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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 2)

2:1 {Be strengthened} (endunamou). Present passive imperative of endunamoō. See already 1Ti 1:12; Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph 6:10. "Keep on being empowered," "keep in touch with the power." {In the grace that is in Christ Jesus} (en tēi chariti tēi en Christōi Iēsou). Where the power is located. Christ is the dynamo for power only when and while we keep in touch with him.

2:2 {From me} (par' emou). As in 1:13. Paul was Timothy's chief teacher of Christ.
{Among many witnesses} (dia pollōn marturōn). Plutarch has dia in this sense and Field ("Ot. Norv.") suggests that it is a legal phrase "supported by many witnesses." Not mere spectators, but testifiers. See Paul's use of dia 1Th 4:2; 2Co 2:4; Ro 2:27; 14:20. Paul in 1Co 15:1-8 gives many witnesses of the resurrection of Christ.
{Commit thou} (parathou). Second aorist middle imperative of paratithēmi (1Ti 1:18) to deposit, same metaphor as parathēkē in 1:12,14. "Deposit thou."
{Faithful} (pistois). "Trustworthy," "reliable," as in 1Ti 1:12 of Paul himself.
{Able} (hikanoi). Capable, qualified, as in 1Co 15:9; 2Co 2:16; 3:5.
{Others also} (kai heterous). Not necessarily "different," but "others in addition." This is the way to pass on the torch of the light of the knowledge of God in Christ. Paul taught Timothy who will teach others who will teach still others, an endless chain of teacher-training and gospel propaganda.

2:3 {Suffer hardship with me} (sunkakopathēson). See 1:8 for this verb. The old preacher challenges the young one to share hardship with him for Christ.
{As a good soldier} (hos kalos stratiōtēs). Paul does not hesitate to use this military metaphor (this word only here for a servant of Christ) with which he is so familiar. He had already used the metaphor in 1Co 9:7; 2Co 10:3f.; 1Ti 1:18. In Php 2:25 he called Epaphroditus "my fellow-soldier" (sunstratiōtēn mou) as he did Archippus in Phm 1:2.

2:4 {No soldier on service} (oudeis strateuomenos). "No one serving as a soldier." See 1Co 9:7 for this old verb and 2Co 10:3; 1Ti 1:18 for the metaphorical use.
{Entangleth himself} (empleketai). Old compound, to inweave (see Mt 27:29 for plekō), in N.T. only here and 2Pe 2:20. Present middle (direct) indicative.
{In the affairs} (tais pragmateiais). Old word (from pragmateuomai, Lu 19:13), business, occupation, only here in N.T.
{Of this life} (tou biou). No "this" in the Greek, "of life" (course of life as in 1Ti 2:2, not existence zōē).
{Him who enrolled him as a soldier} (tōi stratologēsanti). Dative case after aresēi (first aorist active subjunctive of areskō, to please, 1Th 2:4, purpose clause with hina) of the articular first aorist active participle of stratologeō, literary "Koinē" word (stratologos, from stratos and legō), only here in N.T.

2:5 {If also a man contend in the games} (ean de kai athlēi tis). Condition of third class with present (linear) active subjunctive of athleō, old and common verb (from athlos, a contest), only this verse in N.T., but sunathleō in Php 1:27. Note sharp distinction between athlēi (present subjunctive, engage in a contest in general) and athlēsēi (first aorist active subjunctive, engage in a particular contest). Not "except he have contended," but simply "unless he contend" (in any given case) "lawfully" (nomimōs). Old adverb, agreeably to the law, in N.T. only here and 1Ti 1:8.
{Is not crowned} (ou stephanoutai). Present passive indicative of stephanoō, old verb (from stephanos, crown), in N.T. only here and Heb 2:7,9. One apodosis for two protases. The victor in the athletic contests was crowned with a garland.

2:6 {The husbandman that laboureth} (ton kopiōnta geōrgon). "The toiling tiller of the soil" (geōrgon, from and ergō, worker of the earth). See geōrgion (field) in 1Co 3:9 and also 1Co 9:7.
{First} (prōton). As is natural and right. {To partake} (metalambanein). Old word as in Ac 2:46 to share in. Paul elsewhere uses metechō as in 1Co 9:12.

