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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 1)

1:1 {According to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus} (kat' epaggelian zōēs tēs en Christōi Iēsou). "With a view to the fulfilment of the promise." See Tit 1:1 for this same use of kata. For kat' epaggelian see Ga 3:29. See 1Ti 4:8 for the phrase "promise of life." Here or there "life that in Christ Jesus" includes the present as well as the future.

1:2 {Beloved} (agapētoi). Instead of gnēsiōi (genuine) in 1Ti 1:2. He had already called Timothy agapēton (verbal adjective of agapaō) in 1Co 4:17, an incidental and strong proof that it is Paul who is writing here. This argument applies to each of the Pastorals for Paul is known by other sources (Acts and previous Pauline Epistles) to sustain precisely the affectionate relation toward Timothy and Titus shown in the Pastorals.

1:3 {I thank} (charin echō). "I have gratitude." As in 1Ti 1:12. Robinson cites examples of this phrase from the papyri. It occurs also in Lu 17:9; Ac 2:47. Charis in doxologies Paul uses (1Co 15:57; 2:14; 8:16; 9:15; Ro 6:17; 7:25). His usual idiom is eucharistō (1Co 1:4; Ro 1:8; Phm 1:4; Php 1:3) or eucharistoumen (1Th 1:2; Col 1:3) or ou pauomai eucharistōn (Eph 1:16) or eucharistein opheilomen (2Th 1:3).
{Whom I serve from my forefathers} (hōi latreuō apo progonōn). The relative hōi is the dative case with latreuō (see Ro 1:9 for this verb), progressive present (I have been serving). For progonōn (forefathers) see 1Ti 5:4. Paul claims a pious ancestry as in Ac 24:14; Ac 26:5; Ga 2:14; Php 3:4-7.
{In a pure conscience} (en katharāi suneidēsei). See 1Ti 1:5; Ac 23:1.
{Unceasing} (adialeipton). Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and Ro 9:2 which see. The adverb adialeiptōs is more frequent (in the papyri, literary "Koinē", 1Th 1:2; Ro 1:9). The adjective here is the predicate accusative, "how I hold the memory concerning thee unceasing." The use of adialeiptōs (adverb) is a sort of epistolary formula (papyri, 1Th 1:2; 2:13; 5:17; Ro 1:9).
{Remembrance} (mneian). Old word, in N.T. only Pauline (seven times, 1Th 1:2; Ro 1:9; Php 1:3).

1:4 {Night and day} (nuktos kai hēmeras). Genitive of time, "by night and by day." As in 1Th 2:9; 3:10.
{Longing} (epipothōn). Present active participle of epipotheō, old word, eight times in Paul (1Th 3:6; Php 1:8, etc.). {Remembering thy tears} (memnēmenos sou tōn dakruōn). Perfect middle participle of mimnēskō, old and common verb with the genitive, only here in the Pastorals and elsewhere by Paul only in 1Co 11:2. Probably an allusion to the scene at Miletus (Ac 20:37). Cf. Ac 20:19.
{That I may be filled with joy} (hina charas plērōthō). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of plēroō (with genitive case charas), a verb common with Paul (Ro 8:4; 13:8).

1:5 {Having been reminded} (hupomnēsin labōn). "Having received (second aorist active participle of lambanō) a reminder" (old word from hupomimnēskō, to remind, in N.T. only here and 1Pe 1:13). For the idiom see Ro 7:8,11. A reminder by another while anamnēsis remembrance (1Co 11:24f.) is rather a recalling by oneself (Vincent).
{Of the unfeigned faith} (tēs anupokritou pisteōs). Late compound for which see 2Co 6:6; Ro 12:9.
{Dwelt} (enōikēsen). First aorist active indicative of enoikeō, old verb, in N.T. only in Paul (Ro 8:11; Col 3:16). {First} (prōton). Adverb, not adjective (prōtē).
{In thy grandmother Lois} (en tēi mammēi Lōidi). Old word, originally the infantile word for mētēr (mother), then extended by writers to grandmother as here. Common for grandmother in the papyri. Lois is the mother of Eunice, Timothy's mother, since Timothy's father was a Greek (Ac 16:1). Probably both grandmother and mother became Christians.
{I am persuaded} (pepeismai). Perfect passive indicative of peithō, "I stand persuaded." In the Pastorals only here and verse 12, common in Paul's other writings (Ro 8:38, etc.).

