86. "THE FOURTH YEAR OF JEHOIAKIM"
(Being supplemental to Appendix 50
, p. 42).
"The only ancient authority of value on
Babylonian History is the Old Testament"
(Encycl. Brit., 11th (Cambridge) edition, vol.
iii, p. 101).
- The great prophecy of the seventy years of Babylonian servitude
in Jeremiah 25 is prefaced, in vv. 1-3, by one of the most important
date-marks in the Scriptures :--
"The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all
the people of Judah IN THE FOURTH YEAR OF
JEHOIAKIM the son of Josiah king of Judah,
WAS THE FIRST YEAR OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR king
of Babylon; the which Jeremiah the prophet
spake unto all the people of Judah, and to all
the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying, From the
thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon king
of Judah, even unto this day, that is the three
and twentieth year, the word of the LORD hath
come unto me."
On what is called "received" dating, the fourth year of Jehoiakim (being
the first year of Nebuchadnezzar) is usually given as 606 B.C.; whereas
in The Companion Bible, both in the margin, and in Ap. 50. V, p.
60, and VII, p. 67, it is shown as 496 B.C. -- a difference of 110 years.
This is a serious matter, but the reason is simple, and is as follows :--
In the majority of the systems of dating extant, chronologers have ignored,
and omitted from their sequence of Anno Mundi years, the ninety-three
years included in St. PAUL'S reckoning in Acts 13:19-22; and also, in the
majority of cases, the interregnum and "gaps" in the later kings
of Judah, amounting together to 110-113 years (*1); and, further, by accepting
the 480th year of 1Kings 6:1 as being a cardinal, instead of an ordinal
number; and as being an Anno Mundi date, instead of one to be understood
according to Anno Dei reckoning (see Ap. 50, Introduction, §
The Holy Spirit, we may believe, expressly made use of St. Paul, in
the statement in the passage referred to, in order to preserve us from
falling into this error. CLINTON (1781-1852) well says on the point
(*2) : "The computation of St. Paul, delivered in a solemn argument
before a Jewish audience, and confirmed by the whole tenor of the history
in the Book of Judges, out-weighs the authority of that date" (480).
In spite, however, of this Divine warning, many accept the 480th year as
being a cardinal number, and reckon it as an Anno Mundi date.
- On the commonly "received" dating, the period from the Exodus
to the commencement of the Babylonian servitude is usually given as 1491
B.C. to 606 B.C.; that is, a period of 885 years; whereas
Bible dates are 1491 B.C. to 496 B.C. = 995 years.
But, if ST. PAUL is correct in adding ninety-three years to the period
between the Exodus and the Temple (making thus 573 instead of 479); and
if the inter-regnum between Amaziah and Uzziah, and the "gaps" clearly
indicated in the sacred record and shown on the Charts in Ap. 50 are recognized,
then it is perfectly clear that the majority of the chronologers are 110
to 113 years out of the true Anno Mundi reckoning, and, instead
of the Babylonian servitude commencing in the year 606 B.C. (the fourth
year of Jehoiakim and first year of Nebuchadnezzar), the real Anno Mundi
year for that most important event is 496 B.C., as shown in Ap. 50.
- This, no doubt, will be startling to some who may be inclined
to suppose that certain dates and periods of time in the Scriptures have
been irrevocably "fixed".
On the authority of certain well-known names, we are asked to believe
that "profane history", and the annals of ancient nations, supply us with
infallible proofs and checks, whereby we can test and correct the
chronological statements of Holy Scripture.
But we need to be reminded that this is very far from being true.
Chronologists of all ages are, as a rule, very much like sheep -- they
follow a leader : and, once the idea became current that the "correct"
(supposed) dates of certain epochs and periods in Greek (and other) history
could be brought to bear upon and override certain Biblical chronological
statements, which presented "difficulties" to these modern chronologers,
then it soon became almost a matter of course to make the figures
of Divine revelation submit and conform to "profane" figures, derived from
parchment or clay, instead of vice versa. (*3)
- FYNES CLINTON, in his learned work Fasti Hellenici (Vol.
I, pp. 283-285) has such an appropriate and weighty statement that bears
on this subject, in the Introduction to his Scripture Chronology,
that it is well to quote the testimony of one who is regarded as among
the ablest of chronologers. He remarks :--
"The history contained in the Hebrew Scriptures presents
a remarkable and pleasing contrast to the early accounts of the Greeks.