2:7 {Consider} (noei). Present active imperative of noeō, old verb, to put your mind (nous) on. See Eph 3:4 and like command in 1Co 10:15.
{Understanding} (sunesin). "Comprehension" (from suniēmi, to send together, to grasp). See Col 1:9; 2:2. This is a blessed promise that calls for application.

2:8 {Risen from the dead} (egēgermenon ek nekrōn). Perfect passive participle of egeirō, still risen as the perfect tense shows in 1Co 15:4,12-20. Predicate accusative. "Remember Jesus Christ as risen from the dead." This is the cardinal fact about Christ that proves his claim to be the Messiah, the Son of God. Christ is central for Paul here as in Php 2:5-11.
{Of the seed of David} (ek spermatos Daueid). The humanity of Christ as in Ro 1:3; Php 2:7f.
{According to my gospel} (kata to euaggelion mou). Paul's very phrase in Ro 2:16; 16:25. Not a written gospel, but my message. See also 1Co 15:1; 2Co 11:7; Ga 1:11; 2:2; 1Ti 1:11.

2:9 {Wherein} (en hōi). In my gospel.
{I suffer hardship} (kakopathō). "I suffer evil." Old compound (kakon, paschō), elsewhere in N.T., 4:5; Jas 5:13.
{Unto bonds} (mechri desmōn). "Up to bonds." A common experience with Paul (2Co 11:23; Php 1:7,13,14; Col 4:18).
{As a malefactor} (hōs kakourgos), old compound (kakon, ergō, doer of evil), in N.T. only here and Lu 23:32ff. (of the robbers). One of the charges made against Paul.
{Is not bound} (ou dedetai). Perfect passive indicative of deō, to bind. Old verb. See 1Co 7:27,39; Ro 7:2. I am bound with a chain, but no fetters are on the word of God (Pauline phrase; 1Th 2:13; 1Co 14:36; 2Co 2:17; Php 1:14; Tit 2:5).

2:10 {For the elect's sake} (dia tous eklektous). "Because of the elect." God's elect (Ro 8:33; Col 3:12; Tit 1:1) for whom Paul suffered so much (Col 1:6; 12:15; Php 2:17; Eph 3:1,13). {That they also may obtain} (hina kai autoi tuchōsin). Purpose clause with second aorist (effective) active subjunctive of tugchanō with genitive. "They as well as I," Paul means.
{The salvation} (tēs sōtērias). The final salvation "with eternal glory" (meta doxēs aiōniou). This phrase only here and 1Pe 5:10, but in 2Co 4:17 we have "eternal weight of glory."

2:11 {Faithful is the saying} (pistos ho logos). The saying which follows here though it can refer to the preceding as in 1Ti 4:9. See 1Ti 1:15. It is possible that from here to the end of 13 we have the fragment of an early hymn. There are four conditions in these verses (11-13), all of the first class, assumed to be true. Parallels to the ideas here expressed are found in 2Th 1:5; 1Co 4:8; 2Co 7:3; Ro 6:3-8; Col 3:1-4. Note the compounds with sun (sunapethanomen, {we died with}, from sunapothnesko as in 2Co 7:3; sunzēsomen, {we shall live with}, from sunzaō as in 2Co 7:3; sumbasileusomen, {we shall reign with}, from sumbasileuō as in 1Co 4:8). For hupomenomen (we endure) see 1Co 13:7 and for apistoumen (we are faithless) see Ro 3:3. The verb arneomai, to deny (arnēsometha, we shall deny, arnēsetai, he will deny, arnēsasthai, deny, first aorist middle infinitive) is an old word, common in the Gospels in the sayings of Jesus (Mt 10:33; Lu 12:9), used of Peter (Mr 14:70), and is common in the Pastorals (1Ti 5:8; Tit 2:12; 2Ti 3:5). Here in verse 13 it has the notion of proving false to oneself, a thing that Christ "cannot" (ou dunatai) do.

2:14 {That they strive not about words} (mē logomachein). Word apparently coined by Paul from logomachia (1Ti 6:4 which see), a back formation in that case. A mere war of words displeases Paul. (Tit 3:9).
{Useful} (chrēsimon). Late and rare word from chraomai, here only in N.T.
{To the subverting} (epi katastrophēi). Old word (from katastrephō, to turn down or over), here only in N.T. (except 2Pe 2:6 in some MSS., not in Westcott and Hort)." Because of the overthrow" (result epi, not aim), useless for this reason. Such war of words merely upsets the hearers.

