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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 7)



7:1 {After these things} (meta tauta). John's favourite general note of the order of events. Bernard conceives that the events in 7:1-14 follow 7:15-24 and both follow chapter 5, not chapter 6, a wholly needless readjustment of the narrative to suit a preconceived theory. John simply supplements the narrative in the Synoptics at points deemed important. He now skips the period of withdrawal from Galilee of about six months (from passover to tabernacles).
{Walked} (periepatei). Imperfect active, a literal picture of the itinerant ministry of Jesus. He has returned to Galilee from the region of Caesarea Philippi. He had been avoiding Galilee as well as Judea for six months.
{For he would not walk in Judea} (ou gar ˆthelen en tˆi Ioudaiƒi). Imperfect active of thel“ picturing the attitude of refusal to work in Judea after the events in chapter 5 (perhaps a year and a half before).
{Sought to kill} (ezˆtoun apokteinai). Imperfect active again, progressive attitude, had been seeking to kill him as shown in 5:18 where the same words occur.

7:2 {The feast of tabernacles} (hˆ skˆnopˆgia). Only New Testament example of this word (skˆnˆ, tent, pˆgnumi, to fasten as in Heb 8:2). Technical name of this feast (De 16:13; Le 23:34,43). It began on the 15th of the month Tisri (end of September) and lasted seven days and finally eight days in post-exilic times (Ne 8:18). It was one of the chief feasts of the Jews.

7:3 {His brethren} (hoi adelphoi autou). "His brothers" (half-brothers actually), who "were not believing on him" (oude episteuon eis auton) as stated in verse 5. They were hostile to the Messianic assumptions of Jesus, a natural attitude as one can well see, though at first they were friendly (2:12). {Depart hence} (metabˆthi enteuthen). Second aorist active imperative of metabain“, to pass to another place (5:24; 13:1). It was impertinence on their part.
{That thy disciples also may behold} (hina kai hoi mathˆtai sou the“rˆsousin). Final clause with hina and the future active indicative of the“re“. Jesus had many disciples in Judea at the start (2:23; 4:1) and had left it because of the jealousy of the Pharisees over his success (4:3). The brothers may have heard of the great defection in the synagogue in Capernaum (6:66), but the advice is clearly ironical.
{Which thou doest} (ha poieis). To what works they refer by this language we do not know. But Jesus had been away from Galilee for some months and from Judea for a year and a half. Perhaps the brothers of Jesus may actually have been eager to rush Jesus into the hostile atmosphere of Jerusalem again.

7:4 {In secret} (en krupt“i). See Mt 6:4,6 for this phrase. {Openly} (en parrˆsiƒi). "In public" (pƒn, rˆsis, telling it all). See on »Mt 8:32. Common in John (7:13,26; 10:24; 16:25,29; 18:20; here again contrasted with en krupt“i). It is wise advice in the abstract that a public teacher must allow inspection of his deeds, but the motive is evil. They might get Jesus into trouble. If thou doest these things (ei tauta poieis). This condition of the first class assumes the reality of the deeds of Jesus, but the use of the condition at all throws doubt on it all as in Mt 4:3,6.
{Manifest thyself} (phaner“son seauton). First aorist active imperative of phanero“.
{To the world} (t“i kosm“i). Not just to "thy disciples," but to the public at large as at the feast of tabernacles. See 8:26; 14:22 for this use of kosmos.

7:5 {For even his brethren did not believe on him} (oude gar hoi adelphoi autou episteuon eis auton). Literally, "For not even were his brothers believing on him." Imperfect tense of pisteu“ with sad picture of the persistent refusal of the brothers of Jesus to believe in his Messianic assumptions, after the two rejections in Capernaum (Lu 4:16-31; Mr 6:1-6; Mt 13:54-58), and also after the blasphemous accusation of being in league with Beelzebub when the mother and brothers came to take Jesus home (Mr 3:31-35; Mt 12:46-50; Lu 8:19-21). The brothers here are sarcastic.

7:6 {My time is not yet come} (ho kairos ho emos oup“ parestin). Only use with verse 8 of kairos in this Gospel, elsewhere chronos (Joh 5:6) or more often h“ra (2:4) "the predestined hour" (Bernard). Here kairos is the fitting or proper occasion for Christ's manifesting himself publicly to the authorities as Messiah as in verse 8. At the feast of tabernacles Jesus did make such public claims (7:29,33; 8:12,28,38,42,58). Parestin is present active indicative of pareimi, old compound, to be by, to be present. The brothers of Jesus had the regular Jewish obligation to go up to the feast, but the precise day was a matter of indifference to them.

