[Table of Contents]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 22)

22:1 {He shewed me} (edeixen moi). The angel as in 21:9,10 (cf. 1:1; 4:1). Now the interior of the city.
{A river of water of life} (potamon hudatos z“ˆs). For hud“r z“ˆs (water of life) see 7:17; 21:6; 22:17; Joh 4:14. There was a river in the Garden of Eden (Ge 2:10). The metaphor of river reappears in Zec 14:8; Eze 47:9, and the fountain of life in Joe 3:18; Jer 2:13; Pr 10:11; 13:14; 14:27; 16:22; Ps 36:10.
{Bright as crystal} (lampron h“s krustallon). See 4:6 for krustallon and 15:6; 19:8; 22:16 for lampron. "Sparkling like rock crystal" (Swete), shimmering like mountain water over the rocks. {Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb} (ekporeuomenon ek tou thronou tou theou kai tou arniou). Cf. Eze 47:1; Zec 14:8. Already in 3:21 Christ is pictured as sharing the Father's throne as in Heb 1:3. See also 22:3. This phrase has no bearing on the doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit.

22:2 {In the midst of the street thereof} (en mes“i tˆs plateias autˆs). Connected probably with the river in verse 1, though many connect it with verse 2. Only one street mentioned here as in 21:21.
{On this side of the river and on that} (tou potamou enteuthen kai ekeithen). Enteuthen occurs as a preposition in Da 12:5 (Theodoret) and may be so here (post-positive), purely adverbial in Joh 19:18.
{The tree of life} (xulon z“ˆs). For the metaphor see Ge 1:11f. and Re 2:7; 22:14. Xulon is used for a green tree in Lu 23:31; Eze 47:12.
{Bearing} (poioun). Neuter active participle of poie“ (making, producing, as in Mt 7:17). Some MSS. have poi“n (masculine), though xulon is neuter.
{Twelve manner of fruits} (karpous d“deka). "Twelve fruits."
{Yielding} (apodidoun). Neuter active participle of apodid“mi, to give back, but some MSS. have apodidous (masculine) like poi“n.
{For the healing of the nations} (eis therapeian t“n ethn“n). Spiritual healing, of course, as leaves (phulla) are often used for obtaining medicines. Here again the problem occurs whether this picture is heaven before the judgment or afterwards. Charles distinguishes sharply between the Heavenly City for the millennial reign and the New Jerusalem that descends from heaven after the judgment. Charles rearranges these chapters to suit his theory. But chronology is precarious here.

22:3 {There shall be no curse any more} (pan katathema ouk estai eti). No other example of katathema has been found outside of the "Didache" XVI. 5, though the verb katathematiz“ occurs in Mt 26:74, meaning to curse, while we have anathematiz“ in Mr 14:71 in the same sense. It may be a syncopated form of katanathema. The usual anathema (curse) occurs in 1Co 16:22; Ga 1:8; Ro 9:3. For pan with ouk=ouden see 21:27.
{Shall do him service} (latreusousin aut“i). Future active of latreu“, linear idea, "shall keep on serving." See 7:15 for present active indicative of this same verb with the dative aut“i as here, picturing the worship of God in heaven. See 27:1 for "the throne of God and of the Lamb."

22:4 {They shall see his face} (opsontai to pros“pon autou). Future active of hora“. This vision of God was withheld from Moses (Ex 33:20,23), but promised by Jesus to the pure in heart (Mt 5:8) and mentioned in Heb 12:14 as possible only to the holy, and promised in Ps 17:15. Even here on earth we can see God in the face of Christ (2Co 4:6), but now in the New Jerusalem we can see Christ face to face (1Co 13:12), even as he is after we are made really like him (2Co 3:18; Ro 8:29; 1Jo 3:2). It is anthropomorphic language, to be sure, but it touches the essential reality of religion. "The supreme felicity is reached, immediate presence with God and the Lamb" (Beckwith). {His name on their foreheads} (to onoma autou epi t“n met“p“n aut“n). As in 3:12; 7:3; 14:1.

22:5 {Shall be night no more} (nux ouk estai eti). As in 21:25.
{They need} (echousin chreian). Present active indicative, "They have need," though A has hexousin (shall have), future like estai. Here again there is repetition of part of 21:23, but for the purpose of showing the delightsomeness of the New Jerusalem with no need of lamp or sun (change to ph“s with hˆliou instead of ph“tos, "they have no light of sun").
{Shall give them light} (ph“tisei). Future active of ph“tiz“, while aorist eph“tisen in 21:23.
{They shall reign} (basileusousin). Future active of basileu“. Reign eternally in contrast with the limited millennial reign of 20:4,6. This glorious eternal reign with Christ occurs repeatedly in the book (1:6; 3:21; 5:10) as in Lu 22:30. Christ's Kingdom is spiritual (Joh 18:36f.). "The visions of the Apocalypse are now ended; they have reached their climax in the New Jerusalem" (Swete). Now John gives the parting utterances of some of the speakers, and it is not always clear who is speaking.

