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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 John: Chapter 1)

1:1 {And her children} (kai tois teknois autˆs). As with eklektˆ kuria, so here tekna may be understood either literally as in 1Ti 3:4, or spiritually, as in Ga 4:19,25; 1Ti 1:2. For the spiritual sense in teknia see 1Jo 2:1,12. {Whom} (hous). Masculine accusative plural, though teknois is neuter plural (dative), construction according to sense, not according to grammatical gender, "embracing the mother and the children of both sexes" (Vincent). See thus hous in Ga 4:19. {I} (Eg“). Though ho presbuteros is third person, he passes at once after the Greek idiom to the first and there is also special emphasis here in the use of agap“ with the addition of en alˆtheiƒi (in truth, in the highest sphere, as in Joh 17:19; 3Jo 1:1) and ouk eg“ monos (not I only, "not I alone"). Brooke argues that this language is unsuitable if to a single family and not to a church. But Paul employs this very phrase in sending greetings to Prisca and Aquila (Ro 16:4).
{That know} (hoi egn“kotes). Perfect active articular participle of gin“sk“, "those that have come to know and still know."

1:2 {For the truth's sake} (dia tˆn alˆtheian). Repetition of the word, one of which John is very fond (1Jo 1:6, "the truth, as revealed by the Christ, and gradually unfolded by the Spirit, who is truth" (Brooke).
{Which abideth in us} (tˆn menousan en hˆmin). See Joh 17:19 for "sanctified in truth" and 1Jo 2:6 for abiding in Christ, and so it includes all who are in Christ. {It shall be with us} (meth' hˆm“n estai). Confident assertion, not a mere wish. Note the order of the words, "With us it shall be" (estai future middle of eimi).

1:3 {Shall be with us} (estai meth' hˆm“n). He picks up the words before in reverse order. Future indicative here, not a wish with the optative (eie) as we have in 1Pe 1:2; 2Pe 1:2. The salutation is like that in the Pastoral Epistles: "\Charis, the wellspring in the heart of God; eleos, its outpourings; eirˆnˆ, its blessed effect" (David Smith).
{And from Jesus Christ} (kai para Iˆsou Christou). The repetition of para (with the ablative) is unique. "It serves to bring out distinctly the twofold personal relation of man to the Father and to the Son" (Westcott). "The Fatherhood of God, as revealed by one who being His Son "can" reveal the Father, and who as man (Iˆsou) can make him known to men" (Brooke).

1:4 {I rejoice} (echarˆn). Second aorist passive of chair“ as in 3Jo 1:3, "of a glad surprise" (D. Smith), as in Mr 14:11, over the discovery about the blessing of their godly home on these lads.
{Greatly} (lian). Only here and 3Jo 1:3 in John's writings.
{I have found} (heurˆka). Perfect active indicative of heurisk“ as in Joh 1:41, our "eureka," here with its usual force, a continued discovery. "He sits down at once and writes to Kyria. How glad she would be that her lads, far away in the great city, were true to their early faith" (David Smith).
{Certain of thy children} (ek t“n tekn“n). No tinas as one would expect before ek, a not infrequent idiom in the N.T. (Joh 16:17). {Walking} (peripatountas). Present active accusative supplementary participle agreeing with tinas understood. Probably members of the church off here in Ephesus.
{In truth} (en alˆtheiƒi). As in verse 1; 3Jo 1:4.
{We received} (elabomen). Second aorist active (possibly, though not certainly, literary plural) of lamban“. This very idiom (entolˆn lamban“) in Joh 10:18; Ac 17:15; Co 4:10. Perhaps the reference here is to 1Jo 2:7f.; 3:23.

