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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 14)

14:1 {Let not your heart be troubled} (mˆ tarassesth“ hum“n hˆ kardia). Not here the physical organ of life (Lu 21:34), but the seat of spiritual life (pneuma, psuchˆ), the centre of feeling and faith (Ro 10:10), "the focus of the religious life" (Vincent) as in Mt 22:37. See these words repeated in 14:27. Jesus knew what it was to have a "troubled" heart (11:33; 13:31) where tarass“ is used of him. Plainly the hearts of the disciples were tossed like waves in the wind by the words of Jesus in 13:38.
{Ye believe ... believe also} (pisteuete ... kai pisteuete). So translated as present active indicative plural second person and present active imperative of pisteu“. The form is the same. Both may be indicative (ye believe ... and ye believe), both may be imperative (believe ... and believe or believe also), the first may be indicative (ye believe) and the second imperative (believe also), the first may be imperative (keep on believing) and the second indicative (and ye do believe, this less likely). Probably both are imperatives (Mr 11:22), "keep on believing in God and in me."

14:2 {Mansions} (monai). Old word from men“, to abide, abiding places, in N.T. only here and verse 23. There are many resting-places in the Father's house (oikia). Christ's picture of heaven here is the most precious one that we possess. It is our heavenly home with the Father and with Jesus.
{If it were not so} (ei de mˆ). Ellipsis of the verb (Mr 2:21; Re 2:5,16; Joh 14:11). Here a suppressed condition of the second class (determined as unfulfilled) as the conclusion shows.
{I would have told you} (eipon an humin). Regular construction for this apodosis (an and aorist--second active--indicative).
{For I go} (hoti poreuomai). Reason for the consolation given, futuristic present middle indicative, and explanation of his words in 13:33 that puzzled Peter so (13:36f.).
{To prepare a place for you} (hetoimasai topon humin). First aorist active infinitive of purpose of hetoimaz“, to make ready, old verb from hetoimos. Here only in John, but in Mr 10:40 (Mt 20:23). It was customary to send one forward for such a purpose (Nu 10:33). So Jesus had sent Peter and John to make ready (this very verb) for the passover meal (Mr 14:12; Mt 26:17). Jesus is thus our Forerunner (prodromos) in heaven (Heb 6:20).

14:3 {If I go} (ean poreuth“). Third-class condition (ean and first aorist passive subjunctive of poreuomai).
{And prepare} (kai hetoimas“). Same condition and first aorist active subjunctive of the same verb hetoimaz“.
{I come again} (palin erchomai). Futuristic present middle, definite promise of the second coming of Christ.
{And will receive you unto myself} (kai paralˆmpsomai humas pros emauton). Future middle of paralamban“. Literally, "And I shall take you along (para-) to my own home" (cf. 13:36). This blessed promise is fulfilled in death for all believers who die before the Second Coming. Jesus comes for us then also.
{That where I am there ye may be also} (hina hopou eimi eg“ kai humeis ˆte). Purpose clause with hina and present active subjunctive of eimi. This the purpose of the departure and the return of Christ. And this is heaven for the believer to be where Jesus is and with him forever.

14:4 {Ye know the way} (oidate tˆn hodon). Definite allusion to the puzzle of Peter in 13:36f. The path to the Father's house is now plain.

14:5 {Whither} (pou)--{how} (p“s). It is Thomas, not Peter (13:36f.) who renews the doubt about the destination of Jesus including the path or way thither (tˆn hodon). Thomas is the spokesman for the materialistic conception then and now.

14:6 {I am the way, and the truth, and the life} (Eg“ eimi hˆ hodos kai hˆ alˆtheia kai hˆ z“ˆ). Either of these statements is profound enough to stagger any one, but here all three together overwhelm Thomas. Jesus had called himself "the life" to Martha (11:25) and "the door" to the Pharisees (10:7) and "the light of the world" (8:12). He spoke "the way of God in truth" (Mr 12:14). He is the way to God and the only way (verse 6), the personification of truth, the centre of life.
{Except by me} (ei mˆ di' emou). There is no use for the Christian to wince at these words of Jesus. If he is really the Incarnate Son of God (1:1,14,18, they are necessarily true.)