2:15 {Give diligence} (spoudason). First aorist active imperative of spoudazō, old word, as in 1Th 2:17; Ga 2:10. {To present} (parastēsai). First aorist active infinitive of paristēmi as in Col 1:22,28.
{Approved unto God} (dokimon tōi theōi). Dative case theōi with dokimon, predicate accusative, old adjective (from dechomai), for which see 1Co 11:19; 2Co 10:18.
{A workman} (ergatēn). See 2Co 11:3; Php 3:2.
{That needeth not to be ashamed} (anepaischunton). Late double compound verbal adjective (a privative, epaischunō), in Josephus and here alone.
{Handling aright} (orthotomounta). Present active participle of orthotomeō, late and rare compound (orthotomos), cutting straight, orthos and temnō\), here only in N.T. It occurs in Pr 3:6; 11:5 for making straight paths (hodous) with which compare Heb 12:13 and "the Way" in Ac 9:2. Theodoret explains it to mean ploughing a straight furrow. Parry argues that the metaphor is the stone mason cutting the stones straight since temnō and orthos are so used. Since Paul was a tent-maker and knew how to cut straight the rough camel-hair cloth, why not let that be the metaphor? Certainly plenty of exegesis is crooked enough (crazy-quilt patterns) to call for careful cutting to set it straight.

2:16 {Shun} (periistaso). See Tit 3:9.
{Babblings} (kenophōnias). See 1Ti 6:20.
{Will proceed} (prokopsousin). Future active of prokoptō, "will cut forward." See Ga 1:14; Ro 13:12.
{Further in ungodliness} (epi pleion asebeias). "To more of ungodliness." See Ro 1:18; 1Ti 2:2.

2:17 {Will eat} (nomēn hexei). "Will have (future active of echō) pasturage or increase" (nomē, old word from nemō, to pasture, in N.T. only here and Joh 10:9).
{As doth gangrene} (hōs gaggraina). Late word (medical writers and Plutarch), only here in N.T. From graō or grainō, to gnaw, to eat, an eating, spreading disease. Hymenaeus is probably the one mentioned in 1Ti 1:20. Nothing is known of Philetus.

2:18 {Men who} (hoitines). "The very ones who."
{Have erred} (ēstochēsan). "Missed the mark." First aorist active indicative of astocheō, for which see 1Ti 1:6; 6:21.
{That the resurrection is past already} (anastasin ēdē gegonenai). Second perfect active infinitive of ginomai in indirect assertion after legontes (saying) with the accusative of general reference (anastasin).
{Overthrow} (anatrepousin). See Tit 1:11.

2:19 {Howbeit} (mentoi). Strong adversative, "however."
{Firm} (stereos). Old adjective, solid, compact, in N.T. only here, 1Pe 5:9; Heb 5:12,14. See stereōma in Col 2:5. For themelios see 1Co 3:11; Rom 15:20; 1Ti 6:19. Cf. hedraiōma in 1Ti 3:15.
{Seal} (sphragis). See 1Co 9:2; Ro 4:11. {Knoweth} (egnō). Timeless aorist active indicative of ginōskō. Quotation from Nu 16:5.
{Let every one depart} (apostētō pās). Paraphrase of Nu 16:27; Isa 26:13; 52:11; Jer 20:9. Second aorist active imperative of aphistēmi (intransitive use), "Let every one stand off from." Probably another echo of the rebellion of Korah.

2:20 {In a great house} (en megalēi oikiāi). Metaphor of a palace. He doubtless has the Kingdom of God in mind, but he works out the metaphor of a great house of the rich and mighty. {Vessels} (skeuē). Old word skeuos. See Ro 9:21 for the same double use as here.
{Of gold} (chrusā). Old contracted adjective chruseos, only here by Paul.
{Of silver} (argurā). Old contracted adjective argureos, in N.T. here, Ac 19:24; Re 9:20.
{Of wood} (xulina). Old adjective, in N.T. only here and Re 9:20.
{Of earth} (ostrakina). Late adjective, from ostrakon, baked clay, in LXX, in N.T. only here and 2Co 4:7.