1:5 {Beseech} (er“t“). For pray as in 1Jo 5:16.
{Lady} (kuria). Vocative case and in the same sense as in 1.
{As though I wrote} (h“s graph“n). Common idiom h“s with the participle (present active) for the alleged reason.
{New} (kainˆn). As in 1Jo 2:7f., which see.
{We had} (eichamen). Imperfect active (late -a form like eichan in Mr 8:7) of ech“ and note eichete with ap' archˆs in 1Jo 2:7. Not literary plural, John identifying all Christians with himself in this blessing.
{That we love one another} (hina agap“men allˆlous). Either a final clause after er“t“ as in Joh 17:15 or an object clause in apposition with entolˆn, like 1Jo 2:27; 3:23 and like verse 6.

1:6 {Love} (hˆ agapˆ). The love just mentioned.
{That we should walk} (hina peripat“men). Object clause in nominative case in apposition with agapˆ, with hina and the present active subjunctive of peripate“, "that we keep on walking."
{The commandment} (hˆ entolˆ). The one just mentioned with the same construction with hina as in 1Jo 3:23. John changes from the first person plural to the second (ˆkousate as in 1Jo 2:7, peripatˆte) as in 1Jo 2:5,7.
{In it} (en autˆi). Either to alˆtheiƒi (truth) of verse 4, agapˆ of this verse, or entolˆ of this verse. Either makes good sense, probably "in love." With peripate“ (walk) we have often en (1Jo 1:7,11, etc.) or kata (according to) as in Mr 7:5; 1Co 3:3; 2Co 10:2, etc.

1:7 {Deceivers} (planoi). Late adjective (Diodorus, Josephus) meaning wandering, roving (1Ti 4:1). As a substantive in N.T. of Jesus (Mt 27:63), of Paul (2Co 6:8), and here. See the verb (t“n planont“n humƒs) in 1Jo 2:26 of the Gnostic deceivers as here and also of Jesus (Joh 7:12). Cf. 1Jo 1:8. {Are gone forth} (exˆlthan, alpha ending). Second aorist active indicative of exerchomai, perhaps an allusion to the crisis when they left the churches (1Jo 2:19, same form).
{Even they that confess not} (hoi mˆ homologountes). "The ones not confessing" (mˆ regular negative with the participle). The articular participle describes the deceivers (planoi).
{That Jesus Christ cometh in the flesh} (Iˆsoun Christon erchomenon en sarki). "Jesus Christ coming in the flesh." Present middle participle of erchomai treating the Incarnation as a continuing fact which the Docetic Gnostics flatly denied. In 1Jo 4:2 we have elˆluthota (perfect active participle) in this same construction with homologe“, because there the reference is to the definite historical fact of the Incarnation. There is no allusion here to the second coming of Christ.
{This} (houtos). See 1Jo 2:18,22; 5:6,20.
{The deceiver and the antichrist} (ho planos kai ho antichristos). Article with each word, as in Re 1:17, to bring out sharply each separate phrase, though one individual is referred to. The one "par excellence" in popular expectation (1Jo 2:22), though many in reality (1Jo 2:18; 3Jo 1:7).

1:8 {Look to yourselves} (blepete heautous). Imperative active with reflexive pronoun as in Mr 13:9. The verb often used absolutely (Php 3:2) like our "look out."
{That ye lose not} (hina mˆ apolesˆte). Negative purpose with hina mˆ and first aorist active subjunctive of apollumi. This is the correct text (B), not apoles“men (we). Likewise apolabˆte (that ye receive), not apolab“men (we).
{Which we have wrought} (ha ˆrgasametha). This is also correct, first aorist middle indicative of ergazomai, to work (Joh 6:27f.). John does not wish his labour to be lost. See Ro 1:27 for this use of apolamban“ for receiving. See Joh 4:36 for misthos in the harvest. The "full reward" (misthon plˆrˆ) is the full day's wages which each worker will get (1Co 3:8). John is anxious that they shall hold on with him to the finish.

