch). The genealogical order occurs in Ge 5:4-20, with Enoch as seventh. He is so termed in Enoch 60:8; 93:3.
{Prophesied} (eprophˆteusen). First aorist active indicative of prophˆteu“. If the word is given its ordinary meaning as in 1Pe 1:10, then Jude terms the Book of Enoch an inspired book. The words quoted are "a combination of passages from Enoch" (Bigg), chiefly from Enoch 1:9.
{With ten thousand of his holy ones} (en hagiais muriasin autou). "With (en of accompaniment, Lu 14:31) his holy ten thousands" (murias regular word, feminine gender, for ten thousand, Ac 19:19, there an unlimited number like our myriads, Lu 12:1).

1:15 {To execute judgment} (poiˆsai krisin). "To do justice." {To convict} (elegxai). First aorist (effective) active infinitive like poiˆsai before it.
{Ungodly} (asebeis). See verse 4 and end of this verse.
{Of ungodliness} (asebeias). Old word as in Ro 1:18, plural in Jude 1:18 as in Ro 11:26. {Which} (h“n). Genitive by attraction from ha (cognate accusative with ˆsebˆsan, old verb, to act impiously, here alone in N.T. save some MSS. in 2Pe 2:6) to agree with the antecedent erg“n (deeds).
{Hard things} (sklˆr“n). Harsh, rough things as in Joh 6:60.
{Which} (h“n). Genitive by attraction from ha (object of elalˆsan, first aorist active indicative of lale“) to the case of the antecedent sklˆr“n. Four times in this verse as a sort of refrain asebeis (twice), asebeias, ˆsebˆsan.

1:16 {Murmurers} (goggustai). Late onomatopoetic word for agent, from gogguz“ (Mt 20:11; 1Co 10:10) in the LXX (Ex 16:8; Nu 11:1,14-29).
{Complainers} (mempsimoiroi). Rare word (Isocrates, Aristotle, Plutarch) from memphomai to complain and moira lot or fate. Here alone in N.T.
{Lusts} (epithumias). As in 2Pe 3:3.
{Swelling} (huperogka). So in 2Pe 2:18 (big words).
{Showing respect of persons} (thaumazontes pros“pa). Present active participle of thaumaz“ to admire, to wonder at. Nowhere else in N.T. with pros“pa, but a Hebraism (in Le 19:15; Job 13:10) like lambanein pros“pon (Lu 20:21) and blepein pros“pon (Mt 22:16) and prosop“lempte“ (Jas 2:9). Cf. Jas 2:1.
{For the sake of advantage} (“pheleias charin). To themselves. See also verse 11. The covetousness of these Gnostic leaders is plainly shown in 2Pe 2:3,14. For charin as preposition with genitive see Eph 3:1,14.

1:17 {Remember ye} (humeis mnˆsthˆte). First aorist passive (deponent) imperative of mimnˆsk“ with genitive rˆmat“n (words). In 2Pe 3:2 we have the indirect form (infinitive mnˆsthˆnai). The rest as in II Peter, but in simpler and more exact structure and with the absence of t“n hagi“n prophˆt“n (the holy prophets).

1:18 {How that} (hoti). Declarative hoti as in verse 5. See discussion of 2Pe 3:3 for differences, no en empaigmonˆi here and no t“n asebei“n there.

1:19 {They who make separations} (hoi apodiorizontes). Present active articular participle of the double compound apodioriz“ (from apo, dia, horiz“, horos, boundary, to make a horizon), rare word, in Aristotle for making logical distinctions, here only in N.T. Dioriz“ occurs in Le 20:24 and aphoriz“ in Mt 25:32, etc. See haireseis in 2Pe 2:1.
{Sensual} (psuchikoi). Old adjective from psuchˆ as in 1Co 2:14; 15:44; Jas 3:15. Opposed to pneumatikos. Not used by Peter. {Having not the Spirit} (pneuma mˆ echontes). Usual negative with the participle (present active of ech“). Probably pneuma here means the Holy Spirit, as is plain in verse 20. Cf. Ro 8:9.