14:7 {If ye had known me} (ei egn“keite me). Past perfect indicative of gin“sk“, to know by personal experience, in condition of second class as is made plain by the conclusion (an ˆidete) where oida, not gin“sk“ is used. Thomas and the rest had not really come to know Jesus, much as they loved him.
{From henceforth ye know him} (ap' arti gin“skete auton). Probably inchoative present active indicative, "ye are beginning to know the Father from now on."
{And have seen him} (kai he“rakate). Perfect active indicative of hora“. Because they had seen Jesus who is the Son of God, the Image of God, and like God (1:18). Hence God is like Jesus Christ. It is a bold and daring claim to deity. The only intelligible conception of God is precisely what Jesus here says. God is like Christ.

14:8 {Show us} (deixon hˆmin). Philip now speaks up, possibly hoping for a theophany (Ex 33:18f.), certainly not grasping the idea of Jesus just expressed.

14:9 {So long time} (tosouton chronon). Accusative of extent of time.
{And dost thou not know me?} (kai ouk egn“kas me;). Perfect active indicative of gin“sk“. Jesus patiently repeats his language to Philip with the crisp statement: "he that hath seen me hath seen the Father" (ho he“rak“s eme e“raken ton patera). Perfect active participle and perfect active indicative of hora“, state of completion.
{Thou} (su). Emphatic--After these years together.

14:10 {Believest thou not?} (ou pisteueis;). Jesus had a right to expect greater faith from these men than from the blind man (9:35) or Martha (11:27). His words in 14:1 are clearly needed. This oneness with the Father Jesus had already stated (10:38) as shown by his "words" (rˆmata) and his "works" (erga). Cf. 3:34; 5:19; 6:62.

14:11 {Believe me} (pisteuete moi). Repeated appeal (present active imperative of pisteu“) as in 14:1 to his disciples and as he had done with the hostile Jews to be influenced by his "works" at any rate (10:38).

14:12 {Shall he do also} (kakeinos poiˆsei). Emphatic pronoun ekeinos, "that one also."
{Greater works than these} (meizona tout“n). Comparative adjective neuter plural from megas with ablative case tout“n. Not necessarily greater miracles and not greater spiritual works in quality, but greater in quantity. Cf. Peter at Pentecost and Paul's mission tours. "Because I go" (hoti eg“ poreuornai). Reason for this expansion made possible by the Holy Spirit as Paraclete (16:7).

14:13 {Whatsoever ye shall ask} (hoti an aitˆsˆte). Indefinite relative clause with hoti (neuter accusative singular of hostis), an and the aorist active subjunctive of aite“. This is an advance thought over verse 12.
{In my name} (en t“i onomati mou). First mention of his "name" as the open sesame to the Father's will. See also 14:26; 15:16; 16:23,24,26.
{That will I do} (touto poiˆs“). The Father answers prayers (15:16; 16:23), but so does the Son (here and verse 14). The purpose (hina clause with first aorist passive subjunctive of doxaz“) is "that the Father may be glorified in the Son." Plead Christ's name in prayer to the Father.

14:14 {If ye shall ask me anything in my name} (ean ti aitˆsˆte me en t“i onomati mou). Condition of third class with ean and first aorist active subjunctive of aite“. The use of me (me) here is supported by Aleph B 33 Vulgate Syriac Peshitta. Just this phrase does not occur elsewhere in John and seems awkward, but see 16:23. If it is genuine, as seems likely, here is direct prayer to Jesus taught as we see it practiced by Stephen in Ac 7:59; and in Re 22:20.

14:15 {If ye love me} (ean agapƒte me). Third-class condition "if ye keep on loving (present active subjunctive, same contract form as indicative) me." Cf. verse 23.
{Ye will keep} (tˆrˆsete). Future active of tˆre“, not aorist imperative tˆrˆsate (keep) as some MSS. have. For this phrase see also 8:51; 14:23,24; 14:20; 1Jo 2:5. Continued love prevents disobedience.

14:16 {And I will pray the Father} (kag“ er“tˆs“ ton patera). Er“ta“ for prayer, not question (the old use), also in 16:23 (prayer to Jesus in same sense as aite“), 26 (by Jesus as here); 17:9 (by Jesus), "make request of."
{Another Comforter} (allon paraklˆton). Another of like kind (allon, not heteron), besides Jesus who becomes our Paraclete, Helper, Advocate, with the Father (1Jo 2:1, Cf. Ro 8:26f.). This old word (Demosthenes), from parakale“, was used for legal assistant, pleader, advocate, one who pleads another's cause (Josephus, Philo, in illiterate papyrus), in N.T. only in John's writings, though the idea of it is in Ro 8:26-34. Cf. Deissmann, "Light, etc.", p. 336. So the Christian has Christ as his Paraclete with the Father, the Holy Spirit as the Father's Paraclete with us (Joh 14:16,26; 15:26; 16:7; 1Jo 2:1).
{For ever} (eis ton ai“na). This the purpose (hina) in view and thus Jesus is to be with his people here forever (Mt 28:20). See 4:14 for the idiom.