7:7 {Cannot hate} (ou dunatai misein). Because of "the law of moral correspondence" (Westcott), often in John for "inherent impossibility" (Vincent). The brothers of Jesus here belong to the unbelieving world (kosmos) which is unable to love Jesus (15:18,23,24) and which Jesus had already exposed ("testify," martur“, 5:42,45). This unbelieving "world" resented the exposure (3:19, cf. 18:37).

7:8 {Go ye up to the feast} (humeis anabˆte eis tˆn heortˆn). The emphatic word by position is humeis (ye) in contrast with eg“ (I). Second aorist active imperative of anabain“, old and common verb for going up to the feast (2:13) or anywhere. Take your own advice (7:3).
{I go not up yet} (eg“ oup“ anabain“). So Westcott and Hort after B W L (Neutral) while ou (not) is read by Aleph D, African Latin, Vulgate, Coptic (Western). Some of the early Greek Fathers were puzzled over the reading ouk (I go not up) as contradictory to verse 10 wherein it is stated that Jesus did go up. Almost certainly ouk (not) is correct and is not really contradictory when one notes in verse 10 that the manner of Christ's going up is precisely the opposite of the advice of the brothers in verses 3,4. "Not yet" (oup“) is genuine before "fulfilled" (peplˆr“tai, perfect passive indicative of plˆro“). One may think, if he will, that Jesus changed his plans after these words, but that is unnecessary. He simply refused to fall in with his brothers' sneering proposal for a grand Messianic procession with the caravan on the way to the feast. He will do that on the journey to the last passover.

7:9 {He abode still in Galilee} (emeinen en tˆi Galilaiƒi). No "still" (eti) in the Greek text. The constative aorist active indicative emeinen covers a period of some days.

7:10 {Were gone up} (anebˆsan). Second aorist active indicative of anabain“, not past perfect though the action is antecedent in fact to the following tote anebˆ. The Greek does not always draw the precise distinction between the merely punctiliar (aorist) antecedent action and the past perfect (2:9; 4:45). {He also} (tote autos). As well as the brothers.
{Not publicly} (ou phaner“s). Against their advice in verse 4, using phaner“son (the very same word stem).
{But as it were in secret} (alla h“s en krupt“i). "Not with the usual caravan of pilgrims" (Bernard). Just the opposite of their advice in verse 4 with the same phrase en phaner“i. Plainly Jesus purposely went contrary to the insincere counsel of his brothers as to the manner of his Messianic manifestation. This secrecy concerned solely the journey to Jerusalem, not his public teaching there after his arrival (7:26,28; 18:20).

7:11 {The Jews} (hoi Ioudaioi). The hostile leaders in Jerusalem, not the Galilean crowds (7:12) nor the populace in Jerusalem (7:25).
{Sought} (ezˆtoun). Imperfect active of zˆte“, "were seeking," picture of the attitude of the Jewish leaders toward Jesus who had not yet appeared in public at the feast. In fact he had avoided Jerusalem since the collision in chapter 5. The leaders clearly wished to attack him.
{Where is he?} (pou estin ekeinos;). "Where is that one? (emphatic use of ekeinos as in 1:8; 9:12). Jesus had been at two feasts during his ministry (passover in 2:12ff.; possibly another passover in 5:1), but he had avoided the preceding passover (6:4; 7:1). The leaders in Jerusalem had kept in touch with Christ's work in Galilee. They anticipate a crisis in Jerusalem.

7:12 {Much murmuring} (goggusmos polus). This Ionic onomatopoetic word is from gogguz“ for which verb see 6:41,61; 7:32, for secret displeasure (Ac 6:1) or querulous discontent (Php 2:14).
{Among the multitudes} (en tois ochlois). "The multitudes" literally, plural here only in John. These different groups were visitors from Galilee and elsewhere and were divided in their opinion of Jesus as the Galileans had already become (6:66).
{A good man} (agathos). Pure in motive. See Mr 10:17f.; Ro 5:7 (absolute sense of God). Superior to dikaios. Jesus had champions in these scattered groups in the temple courts.
{Not so, but he leadeth the multitude astray} (ou, alla planƒi ton ochlon). Sharp clash in the crowd. Present active indicative of plana“, to go astray (Mt 18:12f.), like our "planets," to lead others astray (Mt 24:4,5,11, etc.). In the end the rulers will call Jesus "that deceiver" (ekeinos ho planos, Mt 27:63). The Jewish leaders have a following among the crowds as is seen (7:31f.).