2:21 {If a man purge himself} (ean tis ekkatharēi). Paul drops the metaphor of the house and takes up the individual as one of the "vessels." Condition of third class with first aorist active subjunctive of ekkathairō, old verb, to cleanse out, in LXX, in N.T. only here and 1Co 5:7.
{From these} (apo toutōn). From the vessels for dishonour of verse 20.
{Sanctified} (hēgiasmenon). Perfect passive participle of hagiazō, for which verb see 1Co 6:11.
{Meet for the master's use} (euchrēston tōi despotōi). Dative case despotēi (for which word see 1Ti 6:1) with euchrēston, neuter singular like hēgiasmenon agreeing with skeuos. Old verbal adjective (eu and chraomai, to use well), useful or usable for the master. In N.T. only here and 4:11. See achrēston in Phm 11. {Prepared} (hētoimasmenon). Perfect passive participle of hetoimazō, in a state of readiness, old and common word, elsewhere by Paul only 1Co 2:9 (LXX).

2:22 {Youthful} (neōterikas). Literary "Koinē" word (Polybius, Josephus), only here in N.T. There are lusts peculiar to flaming youth.
{Flee} (pheuge). Present active imperative of pheugō, old and common verb. In this sense see 1Co 6:18.
{Follow after} (diōke). Present active imperative of diōkō as if in a chase for which sense see 1Th 5:15. Steady pursuit of these virtues like those in Ga 5:22.
{Call on the Lord} (epikaloumenon ton kurion). See 1Co 1:2; Ro 10:12-14.

2:23 {Ignorant} (apaideutous). Old verbal, here only in N.T. (a privative and paideuō). Untrained, uneducated, "speculations of a half-educated mind" (Parry).
{Refuse} (paraitou). See 1Ti 4:7.
{They gender strifes} (gennōsin machas). Present active indicative of old and common verb gennaō (Ro 9:11). "They beget battles." See 2:14.

2:24 {Must not strive} (ou dei machesthai). Rather, "it is not necessary for him to fight" (in such verbal quibbles). The negative ou goes with dei, not with the infinitive machesthai.
{Gentle} (ēpion). Old word (from epos, speech), affable, mild, in N.T. only here (and 1Th 2:7 in some MSS.; W. H. have nēpios).
{Teachable} (didaktikon). See 1Ti 3:2. {Forbearing} (anexikakon). Late compound (from future of anechō, anexō, and kakon, putting up with evil). Here only in N.T.

2:25 {Correcting} (paideuonta). See Tit 2:12. "Schooling" (Parry).
{Oppose themselves} (antidiatithemenous). Present middle (direct) participle of antidiatithēmi, late double compound (Diodorus, Philo) to place oneself in opposition, here only in N.T.
{If peradventure God may give} (mē pote dōiē ho theos). Here Westcott and Hort read the late form of the second aorist active optative of didōmi for the usual doiē as they do in 1:18. But there it is a wish for the future and so regular, while here the optative with mē pote in a sort of indirect question is used with a primary tense dei (present) and parallel with an undoubted subjunctive ananēpsōsin, while in Lu 3:15 mē pote eie is with a secondary tense. Examples of such an optative do occur in the papyri (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 989) so that we cannot go as far as Moulton does and say that we "must" read the subjunctive dōēi here ("Prolegomena", pp. 55, 193).
{Repentance} (metanoian). "Change of mind" (2Co 7:10; Ro 2:4).
{Unto the knowledge of the truth} (eis epignōsin alētheias). Paul's word "full knowledge" (Co 1:9).

2:26 {They may recover themselves} (ananēpsōsin). First aorist active subjunctive of ananēphō, late and rare word, to be sober again, only here in N.T., though nēphō is in 1Th 5:6.
{Out of the snare of the devil} (ek tēs tou diabolou pagidos). They have been caught while mentally intoxicated in the devil's snare (1Ti 3:7). See Ro 11:9 for pagis.
{Taken captive} (ezōgrēmenoi). Perfect passive participle of zōgreō, old verb, to take alive (zōos, agreō), in N.T. only here and Lu 5:10 (of Peter). "Taken captive alive."
{By him unto his will} (hup' autou eis to ekeinou thelēma). This difficult phrase is understood variously. One way is to take both autou and ekeinou, to refer to the devil. Another way is to take both of them to refer to God. Another way is to take autou of the devil and ekeinou, of God. This is probably best, "taken captive by the devil" "that they may come back to soberness to do the will of God." There are difficulties in either view.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 2)

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