1:20 {Building up} (epoikodomountes). Present active participle of epoikodome“, old compound with metaphor of a house (oikos), common in Paul (1Co 3:9-17; Col 2:7; Eph 2:20).
{On your most holy faith} (tˆi hagi“tatˆi hum“n pistei). For the spiritual temple see also 1Pe 2:3-5. See pistis (faith) in this sense (cf. Heb 11:1) in 2Pe 1:5 with the list of graces added. A true superlative here hagi“tatˆi, not elative. {Praying in the Holy Spirit} (en pneumati hagi“i proseuchomenoi). This is the way to build themselves up on their faith.

1:21 {Keep yourselves} (heautous tˆrˆsate). First aorist active imperative (of urgency) of tˆre“. In verse 1 they are said to be kept, but note the warning in verse 5 from the angels who did not keep their dominion. See also Jas 1:27. In Php 2:12 both sides (human responsibility and divine sovereignty are presented side by side).
{Looking for} (prosdechomenoi). Present middle participle of prosdechomai, the very form in Tit 2:13. The same idea in prosdok“ntes in 2Pe 3:14.

1:22 {And on some} (kai hous men). Demonstrative plural of hos men--hos de (hous de, below), not the relative hous, but by contrast (men, de). So Mt 13:8.
{Have mercy} (eleƒte). Present active imperative of elea“ (rare form in Ro 9:16 also for the usual elee“ Mt 9:27). But A C read elegchete, refute, in place of eleate. The text of this verse is in much confusion.
{Who are in doubt} (diakrinomenous). Present middle participle of diakrin“, in the accusative case agreeing with hous men, though K L P have the nominative. If the accusative and eleate is read, see Jas 1:6 for the idea (doubters). If elegchete is read, see Jude 1:9 for the idea (disputers).

1:23 {And some save} (hous de s“zete). B omits hous de. {Snatching them out of the fire} (ek puros harpazontes). Present active participle of harpaz“, old verb, to seize. Quotation from Am 4:11 and Zec 3:3. Cf. Ps 106:18. Firemen today literally do this rescue work. Do Christians? {And on some have mercy with fear} (hous de eleƒte en phob“i). In fear "of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them" (Vincent). For this idea see 1Pe 1:17; 3:15; 2Co 7:1; Php 2:12.
{Spotted} (espil“menon). Perfect passive participle of spilo“, late and common verb (from spilos, spot, 2Pe 2:13), in N.T. only here and Jas 3:6.

1:24 {From stumbling} (aptaistous). Verbal from ptai“, to stumble (Jas 3:2; 2Pe 1:10), sure-footed as of a horse that does not stumble (Xenophon), and so of a good man (Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus).
{Before the presence of his glory} (katen“pion tˆs doxˆs autou). Late compound preposition (kata, en, “ps), right down before the eye of his glory as in Eph 1:4. Cf. Mt 25:31-33; Col 1:22, where Paul has parastˆsai like stˆsai here (first aorist active infinitive) and also am“mous as here, but am“mˆtos in 2Pe 3:14.
{In exceeding joy} (en agalliasei). See Lu 1:14.

1:25 {To the only God our Saviour} (mon“i the“i s“tˆri hˆm“n). Dative in the noble doxology. See Ro 16:27, mon“i soph“i the“i (to the alone wise God), where also we have dia Iˆsou Christou, but without tou kuriou hˆm“n (our Lord) as here. S“tˆr is used of God eight times in the N.T., six of them in the Pastoral Epistles. Doxa (glory) to God or Christ in all the doxologies except 1Ti 6:16. Megalosunˆ (Majesty) is a late LXX word, in N.T. only here and Heb 1:3; 8:1.
{Before all time} (pro pantos tou ai“nos). Eternity behind us. See same idea in 1Co 2:7 pro t“n ai“n“n.
{Now} (nun). The present.
{For ever more} (eis pantas tous ai“nas). "Unto all the ages." All the future. As complete a statement of eternity as can be made in human language.


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Word Pictures in the New Testament
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