7:13 {Howbeit} (mentoi). See 4:27 for this compound particle (men, toi), by way of exception, but yet.
{Spake} (elalei). Imperfect active of lale“, "was speaking," picturing the whispering or secret talk ({no man openly}, oudeis parrˆsiƒi). Best MSS. do not have en here with parrˆsiƒi (locative or instrumental case of manner) as in 7:26; 10:24; 11:54, but en genuine in 7:4; Col 2:15. This adverbial use of parrˆsiƒi is common enough (Mr 8:37).
{For fear of the Jews} (dia ton phobon t“n Ioudai“n). Objective genitive. The crowds really feared the Jewish leaders and evidently did not wish to involve Jesus or themselves. See the same phrase and attitude on the part of the disciples in 19:38; 20:19.

7:14 {But when it was now in the midst of the feast} (ˆdˆ de tˆs heortˆs mesousˆs). Literally, "But feast being already midway." Genitive absolute, present active participle, of meso“, old verb from mesos, in LXX, here only in N.T. The feast of tabernacles was originally seven days, but a last day (verse 37; Le 23:36) was added, making eight in all.
{And taught} (kai edidasken). Imperfect active of didask“, probably inchoative, "began to teach." He went up (anebˆ, effective aorist, arrived). The leaders had asked (verse 11) where Jesus was. There he was now before their very eyes.

7:15 {Marvelled} (ethaumazon). Picturesque imperfect active of thaumaz“, "were wondering." After all the bluster of the rulers (verse 13) here was Jesus teaching without interruption. {Knoweth letters} (grammata oiden). Second perfect active indicative used as present. Grammata, old word from graph“, to write, is originally the letters formed (Ga 6:11), then a letter or epistle (Ac 28:21), then the sacred Scriptures (Joh 5:47; 2Ti 3:15), then learning like Latin "litterae" and English letters (Ac 26:24; Joh 7:15). "The marvel was that Jesus showed Himself familiar with the literary methods of the time, which were supposed to be confined to the scholars of the popular teachers" (Westcott).
{Having never learned} (mˆ memathˆk“s). Perfect active participle of manthan“ with , the usual negative (subjective) with the participle. It is not the wisdom of Jesus that disconcerted the Jewish leaders, but his learning (Marcus Dods). And yet Jesus had not attended either of the rabbinical theological schools in Jerusalem (Hillel, Shammai). He was not a rabbi in the technical sense, only a carpenter, and yet he surpassed the professional rabbis in the use of their own methods of debate. It is sometimes true today that unschooled men in various walks of life forge ahead of men of lesser gifts with school training. See the like puzzle of the Sanhedrin concerning Peter and John (Ac 4:13). This is not an argument against education, but it takes more than education to make a real man. Probably this sneer at Jesus came from some of the teachers in the Jerusalem seminaries. "Christ was in the eyes of the Jews a merely self-taught enthusiast" (Westcott).

7:16 {Mine} (emˆ). Possessive pronoun, "not mine in origin." Jesus denies that he is self-taught, though not a schoolman.
{But his that sent me} (alla tou pempsantos me). Genitive case of the articular participle (first aorist active of pemp“). His teaching is not self-originated nor is it the product of the schools (see the Talmud in contrast with the New Testament). Jesus often in John uses this idiom of "the one who sent me" of the Father (4:34; 5:23,24,30,37; 6:38-40,44; 7:16,18,28, etc.). The bold claim is here made by Jesus that his teaching is superior in character and source to that of the rabbis.

7:17 {If any man willeth to do} (ean tis thelˆi poiein). Condition of third class with ean and present active subjunctive thelˆi not used as a mere auxiliary verb for the future "will do," but with full force of thel“, to will, to wish. See the same use of thel“ in 5:40 "and yet ye are not willing to come" (kai ou thelete elthein).
{He shall know} (gn“setai). Future middle indicative of gin“sk“. Experimental knowledge from willingness to do God's will. See this same point by Jesus in 5:46; 18:37. There must be moral harmony between man's purpose and God's will. "If there be no sympathy there can be no understanding" (Westcott). Atheists of all types have no point of contact for approach to the knowledge of Christ. This fact does not prove the non-existence of God, but simply their own isolation. They are out of tune with the Infinite. For those who love God it is also true that obedience to God's will brings richer knowledge of God. Agnostic and atheistic critics are disqualified by Jesus as witnesses to his claims.
{Of God} (ek tou theou). Out of God as source.
{From myself} (ap' emautou). Instead of from God.

7:18 {From himself} (aph' heautou). This kind of teacher is self-taught, pushes his own ideas, presses his own claims for position and glory, "blows his own horn" as we say. Jesus is the other type of teacher, seeks the glory of the one who sent him, whose herald and ambassador he is.
{The same} (houtos). "This one."
{Unrighteousness} (adikia). Old word from adikos (a privative and dikˆ). Here in contrast with "true" (alˆthˆs). See 2Th 2:10; 1Co 13:6 for the deceit of unrighteousness in contrast with truth as here.