1:6 {For the which cause} (di' hēn aitian). "For which cause," stronger than dio. So in verse 12; Tit 1:13. Only example of aitia by Paul save in Ac 28:20.
{I put thee in remembrance} (anamimnēskō). Old compound to remind (1Co 4:17; 2Co 7:15). {That thou stir up} (se anazōpurein). Present active infinitive of anazōpureō, old double compound (ana and zōpuron, live coal, zōos and pur, then the bellows for kindling), to rekindle, to stir into flame, to keep blazing (continuous action, present time), only here in N.T. See 1Th 5:19 for the figure of fire concerning the Holy Spirit. See anaptō in Lu 12:49.
{The gift of God} (to charisma tou theou). See 1Ti 4:14. Here Paul says mou (my), there he mentions the presbytery. Paul felt a deep personal interest in Timothy. See 1Co 7:7; Ro 6:23; 11:29 for the gift of God.

1:7 {A spirit of fearfulness} (pneuma deilias). Here pneuma is the charisma of verse 6, the human spirit as endowed by the Holy Spirit (Ro 8:15). Deilia is an old word (deilos, deidō) and always in a bad sense of cowardice, only here in N.T. {Of power} (dunameōs). One of Paul's characteristic words (Ro 1:16).
{Of love} (agapēs). One of the gifts of the Spirit (Ga 5:22). "Which drives out fear" (Lock) as in 1Jo 4:18.
{Of discipline} (sōphronismou). Late "Koinē" word (from sōphronizō, to control), self-control, here only in N.T. See 1Ti 2:9 for sōphrosunē.

1:8 {Be not ashamed of} (mē epaischunthēis). First aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive (in prohibition) of epaischunomai, old word, to be ashamed. Again in verse 16 without augment (epaischunthēn), transitive use of the passive voice as often in the "Koinē" (Robertson, "Grammar", p. 818). See Ro 1:16; 6:21. "Do not become ashamed" (as he had not).
{The testimony of our Lord} (to marturion tou kuriou). For the old word marturion see 1Co 1:6; 2:1. Paul probably has in mind the saying of Jesus preserved in Mr 8:38 (Lu 9:26). See also 2:12.
{His prisoner} (ton desmion autou). As in Php 1:12; Phm 1:1,9; Eph 3:1; 4:1 (the first Roman captivity). Paul is in his last captivity and refers to it again in verse 16; 2:9. {Suffer hardship with} (sunkakopathēson). First aorist active imperative of the double compound sunkakopatheō, first known use and in N.T. only here and 2:3 (in eccles. writers). But kakopatheō, to suffer evil, is old verb (2:9; 4:5). Paul is fond of compounds of sun. Paul challenges Timothy by this verb which he apparently coins for the purpose to a joint (sun) suffering with the Lord Jesus and Paul "for the gospel" (tōi euaggeliōi, dative case rather than associative instrumental "with").
{According to the power of God} (kata dunamin theou). Given by God (2Co 6:7).

1:9 {Called us with a holy calling} (kalesantos klēsei hagiāi). Probably dative, "to a holy calling." Klēsis here apparently not the invitation, but the consecrated service, "the upward calling" (Php 3:14). See 1Co 7:20; Eph 4:1,4 for the use of kaleō with klēsis. Paul often uses kaleō of God's calling men (1Th 2:12; 1Co 1:9; Ga 1:6; Ro 8:20; 9:11).
{Purpose} (prothesin). See Ro 9:11; Eph 1:11 for prothesin.
{Which was given} (tēn dotheisan). First aorist passive articular participle agreeing with charis (grace), a thoroughly Pauline expression (1Co 3:10; Ro 12:3,6, etc.), only here in Pastoral Epistles.
{Before times eternal} (pro chronōn aiōniōn). See Tit 1:2.

1:10 {But hath now been manifested} (phanerōtheisan de nun). First aorist passive participle of phaneroō agreeing with charin. See Tit 1:3; Col 1:26; 3:4 for phaneroō and the contrast made.
{By the appearing} (dia tēs epiphaneias). Only here of the Incarnation (except the verb, Tit 2:11; 3:4), but for the second coming see Tit 2:13.
{Who abolished death} (katargēsantos men ton thanaton). First aorist active participle of katargeō, the very phrase in 1Co 15:26; Heb 2:14.
{Brought to light} (phōtisantos de). First aorist active participle of phōtizō, literary "Koinē" word for which see 1Co 4:5; Eph 1:18, to turn the light on.
{Life and incorruption} (zōēn kai aphtharsian). The opposite of thanatos, "life and immortality" (unchangeable life).