22:6 {He said unto me} (eipen moi). Apparently the same angel as in 22:1 (21:9,15).
{These words} (houtoi hoi logoi). The same words used in 21:5 by the angel there. Whatever the application there, here the angel seems to endorse as "faithful and true" (pistoi kai alˆthinoi) not merely the preceding vision (21:9-22:5), but the revelations of the entire book. The language added proves this: "Sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly come to pass" (apesteilen ton aggelon autou deixai tois doulois autou ha dei genesthai en tachei), a direct reference to 1:1 concerning the purpose of Christ's revelation to John in this book. For "the God of the spirits of the prophets" (ho theos t“n pneumat“n t“n prophˆt“n) see 19:10; 1Co 14:32. Probably the prophets' own spirits enlightened by the Holy Spirit (10:7; 11:8; 22:9).

22:7 {And behold, I come quickly} (kai idou erchomai tachu). Christ is the speaker, either through this angel or more probably directly from Christ without introduction as in verses 12,16. About Christ coming quickly see 2:5,16; 3:11; 16:15, and already in 1:2f. Once more we must recall that tachu and en tachei are according to God's time, not ours (2Pe 3:8). {Blessed} (makarios). This beatitude is like in substance the first (1:3) and is in Christ's own words like the one in 16:15. This book is here called a "prophecy" (prophˆteias) as in verses 10,18,19. It is Christ's revelation from God, a direct message from God. Part of it is prediction of doom on Christ's enemies, but most of it is a comforting picture of final triumph and bliss for the faithful in a time of great distress and persecution.

22:8 {And I John} (Kag“ I“annˆs). Here John the Seer is the speaker. He had already given his name (1:1,4,9). Here he claims to be the "one who hears and sees these things" (ho akou“n kai blep“n tauta).
{I fell down to worship} (epesa proskunˆsai). Second aorist active indicative of pipt“ (with -a form) and the first aorist active infinitive of purpose of proskune“. It was a natural, though a wrong, thing to do, especially after Christ's own voice followed that of the angel "which shewed me these things" (tou deiknuontos tauta). Genitive singular of the articular present active participle of deiknu“. Cf. 1:1; 4:1; 17:1; 21:9f.; 22:1,6.

22:9 {See thou do it not} (Hora mˆ). The angel promptly interposes (legei, dramatic present). See 19:10 for discussion of this same phrase hora mˆ when John had once before started to worship the angel in his excitement. Here we have added to the words in 19:10 "the prophets (t“n prophˆt“n) and also "them which keep the words of this book" (t“n tˆrount“n tous logous tou bibliou toutou), the last a repetition from 22:7. In both places we have "Worship God" (t“i the“i proskunˆson). And not an angel.

22:10 {And he saith unto me} (kai legei moi). The angel resumes as in 19:9.
{Seal not up} (mˆ sphragisˆis). Prohibition with and the ingressive first aorist active subjunctive of sphragiz“. Charles takes this to be the command of Christ because in verses 7,18 "the words of the prophecy of this book" come from Christ. But that is not a conclusive argument, though Charles, as already stated, rearranges these chapters to suit his own notion. Once only (10:4) was John directed to seal and not to write. See there for discussion of sphragiz“. This book is to be left open for all to read (1:3; 13:18; 17:9; 22:7,18). {At hand} (eggus). As in 1:3.

22:11 {Let him do unrighteousness still} (adikˆsat“ eti). First aorist (constative) active imperative of adike“, viewed here as a whole. The language is probably ironical, with a reminder of Da 12:10, in no sense a commendation of their lost estate. Charles rejects this verse as not like John. It is the hopelessness of the final state of the wicked which is here pictured. So as to "Let him be made filthy still" (rupanthˆt“ eti). First aorist (constative) passive imperative of rupain“, old verb, to make foul or filthy (from rupos, filth, 1Pe 3:21, as is ruparos, filthy), here only in N.T. The use of eti is not perfectly clear, whether "still" or "yet more." It is the time when Christ has shut the door to those outside who are now without hope (Mt 25:10; Lu 13:25). Ruparos occurs elsewhere in N.T. only in Jas 2:2, and ruparia (filthiness) only in Jas 1:21. So then "the righteous" (ho dikaios) is to do righteousness still (dikaiosunˆn poiˆsat“ eti, first constative aorist active imperative of poie“) and "the holy" (ho hagios) to be made holy still (hagiasthˆt“ eti, first constative aorist passive imperative of hagiaz“). The states of both the evil and the good are now fixed forever. There is no word here about a "second chance" hereafter.