7:19 {And yet} (kai). Clear use of kai in the adversative sense of "and yet" or "but." They marvelled at Christ's "ignorance" and boasted of their own knowledge of the law of Moses. And yet they violated that law by not practising it.
{Why seek ye to kill me?} (Ti me zˆteite apokteinai;). A sudden and startling question as an illustration of their failure to do the law of Moses. Jesus had previously known (5:39,45-47) that the Jews really rejected the teaching of Moses while professing to believe it. On that very occasion they had sought to kill him (5:18), the very language used here. Apparently he had not been to Jerusalem since then. He undoubtedly alludes to their conduct then and charges them with the same purpose now.

7:20 {The multitude} (ho ochlos). Outside of Jerusalem (the Galilean crowd as in verses 11f.) and so unfamiliar with the effort to kill Jesus recorded in 5:18. It is important in this chapter to distinguish clearly the several groups like the Jewish leaders (7:13,15,25,26,30,32, etc.), the multitude from Galilee and elsewhere (10-13,20,31,40,49), the common people of Jerusalem (25), the Roman soldiers (45f.).
{Thou hast a devil} (daimonion echeis). "Demon," of course, as always in the Gospels. These pilgrims make the same charge against Jesus made long ago by the Pharisees in Jerusalem in explanation of the difference between John and Jesus (Mt 11:18; Lu 7:33). It is an easy way to make a fling like that. "He is a monomaniac labouring under a hallucination that people wish to kill him" (Dods).

7:21 {One work} (hen ergon). Direct allusion to the healing of the impotent man when in Jerusalem before (5:1ff.). He had wrought others before (2:23; 4:45), but this one on the Sabbath caused the rulers to try to kill Jesus (5:18). Some wondered then, others had murder in their hearts. This crowd here is ignorant.

7:22 {For this cause} (dia touto). Some would take this phrase with the preceding verb thaumazete (ye marvel for this cause). {Hath given} (ded“ken). Present active indicative of did“mi (permanent state).
{Not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers} (ouch hoti ek tou M“use“s estin all' ek t“n pater“n). A parenthesis to explain that circumcision is older in origin than Moses.
{And on the sabbath ye circumcise} (kai en sabbat“i peritemnete). Adversative use of kai=and yet as in 19. That is to say, the Jews keep one law (circumcision) by violating another (on the Sabbath, the charge against him in chapter 5, healing on the Sabbath).

7:23 {That the law of Moses may not be broken} (hina mˆ luthˆi ho nomos M“use“s). Purpose clause with negative and first aorist passive subjunctive of lu“. They are punctilious about their Sabbath rules and about circumcision on the eighth day. When they clash, they drop the Sabbath rule and circumcise.
{Are ye wroth with me?} (emoi cholƒte;). Old word from cholˆ (bile, gall), possibly from chloˆ or chl“ros (yellowish green). Only here in N.T. So to be mad. With dative. Vivid picture of bitter spleen against Jesus for healing a man on the sabbath when they circumcise on the Sabbath.
{A man every whit whole} (holon anthr“pon hugiˆ). Literally, "a whole (holon) man (all the man) sound (hugiˆ, well)," not just one member of the body mended.

7:24 {According to appearance} (kat' opsin). And so, superficially. See 11:44. Also not "righteous" (dikaian) judgment.

7:25 {Some therefore of them of Jerusalem} (oun tines ek t“n Ierosolumeit“n). The people of the city in contrast to the multitude of pilgrims at the feast. They form a separate group. The word is made from Ierosoluma and occurs in Josephus and IV Maccabees. In N.T. only here and Mr 1:5. These Jerusalem people knew better than the pilgrims the designs of the rulers (Vincent).
{Is not this?} (ouch houtos estin;). Expecting affirmative answer. Clearly they were not as familiar with the appearance of Jesus as the Galilean multitude (Dods).
{They seek} (zˆtousin). The plural refers to the group of leaders already present (7:15) to whom the Jerusalem crowd probably pointed. They knew of their threats to kill Jesus (5:18).

7:26 {They say nothing unto him} (ouden autoi legousin). But only make sneering comments about him (7:16) in spite of his speaking "openly" (parrˆsiƒi, for which word see 7:13; 18:20) before all. lt was sarcasm about the leaders, though an element of surprise on the part of "these shrewd townsmen" (Bernard) may have existed also.
{Can it be that the rulers indeed know} (mˆ pote alˆth“s egn“sin hoi archontes). Negative answer expected by mˆ pote and yet there is ridicule of the rulers in the form of the question. See a like use of mˆ pote in Lu 3:15, though nowhere else in John. Egn“san (second aorist ingressive active indicative of gin“sk“) may refer to the examination of Jesus by these rulers in 5:19ff. and means, "Did they come to know or find out" (and so hold now)? {That this is the Christ} (hoti houtos estin ho Christos). The Messiah of Jewish hope.