In the latter, we trace with difficulty a few obscure facts preserved to
us by the poets, who transmitted, with all the embellishments of poetry
and fable, what they had received from oral tradition. In the annals
of the Hebrew nation we have authentic narratives, written by contemporaries,
and these writing under the guidance of inspiration. What they have
delivered to us comes, accordingly, under a double sanction.
And then CLINTON significantly remarks :--
were aided by Divine inspiration in recording facts upon which, as mere
human witnesses, their evidence would be valid. But, as the narrative
comes with an authority which no other writing can possess, so, in the
matters related, it has a character of its own. The history of the
Israelites is the history of miraculous inter-positions. Their passage
out of Egypt was miraculous. Their entrance into the promised land
was miraculous. Their prosperous and their adverse fortunes in that
land, their servitudes and their deliverances, their conquests and their
captivities, were all miraculous. Their entire history, from the
call of Abraham to the building of the sacred Temple, was a series
of miracles. It is so much the object of the sacred historians to
describe these, that little else is recorded. The ordinary events
and transactions, what constitutes the civil history of other States, are
either very briefly told, or omitted altogether; the incidental mention
of these facts being always subordinate to the main design of registering
the extraordinary manifestations of Divine power.
For these reasons,
the history of the Hebrews cannot be treated like the history of any other
nation; and he who would attempt to write their history, divesting it of
its miraculous character, would find himself without materials. Conformably
with this spirit, there are no historians in the sacred volume of the period
in which miraculous intervention was withdrawn. After the declaration
by the mouth of Malachi that a messenger should be sent to prepare
the way, the next event recorded by any inspired writer is the birth
of that messenger. But of the interval of 400 (*4) years between
the promise and the completion no account is given."
"And this period of more than 400 (*4) years between
Malachi and the Baptist is properly the only portion in the whole
long series of ages, from the birth of Abraham to the Christian era, which
is capable of being treated like the history of any other nation.
This important statement deserves the most serious consideration; for
CLINTON himself frequently transgresses its spirit in his Scripture
Chronology : e.g. he "determines" the "captivity of Zedekiah
to June, 587 B.C." And this he accomplishes by "bringing", as he
says, Scripture and profane accounts to "a still nearer coincidence by
comparing the history of ZEDEKIAH and JEHOIACHIN with the dates assigned
to the Babylonian kings by the Astronomical Canon" (Fasti Hellenici,
I, p. 319). In other words, this means that he "squares" the scriptural
records of events some 200 years before the commencement of the period
which he has before stated is alone "capable of being treated like the
history of any other nation", by means of the Astronomical Canon of Ptolemy.
"From this spirit of the Scripture history, the
writers not designing to give a full account of all transactions, but only
to dwell on that portion in which the Divine character was marked, many
things which we might desire to know are omitted; and on many occasions
a mere outline of the history is preserved. It is mortifying to our
curiosity that a precise date of many remarkable facts cannot be obtained.
"The destruction of the Temple is determined by
concurrent sacred and profane testimony to July, 587 B.C. From this
point we ascent to the birth of Abraham. But between these
two epochs, the birth of Abraham and the destruction of the temple,
two breaks occur in the series of Scripture dates; which make it impossible
to fix the actual year of the birth of Abraham; and this date
being unknown, and assigned only upon conjecture, all the preceding
epochs are necessarily unknown also."
PTOLEMY'S Canon (cent. 2 A.D.) is to CLINTON and his disciples what
the monuments are to PROFESSOR SAYCE and his followers. Both "necessitate"
the accommodation of Biblical chronology to suit their respective "Foundations
of Belief" in dating.
- But it is on the principle so excellently enunciated by CLINTON,
and quoted above, that the dating of The Companion Bible is set
forth : viz., that "the history of the Hebrews cannot be treated
like the history of any other nation". If this is granted, the same
argument must necessarily apply to the chronology of such
a people. And it may be carried a step farther. The chronology
of the history of the Chosen People is unlike that of any other nation,
in that it has a system of reckoning by durations, and not, like
other nations, by dates; and a system of registering events and
periods of time by what it may be permitted to call "double entry".