14:17 {The Spirit of truth} (to pneuma tˆs alˆtheias). Same phrase in 15:27; 16:13; 1Jo 4:6, "a most exquisite title" (Bengel). The Holy Spirit is marked by it (genitive case), gives it, defends it (cf. 1:17), in contrast to the spirit of error (1Jo 4:6).
{Whom} (ho). Grammatical neuter gender (ho) agreeing with pneuma (grammatical), but rightly rendered in English by "whom" and note masculine ekeinos (verse 26). He is a person, not a mere influence.
{Cannot receive} (ou dunatai labein). Left to itself the sinful world is helpless (1Co 2:14; Ro 8:7f.), almost Paul's very language on this point. The world lacks spiritual insight (ou the“rei) and spiritual knowledge (oude gin“skei). It failed to recognize Jesus (1:10) and likewise the Holy Spirit.
{Ye know him} (humeis gin“skete auto). Emphatic position of humeis (ye) in contrast with the world (15:19), because they have seen Jesus the Revealer of the Father (verse 9).
{Abides} (menei). Timeless present tense. {With you} (par' humin). "By your side," "at home with you," not merely "with you" (meth' hum“n) "in the midst of you."
{In you} (en humin). In your hearts. So note meta (16), para, en.

14:18 {I will not leave} (ouk aphˆs“). Future active of aphiˆmi, to send away, to leave behind.
{Desolate} (orphanous). Old word (orphos, Latin "orbus"), bereft of parents, and of parents bereft of children. Common in papyri of orphan children. In 13:33 Jesus called the disciples teknia (little children), and so naturally the word means "orphans" here, but the meaning may be "helpless" (without the other Paraclete, the Holy Spirit). The only other N.T. example is in Jas 1:27 where it means "fatherless."
{I come} (erchomai). Futuristic present as in verse 3.

14:19 {But ye behold me} (humeis de the“reite me). Emphatic position of humeis (ye) in contrast to the blind, unseeing world. Cf. 13:33; 16:10,16.
{Because I live, ye shall live also} (hoti eg“ z“ kai humeis zˆsete). This is our blessed guarantee of immortal, eternal life, the continued living of Jesus. He is the surety of a better covenant (Heb 7:22), the Risen Christ Jesus. He had said it before (6:57).

14:20 {In that day} (en ekeinˆi tˆi hˆmerƒi). The New Dispensation of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Christ's Resurrection and the Coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost. {Shall know} (gn“sesthe). Future middle of gin“sk“. Chapters 1 to 3 of Acts bear eloquent witness to these words.

14:21 {He it is that loveth me} (ekeinos estin ho agap“n me). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun ekeinos: "that is the one who loves me."
{And will manifest myself unto him} (kai emphanis“ aut“i emauton). Future active of emphaniz“, old verb from emphanˆs (Ac 10:40; Ro 10:20). The Unseen and Risen Christ will be a real and spiritual Presence to the obedient and loving believer.

14:22 {Not Iscariot} (ouch ho Iskari“tˆs). Judas Iscariot had gone (13:30), but John is anxious to make it clear that this Judas (common name, two apostles also named James) was not the infamous traitor. He is also called Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus (Mr 3:17; Mt 10:3) and the brother (or son) of James (6:15; Ac 1:13). This is the fourth interruption of the talk of Jesus (by Peter, 13:36; by Thomas, 14:5; by Philip, 14:8; by Judas, 14:22).
{And not to the world} (kai ouchi t“i kosm“i). Judas caught at the word emphaniz“ in verse 21 as perhaps a Messianic theophany visible to all the world as at the judgment (5:27f.). He seems to suspect a change of plan on the part of Jesus (ti gegonen hoti\=how has it happened that).