7:27 {Howbeit} (alla). Clearly adversative here.
{This man} (touton). Possibly contemptuous use of houtos as may be true in 25,26.
{Whence he is} (pothen estin). The Galilean Jews knew the family of Jesus (6:42), but they knew Jesus only as from Nazareth, not as born in Bethlehem (verse 42).
{When the Christ cometh} (ho Christos hotan erchˆtai). Prolepsis of ho Christos and indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the present middle subjunctive erchˆtai rather than the more usual second aorist active elthˆi as in verse 31, a trifle more picturesque. This is a piece of popular theology. "Three things come wholly unexpected--Messiah, a godsend, and a scorpion" ("Sanhedrin" 97a). The rulers knew the birthplace to be Bethlehem (7:42; Mt 2:5f.), but some even expected the Messiah to drop suddenly from the skies as Satan proposed to Jesus to fall down from the pinnacle of the temple. The Jews generally expected a sudden emergence of the Messiah from concealment with an anointing by Elijah ("Apoc. of Bar". XXIX. 3; 2Esdr. 7:28; 13:32; Justin Martyr, "Tryph". 110).

7:28 {And I am not come of myself} (kai ap' emautou ouk elˆlutha). Kai here="and yet." Jesus repeats the claim of verse 17 and also in 5:30; 8:28; 12:49; 14:10.
{Whom ye know not} (hon humeis ouk oidate). Jesus passes by a controversy over the piece of popular theology to point out their ignorance of God the Father who sent him. He tersely agrees that they know something of him. Jesus says of these Jews that they know not God as in 8:19,55.

7:29 {I know him} (eg“ oida auton). In contrast to the ignorance of these people. See the same words in 8:55 and the same claim in 17:25; Mt 11:27; Lu 10:22 (the Johannine aerolite). "These three words contain the unique claim of Jesus, which is pressed all through the chapters of controversy with the Jews" (Bernard). Jesus is the Interpreter of God to men (Joh 1:18).
{And he sent me} (kakeinos me apesteilen). First aorist active indicative of apostell“, the very verb used of Jesus when he sent forth the twelve (Mt 10:5) and used by Jesus again of himself in Joh 17:3. He is the Father's Apostle to men.

7:30 {They sought therefore} (ezˆtoun oun). Imperfect active of zˆte“, inchoative or conative, they began to seek. Either makes sense. The subject is naturally some of the Jerusalemites (Westcott) rather than some of the leaders (Bernard).
{To take him} (auton piasai). First aorist active infinitive, Doric form from piaz“, from the usual piez“, occasionally so in the papyri, but piaz“ always in N.T. except Lu 6:38.
{And} (kai). Here = "but."
{Laid his hand} (epebalen tˆn cheira). Second aorist active indicative of epiball“, to cast upon. Old and common idiom for arresting one to make him a prisoner (Mt 26:50). See repetition in verse 44.
{His hour} (hˆ h“ra autou). In 13:1 we read that "the hour" had come, but that was "not yet" (oup“). "John is at pains to point out at every point that the persecution and death of Jesus followed a predestined course" (Bernard), as in 2:4; 7:6,8; 8:10; 10:39; 13:1, etc. {Was not yet come} (oup“ elˆluthei). Past perfect active of erchomai, as John looks back on the story.

7:31 {When the Christ shall come} (ho Christos hotan elthˆi). Proleptic position of ho Christos again as in 27, but elthˆi with hotan rather than erchˆtai, calling more attention to the consummation (whenever he does come).
{Will he do?} (mˆ poiˆsei;). Future active indicative of poie“ with (negative answer expected). Jesus had won a large portion of the pilgrims (ek tou ochlou polloi) either before this day or during this controversy. The use of episteusan (ingressive aorist active) looks as if many came to believe at this point. These pilgrims had watched closely the proceedings.
{Than those which} (h“n). One must supply the unexpressed antecedent tout“n in the ablative case after pleiona (more). Then the neuter plural accusative relative ha (referring to sˆmeia signs) is attracted to the ablative case of the pronominal antecedent tout“n (now dropped out).
{Hath done} (epoiˆsen). First aorist active indicative of poie“, a timeless constative aorist summing up all the miracles of Jesus so far.

