VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
2 JOHN 1
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Unto the elect lady (eklekth kuria). An expression which baffles all the commentators. It is supposed by some that the title describes a person, by others, a society. The views of the former class as to the person designated, are
(1.) That the letter was addressed to a certain Babylonian named Electa.
(2.) To a person named Kyria.
(3.) To Electa Kyria, a compound proper name. Those who regard the phrase as describing a society, divide on the question whether a particular Christian society or the whole Church is intended. It is impossible to settle the question satisfactorily.
Children (teknoiv). May be taken either in a literal or in a spiritual sense. For the later, see 1 Timothy 1, 2; Gal. iv. 25; 3 John 4. Compare also vv. 4, 13. The explanation turns on the meaning of ejklekth kuria. If it mean the Church, children will have the spiritual sense. If it be a proper name, the literal.
Whom (ouv). Comprehensive, embracing the mother and the children of both sexes.
I love (agapw). See on John v. 20.
In the truth (ejn ajlhqeia. Omit the. The expression in truth marks the atmosphere or element of truth in which something is said, or felt, or done. See John xvii. 17. In truth is equivalent to truly, really. Compare Colossians i. 6; John xvii. 19.
That have known (oi egnwkotev). Either have come to know, or as Rev., know. The perfect tense of ginwskw, to learn to know, is rendered as a present: I have learned to know, therefore I know. See on 1 John ii. 3.
Shall be with us (meq hmwn estai). With us has the emphatic position in the sentence: and with us it shall be. Note the change from abideth in to shall be with, and see on John xiv. 16, 17.
With you. The best texts read with us.
From God - from Jesus Christ (para Qeou - para Ihsou Cristou). Note the repeated preposition, bringing out the twofold relation to the Father and Son. In the Pauline salutations ajpo from, is invariably used with God, and never repeated with Jesus Christ. On the use of para from, see on John vi. 46; 1 John i. 5.
God the Father. The more common expression is "God our Father."
The Son of the Father. The phrase occurs nowhere else. Compare John i. 18; 1 John ii. 22, 23; 1 John i. 3.
In truth and in love. The combination is not found elsewhere. The words indicate the contents of the whole Epistle.
Greatly (lian). The word is found in John's writings only here and 3 John 3.
I found (eurhka). See on John i. 41. Rev., I have found.
Of thy children (ek twn teknwn). The rendering is obscure. Rev., rightly, supplies certain. Compare John xvi. 17.
In truth (en alhqeia). Compare 3 John 3. See on 1 John i. 8.
We had (eicamen). The apostle identifies himself with his readers.
After His commandments (kata tav entolav autou). For walk, with kata after, according to, see Mark vii. 5; Rom. viii. 4; xiv. 15; 1 Corinthians iii. 3; 2 Cor. x. 2. Very often with ejn in. See John viii. 12; xi. 9, 10; 2 Corinthians iv. 2; 1 John i. 7, 11. Both constructions are found 2 Corinthians x. 2, 3.
From the beginning (ap archv). See on John i. 1.
In it (en auth). In love: not the commandment.
Who confess not (oi mh omologountev). The article with the participle describes the character of this class of deceivers, and does not merely assert a definite fact concerning them. Compare Mark xv. 41, "other women which came up with Him" (ai sunsnsbasai). Confess. See on Matt. vii. 23; x. 32.
Is come (ercomenon). Wrong. The verb is in the present participle, coming, which describes the manhood of Christ as still being manifested. See on 1 John iii. 5. In 1 John iv. 2 we have the manifestation treated as a past fact by the perfect tense, ejlhluqo.ta has come. Rev., that Jesus Christ cometh. So in 1 Thess. i. 10, thv ojrghv thv ejrcomenhv is the wrath which is coming; which has already begun its movement and is advancing: not merely, as A.V., the wrath to come, which makes it wholly a future event. See on lingereth, 2 Pet. ii. 3.
An antichrist (o anticristov) Rev, rendering the definite article, the antichrist. See on 1 John ii. 18.
We lose (apoleswmen). The best texts read ajpoleshte, ye lose. So Rev, with destroy in margin. For the meanings of the verb see on Luke ix. 25. We receive (apolabwmen). The best texts read ajpolabhte ye receive. The compounded preposition ajpo, has the force of back: receive back from God.
Reward (misqon). See on 2 Pet. ii. 13, and compare Matt. v. 12; John iv. 36; 1 Cor. iii. 8; Apoc. xi. 18; xxii. 12.
Abideth - in (menwn en). See on 1 John ii. 6.
Doctrine (didach). Better, as Rev., teaching.
Of Christ. Not the teaching concerning Christ, but the teaching of Christ Himself and of His apostles. See Heb. ii. 3. So according to New Testament usage. See John xviii. 19; Acts ii. 12; Apoc. ii. 14, 15. In the doctrine of Christ. Omit of Christ. Didach teaching, is used thus absolutely, Rom. xvi. 17; Tit. i. 9.
Bring (ferei). For the use of the verb see John xviii. 29; Acts xxv. 18; 2 Peter ii. 11; i. 17, 18; 1 Pet. i. 13.
Neither bid him God speed (kai cairein autw mh legete). Lit., and say not unto him "greeting!" Cairein rejoice, hail, was the customary form of salutation. It was also used in bidding farewell; but in the New Testament always of greeting (Acts xv. 23; xxiii. 26; Jas. i. 1). 70 "Now whoever cometh and teacheth you all these things, before spoken, receive him; but if the teacher himself turn aside and teach another teaching, so as to overthrow this, do not hear him" ("Teaching of the Twelve Apostles," ch. 11. See on Matt. x. 10).
Paper (cartou). Only here in the New Testament. The Egyptian papyrus or byblus, Cyperus papyrus, anciently very common, but not now found within the limits of the country. It is a tall, smooth flag or reed, with a large triangular stalk, containing the pith which furnished the paper. The paper was manufactured by cutting the pith into strips, arranging them horizontally, and then placing across them another layer of strips, uniting the two layers by a paste, and subjecting the whole to a heavy pressure. The upper and middle portions of the reed were used for this purpose. The fact that the plant is no longer found is significant in connection with Isaiah's prophecy that "the flags (Hebrews suph, papyrus) shall waste away" (Isa. xix. 6). The plant grew in shallow water or in marshes, and is accordingly represented on the monuments as at the side of a stream or in irrigated lands. 71 The Jews wrote on various materials, such as the leaves of the olive and palm, the rind of the pomegranate, and the skins of animals. The tablet (pinakidion, Luke i. 63) was in very common use. It consisted of thin pieces of wood, strung together, and either plain, or covered with papyrus or with wax.
Ink (melanov). Lit., that which is black. The word occurs only once outside of John's Epistles (2 Cor. iii. 3), and only three times in all (2 John 12; 3 John 13). Ink was prepared of soot or of vegetable or mineral substances. Gum and vitriol were also used. Colored inks, red and gold, were also employed. 72 To come unto you (genesqai prov umav). Or, to be present with you. For the phrase, see 1 Cor. ii. 3; xvi. 10.
Face to face (stoma prov stoma). Lit, mouth to mouth. Compare proswpon prov proswpon, face to face, 1 Cor. viii. 12. Full (peplhrwmenh). Rev., rightly, fulfilled.