14:23 {If a man love me} (ean tis agapƒi me). Condition of third class with ean and present active subjunctive, "if one keep on loving me." That is key to the spiritual manifestation (emphaniz“).
{We will come} (eleusometha). Future middle of erchomai and first person plural (the Father and I), not at the judgment, but here and now.
{And make our abode with him} (kai monˆn par' aut“i poiˆsometha). See verse 2 for the word monˆ (dwelling, abiding place). If the Holy Spirit "abides" (menei, verse 17) in you, that heart becomes a temple (naos) of the Holy Spirit (1Co 3:16f.), and so a fit dwelling place for the Father and the Son, a glorious and uplifting reality.

14:24 {He that loveth me not} (ho mˆ agap“n me). Present active articular participle of agapa“ with negative , "the one who keeps on not loving me."
{Is not mine, but the Father's} (ouk estin emos, alla tou patros). Predicative possessive pronoun emos and the predicate genitive of possession patros.

14:25 {Have I spoken} (lelalˆka). Perfect active indicative of lale“, for permanent keeping (tˆre“ verse 23).
{While yet abiding with you} (par' humin men“n). Present active participle, no "yet" (eti) in the Greek, "while remaining beside (par') you" before departing for the coming of the other Paraclete.

14:26 {Whom} (ho). Grammatical neuter, but "whom" is correct translation. The Father will send the Holy Spirit (14:16; Lu 24:49; Ac 2:33), but so will the Son (Joh 15:26; 16:7) as Jesus breathes the Holy Spirit upon the disciples (20:22). There is no contradiction in this relation of the Persons in the Trinity (the Procession of the Holy Spirit). Here the Holy Spirit (full title as in Mr 3:29; Mt 12:32; Lu 12:10) is identified with the Paraclete.
{He} (ekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun and masculine like paraklˆtos.
{Shall teach you all things} (humas didaxei panta). The Holy Spirit knows "the deep things of God" (1Co 2:10) and he is our Teacher in the Dispensation of the Holy Spirit of both new truth (verse 25) and old.
{Bring to your remembrance} (hupomnˆsei humas). Future active indicative of hupomimnˆsk“, old verb to remind, to recall, here only in this Gospel (cf. 3Jo 1:10; 2Ti 2:14) and with two accusatives (person and thing). After pentecost the disciples will be able better to recall and to understand what Jesus had said (how dull they had been at times) and to be open to new revelations from God (cf. Peter at Joppa and Caesarea).

14:27 {My peace} (eirˆnˆn tˆn emˆn). This is Christ's bequest to the disciples before he goes, the "shalom" of the orient for greeting and parting, used by Jesus in his appearances after the resurrection (20:19,21,26) as in 2Jo 1:3; 3Jo 1:14, but here and in 16:33 in the sense of spiritual peace such as only Christ can give and which his Incarnation offers to men (Lu 2:14).
{Neither let it be fearful} (medˆ deiliat“). Added to the prohibition in verse 1, only N.T. example of deilia“ (rare word in Aristotle, in a papyrus of one condemned to death), common in LXX, like palpitating of the heart (from deilos).

14:28 {I go away, and I come} (hupag“ kai erchomai), both futuristic presents (7:33; 14:3,18).
{If ye loved me} (ei ˆgapƒte me). Second-class condition with the imperfect active of agapa“ referring to present time, implying that the disciples are not loving Jesus as they should.
{Ye would have rejoiced} (echarˆte an). Second aorist passive indicative of chair“ with an, conclusion of second-class condition referring to past time, "Ye would already have rejoiced before this" at Christ's going to the Father (verse 12).
{Greater than I} (meiz“n mou). Ablative case mou after the comparative meiz“n (from positive megas). The filial relation makes this necessary. Not a distinction in nature or essence (cf. 10:30), but in rank in the Trinity. No Arianism or Unitarianism here. The very explanation here is proof of the deity of the Son (Dods).

14:30 {The prince of the world} (ho tou kosmou arch“n). Satan as in 12:31 which see.

14:31 {But that the world may know} (all' hina gn“i ho kosmos). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of gin“sk“. Elliptical construction (cf. 9:3; 13:18; 15:25). "But I surrendered myself to death," etc., before hina.
{Arise, let us go hence} (egeiresthe, ag“men enteuthen). Imperative present middle of egeir“ and the volitive (hortatory) subjunctive ag“men (the word used in 11:7,16) of going to meet death. Apparently the group arose and walked out into the night and the rest of the talk (chs. 15 and 16) and prayer (ch. 17) was in the shadows on the way to Gethsemane.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(John: Chapter 14)

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