7:32 {The Pharisees} (hoi Pharisaioi). This group of the Jewish rulers (7:11,15,25f.) was particularly hostile to Christ, though already the Sadducees had become critical (Mt 16:6) and they join here (hoi archiereis, the chief priests being Sadducees) in determining to silence Jesus by bringing him before the Sanhedrin. They had heard the whispered talk about Jesus before he arrived (7:12f.) and still more now.
{Heard the multitude murmuring} (ˆkousan tou ochlou gogguzontos). First aorist active indicative of akou“ with the genitive case and the descriptive participle of the vivid onomatopoetic verb gogguz“ (verse 12) now grown louder like the hum of bees. It was the defence of Jesus by a portion of the crowd (7:31) that irritated the Pharisees. Here the Pharisees take the initiative and enlist the Sadducees in the Sanhedrin (for this combination see 7:45; 11:47,57; Mt 21:45; 27:62, the organized court) to send "officers" (hupˆretas) "to take him" (hina pias“sin auton, final clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of piaz“ for which verb see verse 30). For hupˆretas (temple police here) see verse 45; 18:3,12,22; 19:6; Ac 5:22,26. For the word see Mt 5:25; Lu 1:2, "an under rower" (hupo, eretˆs), any assistant.

7:33 {Yet a little while} (eti chronon mikron). Accusative of extent of time. It was only six months to the last passover of Christ's ministry and he knew that the end was near.
{I go unto him that sent me} (hupag“ pros ton pempsanta me). See the same words in 16:5. Hupag“, old compound (hupo, ag“), has the notion of withdrawing (literally, go under). See 16:7-10 for three words for going common in John (poreuomai, go for a purpose, aperchomai, to go away, hupag“, to withdraw personally). Hupag“ often in John of going to the Father or God (8:14,21; 13:3,33,36; 14:4,5,28; 15:16; 16:4,7,10,17). See 6:21. It was enigmatic language to the hearers.

7:34 {And shall not find me} (kai ouch heurˆsete me). Future active indicative of heurisk“. Jesus had said: "Seek and ye shall find" (Mt 7:7), but this will be too late. Now they were seeking (verse 30) to kill Jesus, then they will seek deliverance, but too late.
{Where I am} (hopou eimi eg“). No conflict with verse 33, but the essential eternal spiritual home of Christ "in absolute, eternal being and fellowship with the Father" (Vincent).
{Ye cannot come} (humeis ou dunasthe elthein). This fellowship was beyond the comprehension of these hostile Jews. See the same idea in 7:36 by the Jews; 8:21 to the Jews and then to the disciples with the addition of "now" (arti, 13:33, nun in 13:36).

7:35 {Among themselves} (pros heautous). These Jewish leaders of verse 32 talk among themselves about what Jesus said in a spirit of contempt (this man or fellow, houtos).
{That} (hoti). Almost result like hoti in Mt 8:27.
{Will he go?} (mˆ mellei poreuesthai;). Negative answer expected in an ironical question, "Is he about to go?" {Unto the Dispersion among the Greeks} (eis tˆn diasporan t“n Hellˆn“n). Objective genitive t“n Hellˆn“n (of the Greeks) translated here "among," because it is the Dispersion of Jews among the Greeks. Diaspora is from diaspeir“, to scatter apart (Ac 8:1,4). It occurs in Plutarch and is common in the LXX, in the N.T. only here, Jas 1:1; 1Pe 1:1. There were millions of these scattered Jews.
{And teach the Greeks} (kai didaskein tous Hellˆnas). Confessing his failure to teach the Jews in Palestine, "thus ignorantly anticipating the course Christianity took; what seemed unlikely and impossible to them became actual" (Dods).

7:36 {What is this word?} (Tis estin ho logos houtos;). Puzzled and uneasy over this unintelligible saying. Even Peter is distressed over it later (13:37).

7:37 {Now on the last day} (en de tˆi eschatˆi hˆmerƒi). The eighth day which was "an holy convocation," kept as a Sabbath (Le 33:36), apparently observed as a memorial of the entrance into Canaan, hence "the great day of the feast" (tˆi megalˆi tˆs heortˆs).
{Stood and cried} (histˆkei kai ekrasen). Past perfect active of histˆmi used as imperfect and intransitive and first aorist active of kraz“. Picture Jesus standing (linear) and suddenly crying out (punctiliar).
{If any man thirst} (ean tis dipsƒi). Third class condition with ean and present active subjunctive of dipsa“, "if any one is thirsty." On each of the seven preceding days water was drawn in a golden pitcher from the pool of Siloam and carried in procession to the temple and offered by the priests as the singers chanted Isa 12:3: "With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." "It is uncertain whether the libations were made upon the eighth day. If they were not made, the significant cessation of the striking rite on this one day of the feast would give a still more fitting occasion for the words" (Westcott).