This is to say, not only do we find in the Bible a regular sequence
of years, commencing with Adam and ending with Christ, and consequently
a true and perfect record of Anno Mundi years in the lifetime
of mankind during that period; but also, concurrently with this, we
find another system of dealing with dates and periods concerning the Hebrew
race alone. This system is used and referred to in The Companion
Bible as being according to Anno Dei reckoning. (See Introduction
to Ap. 50, pp. 40-42.)
And it may be strongly urged that failure on the part of the majority
of chronologers, and partial failure on the part of others to recognize
this, so to speak, double entry system of the Bible dating has "necessitated",
as we are told, the adjustment of the Biblical figures to suit the
requirements of Astronomical Canons and ancient monuments.
- But, to the candid mind it is incredible that the inspired
Scriptures should be found so faulty in their chronological records and
statements as many would have us suppose; or that it is "necessitated"
that they should be "determined" from profane sources and un-inspired canons,
whether on parchment or stone! (*5)
CLINTON'S Calendar of Greek dates, it must be borne in mind, only commences
with the traditional date of the first Olympiad (*6) (776 B.C.).
From that year on and backwards, everything in his Scripture Chronology
is assumed to be capable of being arranged, and made to harmonize with
But, it must also be remembered that grave suspicions have been entertained
as to the correctness of this view.
SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727), for instance, in his Chronology of
Ancient Kingdoms Amended, charges the Greek chroniclers with having
made the antiquities of Greece 300 or 400 years older than the truth.
The whole passage reads thus (Works, vol. v, p. 4 of the Introduction)
"A little while after the death of ALEXANDER THE
GREAT, they began to set down the generations, reigns, and successions,
in numbers of years; and, by putting reigns and successions equipollent
(equivalent) to generations; and three generations to an hundred or an
hundred and twenty years, as appears by their chronology, they have made
the antiquities of Greece 300 or 400 years older than the truth.
And this was the original of the technical chronology of the Greeks.
ERATOSTHENES wrote about an hundred years after the death of ALEXANDER
THE GREAT; he was followed by APOLLODORUS; and these two have been followed
ever since by chronologers."
NEWTON then goes on to quote the attack on HERODOTUS by PLUTARCH (born
about 46 A.D.), for chronological nebulosity (*7), in support of his contention
as to the uncertainty and doubtfulness of the chronology of the Greeks.
He further adds :--
"As for the chronology of the Latins, that is still
more uncertain ... The old records of the Latins were burnt by the Gauls,
sixty-four years before the death of ALEXANDER THE GREAT : and QUINTIUS
FABIUS PICTOR (cent. 3 B.C.), the oldest historian of the Latins, lived
an hundred years later than that king."
- If NEWTON was right, then it follows that the Canon of PTOLEMY,
upon which the faith of modern chronologers is so implicitly -- almost
pathetically -- pinned, must have been built upon unreliable foundations.
Grecian chronology is the basis of "PTOLEMY'S Canon"; and, if his foundations
are "suspect", and this is certainly the case, then the elaborate super-structure
reared upon them must necessarily be regarded with suspicion likewise.
EUSEBIUS, the Church historian and bishop of Caesarea (A.D. 264-349),
is mainly responsible for the modern system of dating which results in
squaring scriptural chronology with the Greek Olympiad years, and it is
upon EUSEBIUS'S reckonings and quotations that CLINTON also mainly relies.
In his Chronicle of Universal History, the first book, entitled
Chronography, contains sketches of the various nations and states
of the old world from the Creation to his own day.
The second book of this work consists of synchronical tables with the
names of the contemporary rulers of the various nations, and the principal
events in the history of each from ABRAHAM to his own time. EUSEBIUS
gets his information from various sources. He makes use of JOSEPHUS
(A.D. 37-95), AFRICANUS (cent. 3 A.D.), BEROSUS (cent. 3 B.C.), POLYHISTOR
(cent. 1 B.C.), ABYDENUS (about 200 B.C.), CEPHALION (cent. 1 A.D.), MANETHO
(cent. 3 B.C.), and other lost writers -- equally "profane".
In his turn, he is largely used by moderns to "determine" scriptural
dates; and it is mainly through his instrumentality that many of the so-called
"received" datings of the O.T., from Abraham to the Christian era, have
In addition to these and other ancient records, and "systems" of chronology,
we have notably the Canon of Ptolemy referred to above. PTOLEMY,
an astronomer of the second century A.D., give a list of Babylonian, Persian,
Greek, Egyptian, and Roman rulers, "from about 750 B.C. to his own time."