22:12 {My reward is with me} (ho misthos mou met' emou). It is Christ speaking again and he repeats his promise of coming quickly as in verse 7. He speaks now as the Rewarder (ho misthapodotˆs) of Heb 11:6. Cf. Re 11:18; Isa 40:10; 62:11. {To render} (apodounai). Second aorist active infinitive of purpose of apodid“mi, to give back. Each will receive the reward according to his own work (Re 2:23; 2Co 5:10; Ro 2:26).

22:13 {I am the Alpha and the Omega} (Eg“ to Alpha kai to O). Applied to God in 1:8; 21:6, and here alone to Christ, crowning proof in this book of Christ's deity. So in 21:6 God is termed, as Christ is here, hˆ archˆ kai to telos (the beginning and the end), while ho pr“tos kai ho eschatos (the first and the last) is applied only to Christ (1:17; 2:8). Solemn assurance is thus given that Christ is qualified to be the Judge of verse 12 (cf. Mt 25:31-46). In Heb 12:2 Jesus is the archˆgos kai telei“tˆs tˆs piste“s (the author and finisher of faith). Christ was the Creator of the universe for the Father. So now he is the Consummation of redemption.

22:14 {Blessed} (makarioi). This is the last beatitude of the book and "deals with the issues of the higher life" (Swete). {They that wash their robes} (hoi plunontes tas stolas aut“n). Present active articular participle of plun“. See 7:14 for this very verb with stolas, while in 3:4 the negative statement occurs. Cf. 1Co 6:11.
{That they may have the right} (hina estai hˆ exousia aut“n). Purpose clause with hina and the future middle of eimi (a common construction in this book, 6:4,11; 9:5,20; 13:12; 14:13), that there may be their right." {To come to the tree of life} (epi to xulon tˆs z“ˆs). "Over the tree of life." On exousia epi = "power over" see 6:8; 13:7; 16:9; Lu 9:1. On "the tree of life" see 2:7; 22:2.
{May enter in} (eiselth“sin). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of eiserchomai parallel with hina estai (future).
{By the gates} (tois pul“sin). Associative instrumental case of pul“n (21:12), "by the gate towers."

22:15 {Without} (ex“). Outside the holy city, with which compare 21:8,27. Dustierdieck supplies an imperative: "Out, ye dogs."
{The dogs} (hoi kunes). Not literal dogs, but the morally impure (De 23:18; 2Ki 8:13; Ps 22:17,21; Mt 7:6; Mr 7:27; Php 3:3). Dogs in the Oriental cities are the scavengers and excite unspeakable contempt.
{The sorcerers} (hoi pharmakoi). As in 21:8, where are listed "the fornicators and the murderers and the idolaters," all "outside" the holy city here as there "in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, the second death." Both are pictures (symbolic language) of hell, the eternal absence from fellowship with God. Another time Jesus spoke of "the outer darkness" (eis to skotos to ex“teron, Mt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30), outside of lighted house, as the abode of the damned. Another symbol is the worm that dies not (Mr 9:48). {Every one that loveth and maketh a lie} (pƒs phil“n kai poi“n pseudos). An interpretation of pƒsin tois pseudesin (all liars) of 21:8 and of poi“n pseudos (doing a lie) of 21:27. Satan is the father of lying (Joh 8:44) and Satan's home is a congenial place for those who love and practise lying (2Th 2:12). See 1Jo 1:6 for not doing the truth and see also Ro 1:25; Eph 4:25.

22:16 {I Jesus} (Eg“ Iˆsous). The last and most solemn attestation to the book that from Jesus (the historic Jesus known to the churches), in harmony with 1:1f.
{Have sent} (epempsa). First aorist active indicative of pemp“, used here in the same sense as aposteilas in 1:1 as his personal messenger. It is the Jesus of history here speaking, who is also the Christ of theology and the Lamb of God.
{For the churches} (epi tais ekklˆsiais). For this use of epi see 10:11; Joh 12:16. It is not just for the seven churches (1:4), but for all the churches in the world then and now.
{I am the root and the offspring of David} (Eg“ eimi hˆ riza kai to genos Daueid). See 5:5 for "the root of David," to which John now adds to genos in the sense of "offspring" (Ac 17:28f.), not of family or race (Ac 4:6; 7:13). Cf. Mt 22:42-45.
{The bright, the morning star} (ho astˆr ho lampros ho pr“inos). The Davidic King is called a star in Nu 24:17; Lu 1:78. This "day-star" (ph“sphoros) is interpreted as Christ (2Pe 1:19). In Re 2:28 the phrase "the morning star" occurs in Christ's words, which is here interpreted. Christ is the Light that was coming into the world (Joh 1:9; 8:12).