7:38 {He that believeth on me} (ho pisteu“n eis eme). Nominative absolute as is not uncommon.
{The scripture} (hˆ graphˆ). No precise passage can be quoted, though similar idea in several (Isa 55:1; 58:11; Zec 13:1; 14:8; Eze 47:1; Joe 3:18). Chrysostom confines it to Isa 28:16 by punctuation (only the nominative absolute as the Scripture).
{Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water} (potamoi ek tˆs koilias autou reusousin hudatos z“ntos). Some ancient Western writers connect pinet“ of verse 37 with ho pisteu“n in verse 38. By this arrangement autou (his) with koilias is made to refer to Christ, not to the believer. Burney argues that koilia is a mistranslation of the Aramaic (fountain, not belly) and that the reference is to Eze 47:1. C.C. Torrey refers to Zec 14:8. But the Eastern writers refer autou (his) to the believer who not only quenches in Christ his own thirst, but becomes a source of new streams for others (Joh 4:14). It is a difficult question and Westcott finally changed his view and held autou to refer to Christ. Reusousin is future active indicative of re“, old verb, to flow, here only in the N.T.

7:39 {Which} (hou). Genitive by attraction of the relative ho (accusative singular object of lambanein) to the case of tou pneumatos (the Spirit) the antecedent. But it is purely grammatical gender (neuter ho because of pneuma) which we do not have in English. Even here one should say "whom," not which, of the Spirit of God.
{Were to receive} (emellon lambanein). Imperfect active of mell“ with the present active infinitive lambanein, to receive, one of the three constructions with mell“ (present, aorist, or future infinitive). Literally, "whom they were about to receive," a clear reference to the great pentecost.
{For the Spirit was not yet given} (oup“ gar ˆn pneuma). No verb for "given" in the Greek. The reference is not to the existence of the Spirit, but to the dispensation of the Spirit. This same use of eimi like pareimi (to be present) appears in Ac 19:2 of the Spirit's activity. John, writing at the close of the century, inserts this comment and interpretation of the language of Jesus as an allusion to the coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost (the Promise of the Father).
{Because Jesus was not yet glorified} (hoti Iˆsous oup“ edoxasthˆ). Reason for the previous statement, the pentecostal outpouring following the death of Jesus here called "glorified" (edoxasthˆ, first aorist passive indicative of doxaz“), used later of the death of Jesus (12:16), even by Jesus himself (12:23; 13:31).

7:40 {Some of the multitude} (ek tou ochlou). Tines (some) to be supplied, a common Greek idiom.
{Of a truth} (alˆth“s). "Truly." See 1:47.
{The prophet} (ho prophˆtˆs). The one promised to Moses (De 18:15) and long expected. See on John »1:21. Proof of the deep impression made by Jesus.

7:41 {This is the Christ} (houtos estin ho Christos). These went further and dared to call Jesus the Messiah and not merely the prophet who might not be the Messiah. They said it openly. {What} (gar). These denied that Jesus was the Messiah and gave as their reason (gar, for) the fact that he came from Galilee. The use of expects a negative answer.

7:42 {The scripture} (hˆ graphˆ). The reference is to Mic 5:2, the very passage quoted by the chief priests and scribes in response to Herod's inquiry (Mt 2:6). This ignorance of the fact that Jesus was actually born in Bethlehem belongs to the Jews, not to John the author of the Gospel.

7:43 {A division} (schisma). A clear split. See Mt 9:16 for the word from schiz“, to rend. Used again in Joh 9:16; 10:19.

7:44 {Would have taken him} (ˆthelon piƒsai auton). Imperfect active of thel“ and first aorist active infinitive of piaz“, "were wishing to seize him." See verse 30 for a like impulse and restraint, there epebalen ep' auton, here ebalen ep' auton (simple verb, not compound).

7:45 {Why did ye not bring him?} (Dia ti ouk ˆgagete auton;). Second aorist active indicative of ag“. Indignant outburst of the Sanhedrin (both Sadducees and Pharisees) at the failure of the (tous, note article here referring to verse 32) temple police to arrest Jesus. "Apparently they were sitting in expectation of immediately questioning him" (Dods). They were stunned at this outcome.

7:46 {Never man so spake} (oudepote elalˆsen hout“s anthr“pos). Police officers are not usually carried away by public speech. They had fallen under the power of Jesus "as the Galilean peasants had been impressed" (Bernard) in verses 28f. It was the words of Jesus that had so gripped these officers, not his works (15:24). It was most disconcerting to the Sanhedrin.

7:47 {Are ye also led astray?} (Mˆ kai humeis peplanˆsthe;). The Pharisees took the lead in this scornful sneer at the officers. The use of formally expects a negative answer as in 4:29, but the Pharisees really believed it. See also 6:67. The verb form is perfect passive indicative of plana“, for which see verse 12 with perhaps an allusion to that phase of opinion.