1:9 {Whosoever goeth onward} (pƒs ho proag“n). "Every one who goes ahead. Proag“ literally means to go on before (Mr 11:9). That in itself is often the thing to do, but here the bad sense comes out by the parallel clause.
{And abideth not in the teaching of Christ} (kai mˆ men“n en tˆi didachˆi tou Christou). Not the teaching about Christ, but that of Christ which is the standard of Christian teaching as the walk of Christ is the standard for the Christian's walk (1Jo 2:6). See Joh 7:16; 18:19. These Gnostics claimed to be the progressives, the advanced thinkers, and were anxious to relegate Christ to the past in their onward march. This struggle goes on always among those who approach the study of Christ. Is he a "landmark" merely or is he our goal and pattern? Progress we all desire, but progress toward Christ, not away from him. Reactionary obscurantists wish no progress toward Christ, but desire to stop and camp where they are. "True progress includes the past" (Westcott). Jesus Christ is still ahead of us all calling us to come on to him.

1:10 {If any one cometh and bringeth not} (ei tis erchetai kai ou pherei). Condition of first class with ei and two present indicatives (erchetai, pherei).
{This teaching} (tautˆn tˆn didachˆn). This teaching of Christ of verse 9, which is the standard by which to test Gnostic deceivers (verse 7). John does not refer to entertaining strangers (He 13:2; 1Ti 5:10), but to the deceiving propagandists who were carrying dissension and danger with them.
{Receive him not} (mˆ lambanete auton). Present active imperative with . For lamban“ in this sense see Joh 1:12; 6:21; 13:20.
{Into your house} (eis oikian). Definite without the article like our at home, to town.
{Give him no greeting} (chairein aut“i mˆ legete). "Say not farewell to him." Apparently chairein here (present active infinitive, object of legete present active imperative with negative mˆ) is used of farewell as in 2Co 13:11, though usually in the N.T. (Ac 15:23; 23:26; Jas 1:1) of the salutation. But here the point turns on the stranger bringing into the house (or trying to do so) his heretical and harmful teaching which seems to be after the salutation is over. The usual greeting to a house is given in Lu 10:5. On the other hand, if chairein means greeting, not farewell, here, it can very well be understood of the peril of allowing these Gnostic propagandists to spread their pernicious teachings (cf. Mormons or Bolshevists) in home and church (usually meeting in the home). This is assuming that the men were known and not mere strangers.

1:11 {Partaketh in his evil works} (koin“nei tois ergois autou tois ponˆrois). Associative instrumental case with koin“nei as in 1Ti 5:22, common verb from koin“nos (partner). It is to be borne in mind that the churches often met in private homes (Ro 16:5; Col 4:15), and if these travelling deceivers were allowed to spread their doctrines in these homes and then sent on with endorsement as Apollos was from Ephesus to Corinth (Ac 18:27), there was no way of escaping responsibility for the harm wrought by these propagandists of evil. It is not a case of mere hospitality to strangers.

1:12 {I would not} (ouk eboulˆthˆn). Epistolary aorist (first passive indicative).
{With paper and ink} (dia chartou kai melanos). The chartˆs was a leaf of papyrus prepared for writing by cutting the pith into strips and pasting together, old word (Jer 43:23), here only in N.T. Melas is old adjective for black (Mt 5:36; Re 6:5,12), and for black ink here, 3Jo 1:13; 2Co 3:3. Apparently John wrote this little letter with his own hand.
{To come} (genesthai). Second aorist middle infinitive of ginomai after elpiz“, I hope.
{Face to face} (stoma pros stoma). "Mouth to mouth." So in 3Jo 1:14; Nu 12:8. "Face to face" (pros“pon pros pros“pon) we have in 1Co 13:12.
{Your} (hum“n). Or "our" (hˆm“n). Both true.
{That may be fulfilled} (hina peplˆr“menˆ ˆi). Purpose clause with hina and the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of plˆro“, as in 1Jo 1:4, which see.

1:13 {Of thine elect sister} (tˆs adelphˆs sou tˆs eklektˆs). Same word eklektˆ as in verse 1; Re 17:4. Apparently children of a deceased sister of the lady of verse 1 who lived in Ephesus and whom John knew as members of his church there.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 John: Chapter 1)

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