22:17 {The Spirit and the bride} (to pneuma kai hˆ numphˆ). The Holy Spirit, speaking through the prophets or the Spirit of prophecy (2:7; 16:4; 18:24), joins with the bride (21:2), the people of God, in a response to the voice of Jesus just heard. After the picture of heaven in 22:1-5 there is intense longing (19:7) of God's people for the consummation of the marriage of the Lamb and the Bride. So now "the prophets and the saints" (Swete) make a common plea to the Lord Jesus to "come" (Erchou, present middle imperative of erchomai, Come on) as he has just said twice that he would do (22:1,12). The call for Christ is to be repeated by every hearer (ho akou“n) as in 1:3.
{Let him come} (erchesth“). Change of person and this verb applied not to Christ as just before, but to the one who wishes to greet Christ. The thirsty man is bidden to come himself before it is too late. See 5:6 for dipsa“, used for spiritual thirst, and in particular Joh 6:35; 7:37 for one thirsting for the water of life (21:6; 22:1). Cf. Isa 55:1.
{He that will} (ho thel“n). Even if not yet eagerly thirsting. This one is welcome also. For this use of thel“ see Php 2:13.
{Let him take} (labet“). Second ingressive aorist active imperative of lamban“. In accordance with the free promise in 21:6, "freely" (d“rean) here as there. This gracious and wide invitation is cheering after the gloomy picture of the doomed and the damned. The warnings against the dragon and the two beasts with all their dreadful consequences are meant to deter men from falling victims to all the devil's devices then and now. The door of mercy still stands wide open today, for the end has not yet come. The series of panoramas is over, with the consummation pictured as a reality. Now we drop back to the standpoint before we saw the visions through John's eyes. In verse 17 we hear the voice of the Spirit of God inviting all who hear and see to heed and to come and drink of the water of life freely offered by the Lamb of God.

22:18 {I testify} (Eg“ martur“). Commentators disagree keenly about the words in verses 18,19. Charles rejects them as an interpolation and out of harmony with the rest of the book. Beckwith takes them to be John's own warning, drawn from De 4:2 "to every man that heareth" (panti t“i akouonti, dative of the articular present active participle of akou“, which compare 1:3). Swete properly holds these verses to be from Jesus himself, still bearing solemn witness to this book, with warning against wilful perversion of its teachings.
{If any man shall add} (ean tis epithˆi). Condition of the third class with ean and the second aorist active subjunctive of epitithˆmi, with epi added with auta, as also in the conclusion epithˆsei ep' auton (future active). This warning is directed against perversions of this book, not about the New Testament or the Bible as a whole, though it may be true there also. Surely no warning was more needed when we consider the treatment accorded the Apocalypse, so that Dr. Robert South said that the Apocalypse either found one crazy or left him so.

22:19 {If any man shall take away} (ean tis aphelˆi). Also condition of the third class with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of aphaire“, with apo repeated both in the condition and in the conclusion (aphelei apo, future active indicative of aphaire“ for the more usual aphairˆsei).
{Which are written in this book} (t“n gegrammen“n en t“i bibli“i tout“i). Ablative neuter plural articular perfect passive participle in apposition with ek tou xulou tˆs z“ˆs (from the tree of life) and ek tˆs pole“s tˆs hagias (out of the holy city). Such a man is unworthy of his inheritance.

22:20 {He which testifieth} (ho martur“n). That is Jesus (1:2) who has just spoken (22:18).
{Yea: I come quickly} (Nai, erchomai tachu). Affirmation again of the promise in 22:7,12. On Nai (Yes) see 1:7 for the Lord's assent to the call. Then John expresses his absolute belief in the Lord's promise: "Amen: come, Lord Jesus" (Amˆn, erchou, Kurie Iˆsou). On Amˆn see 1:7. On erchou see 22:17. Note Kurie with Iˆsou. As in 1Co 12:3; Php 2:11. For Paul's confidence in the deity of Christ and the certainty of his second coming see Tit 2:13; 2Ti 4:8. Marana tha (1Co 16:22).

22:21 {The grace of the Lord Jesus be with the saints} (hˆ charis tou Kuriou Iˆsou meta t“n hagi“n). John's own benediction, an unusual ending for an apocalypse, but suitable for one meant to be read in the churches (1:3f.). Grace is Paul's unvarying word in conclusion of his letters, as is true of Heb 13:25. "The saints" or the consecrated (hoi hagioi) is John's constant word for believers in Christ (8:3f.; 11:18; 13:7,10; 14:12; 16:6; 17:6; 18:20,24; 19:8; 20:9). It is a good word for the close of this marvellous picture of God's gracious provision for his people in earth and heaven.

[Table of Contents]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 22)

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