7:48 {Hath any of the rulers believed on him?} (Mˆ tis ek t“n archont“n episteusen eis auton;). Negative answer sharply expected. First aorist active indicative of pisteu“. "Did any one of the rulers believe on him?" "What right have subordinates to have a mind of their own?" (Dods). These police were employed by the temple authorities (rulers). "Power was slipping through their fingers" (Dods) and that was the secret of their hostility to Jesus.
{Or of the Pharisees} (ˆ ek t“n Pharisai“n). A wider circle and the most orthodox of all.

7:49 {This multitude} (ho ochlos houtos). The Pharisees had a scorn for the "amhaaretz" or "people of the earth" (cf. our "clod-hoppers") as is seen in rabbinic literature. It was some of the ochlos (multitude at the feast especially from Galilee) who had shown sympathy with Jesus (7:12,28f.).
{Which knoweth not the law} (ho mˆ ginosk“n). Present active articular participle of gin“sk“ with usual negative of the participle in the "Koin‚". "No brutish man is sin-fearing, nor is one of the people of the earth pious" ("Aboth", II. 6). See the amazement of the Sanhedrin at Peter and John in Ac 4:13 as "unlettered and private men" (agrammatoi kai idi“tai). No wonder the common people (ochlos) heard Jesus gladly (Mr 12:37). The rabbis scouted and scorned them.
{Are accursed} (eparatoi eisin). Construction according to sense (plural verb and adjective with collective singular ochlos). Eparatoi is old verbal adjective from eparaomai, to call down curses upon, here only in the N.T.

7:50 {Nicodemus} (Nikodˆmos). Not heard from since chapter 3 when he timidly came to Jesus by night. Now he boldly protests against the injustice of condemning Jesus unheard. He appears once more (and only in John) in 19:39 with Joseph of Arimathea as a secret disciple of Jesus. He is a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin and his present act is courageous.
{Saith} (legei). Dramatic present active indicative as in 2:3. {Before} (proteron). This is genuine, a reference to the visit in chapter 3, but nuktos (by night) is not genuine here.
{Being one of them} (heis “n ex aut“n). As a member of the Sanhedrin he takes up the challenge in verse 48. He is both ruler and Pharisee.

7:51 {Doth our law judge a man?} (mˆ ho nomos hˆm“n krinei ton anthr“pon;). Negative answer expected and "the man," not "a man." These exponents of the law (verse 49) were really violating the law of criminal procedure (Ex 23:1; De 1:16). Probably Nicodemus knew that his protest was useless, but he could at least show his colours and score the point of justice in Christ's behalf.
{Except it first hear from himself} (ean mˆ akousˆi pr“ton par' autou). Third-class negative condition with ean mˆ and first aorist active subjunctive of akou“. That is common justice in all law, to hear a man's side of the case ("from him," par' autou).
{And know what he doeth} (kai gn“i ti poiei). Continuation of the same condition with second aorist active subjunctive of gin“sk“ with indirect question and present active indicative (ti poiei). There was no legal answer to the point of Nicodemus.

7:52 {Art thou also of Galilee?} (Mˆ kai su ek tˆs Galilaias ei;). Formally negative answer expected by , but really they mean to imply that Nicodemus from local feeling or prejudice has lined himself up with this Galilean mob (ochlos) of sympathizers with Jesus and is like Jesus himself a Galilean. "These aristocrats of Jerusalem had a scornful contempt for the rural Galileans" (Bernard).
{That out of Galilee ariseth no prophet} (hoti ek tˆs Galilaias prophˆtˆs ouk egeiretai). As a matter of fact Jonah, Hosea, Nahum, possibly also Elijah, Elisha, and Amos were from Galilee. It was simply the rage of the Sanhedrin against Jesus regardless of the facts. Westcott suggests that they may have reference to the future, but that is a mere excuse for them.

7:53 This verse and through 8:12 (the passage concerning the woman taken in adultery) is certainly not a genuine part of John's Gospel. The oldest and best MSS. (Aleph A B C L W) do not have it. It first appears in Codex Bezae. Some MSS. put it at the close of John's Gospel and some place it in Luke. It is probably a true story for it is like Jesus, but it does not belong to John's Gospel. The Canterbury Version on which we are commenting puts the passage in brackets. Westcott and Hort place it at the end of the Gospel. With this explanation we shall proceed.
{They went} (eporeuthˆsan). First aorist passive indicative of poreuomai used as a deponent verb without passive idea. In this context the verb has to refer to the Sanhedrin with a rather pointless contrast to Jesus.


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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 7)



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