1:11 {For which} (eis ho). For the gospel. See 1Ti 2:7 for this verse.

1:12 {These things} (tauta). His imprisonment in Rome.
{Yet I am not ashamed} (all' ouk epaischunomai). Plain reference to the exhortation to Timothy in verse 8.
{Him whom I have believed} (hōi pepisteuka). Dative case of the relative (hōi) with the perfect active of pisteuō, the antecedent to the relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted.
{I am persuaded} (pepeismai). See verse 5.
{To guard} (phulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of phulassō, the very word used in 1Ti 6:20 with parathēkēn as here, to guard against robbery or any loss.
{That which I have committed unto him} (tēn parathēkēn mou). Literally, "my deposit," as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Mt 6:19f.). See this word also in verse 14. Some MSS. have the more common parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, para, beside, down, kata).
{Against that day} (eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ's second coming. See also 1:18; 4:8; 2Th 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1Th 5:2; 2Th 2:2; 1Co 1:8; 2Co 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Php 1:6,10; 2:16), the day (1Th 5:4; 1Co 3:13; Ro 13:12), the day of redemption (Eph 4:20), the day of judgment (Ro 2:5,16).

1:13 {The pattern of sound words} (hupotupōsin hugiainontōn logōn). See 1Ti 1:16 for hupotupōsin and 1Ti 1:10 for hugiainō.
{Which} (hōn). Genitive plural with ēkousas (didst hear) or attracted to case of logōn (akouō is used either with the accusative or the genitive).

1:14 {That good thing which was committed unto thee} (tēn kalēn parathēkēn). Simply, "the good deposit."
{Guard} (phulaxon). As in 1Ti 6:20. God has also made an investment in Timothy (cf. verse 12). Timothy must not let that fail.
{Which dwelleth in us} (tou enoikountos en hēmin). It is only through the Holy Spirit that Timothy or any of us can guard God's deposit with us.

1:15 {Are turned away from me} (apestraphēsan me). Second aorist passive (still transitive here with me) of apostrephō, for which verb see Tit 1:14. For the accusative with these passive deponents see Robertson, "Grammar", p. 484. It is not known to what incident Paul refers, whether the refusal of the Christians in the Roman province of Asia to help Paul on his arrest (or in response to an appeal from Rome) or whether the Asian Christians in Rome deserted Paul in the first stage of the trial (4:16). Two of these Asian deserters are mentioned by name, perhaps for reasons known to Timothy. Nothing else is known of Phygelus and Hermogenes except this shameful item.

1:16 {Grant mercy} (dōiē eleos). The phrase nowhere else in the N.T. Second aorist active optative of didōmi, the usual form being doiē. This is the usual construction in a wish about the future.
{Unto the house of Onesiphorus} (tōi Onēsiphorou oikōi). The same phrase in 4:19. Apparently Onesiphorus is now dead as is implied by the wish in 1:18.
{For he oft refreshed me} (hoti pollakis me anepsuxen). First aorist active indicative of anapsuchō, old verb, to cool again, in LXX and "Koinē" often, here only in N.T., but anapsuxis in Ac 3:20. In the first imprisonment or the second. If he lost his life for coming to see Paul, it was probably recently during this imprisonment.
{Was not ashamed of my chain} (halusin mou ouk epaischunthē). Passive deponent again (first aorist indicative) with accusative as in 1:8. For halusin (chain) see Eph 6:20. Note absence of augment in epaischunthē.

1:17 {When he was in Rome} (genomenos en Romēi). Second aorist middle participle of ginomai (coming to Rome, happening in Rome).
{He sought me diligently and found me} (spoudaiōs ezētēsen me kai heuren). Effective aorists both of them (first of zēteō, second of heuriskō). He did it at the risk of his own life apparently.

1:18 {Grant to him to and mercy} (dōiē autōi heurein eleos). Second aorist active optative in wish for the future again as in verse 16. Find mercy from the Lord (Jesus) as he found me. {Thou knowest very well} (beltion su ginōskeis). Literally, "thou knowest better (than I)," for he did those things in Ephesus where thou art. Only N.T. example of beltion, in D text of Ac 10:28.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 1)

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