The Seder Olam is a Jewish chronological work of about the same
date (cent. 2 A.D.).
Now to-day, we have what is called "the Witness of the Monuments", of
which it may be remarked that frequently their testimony is accepted in
preference to the scriptural record, and is often used to impugn the statements
and chronology of the Bible. The result of recent modern explorations
in Assyria, Babylonia, and Egypt, has been that we have almost every date
in the O.T. redated, because we are told by some (as PROFESSOR SAYCE, quoted
above) that this is "necessitated" by the Assyrian Canon.
The Assyrian Eponym Canon is a list, compiled from several imperfect
copies (*8) on clay tablets of lists of public officials (called "Eponyms")
who held office, one for each year. This list contains some 270 names,
and is supposed to cover the period from soon after the close of
Solomon's reign to the reign of Josiah. It is spoken of as showing
"some slight discrepancies, (*9) but on the whole is held to be highly
valuable". This is the Assyrian Canon which, according to
PROFESSOR SAYCE, "necessitates" the redating of the Biblical events and
The Babylonian and Egyptian Monumental Records also contribute
their quota towards the "fixing" of scriptural chronology; but these are,
it is acknowledged, more of less incomplete, and therefore, more or less
So far as supplying interesting sidelight details of the
with which they deal, and that impinge upon sacred history, these sources
are all more or less useful. But, so far as affording absolutely
trustworthy material from which a complete chronological compendium
can be formed from the Creation to Christ, is concerned, they are all more
or less useless, for the simplest of all reasons, viz. that they have no
line or start-point in common. They possess, so to speak,
no "common denominator".
- It must be remembered that the ancients, excepting of course
the "Church" historians, had not the Hebrew Scriptures of Truth to guide
them. They knew not at what period in the duration of the world
they were living! The only knowledge they had of the origin of the
world, and man's beginning, was derived from myth and fable. Had
they possessed such knowledge as we possess in the Word of God, they would
have undoubtedly have used it; and, instead of finding, as we do, their
chronological systems, commencing (and ending) with floating periods,
concerning which they had more or less reliable information, they would
have extended their chronological hawsers backward, and anchored their
systems firmly at "the beginning".
CENSORINUS (quoted in the note on p. 122) may be taken to voice the
whole body of ancient chronologers when, in writing on chronological subjects,
he says :--
"If the origin of the world had been known unto man,
I would thence have taken my beginning ... Whether time had a beginning,
or whether it always was, the certain number of years cannot be comprehended."
And PTOLEMY, the author of the famous "Canon", says :--
"To find observation upon the passages of the whole
world, or such an immense crowd of times I think much out of their way
that desire to learn and know the truth."
He means, it was a hopeless matter to fix upon the original start-point
- An illustration may be permitted from the fundamental principles
governing the engineering world. Suppose a line of railway to be
projected, say, for the sake of argument, 4,000 miles more or less in length
(*10). The line is run through countries of varied physical character,
from flat plains to lofty hill districts. Preparatory to constructing
the line, it is essential that an accurated survey of the whole length
of territory though which it has to pass be made.
For this purpose two things are absolutely necessary to the engineer
: viz. a "bench-mark" (or marks) and a "datum line".
The "bench-mark" is a mark cut in stone of some durable material in
a fixed position, and forms the terminus a quo, from which every
measurement of distance on the whole length of line is measured off.
The datum line is supposed perfectly horizontal line extending
beneath the whole distance between the proposed termini; and from
which all the levels are to be calculated. The first bench-mark
is the starting-point a line of levels for the determination of altitudes
over the whole distance; or one of a number of similar marks, made at suitable
carefully measured distances, as the survey proceeds, in order that the
exact distances between each, and ultimately between the terminus a
quo and the terminus ad quem may be ascertained
work is carried out.
- To apply this to our subject :--
All are agreed that the FOURTH YEAR OF JEHOIAKIM, and the FIRST YEAR
OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR form a point of contact between sacred and profane history
of the utmost importance.
From this point of contact it is claimed that a "complete scheme of
dates may be derived", as some put it; or, according to others, "from this
date we reckon on to Christ and back to Adam."
The year of the point of contact is generally said to be 606 B.C. or
It is perfectly justifiable to occupy this position; but, only if the
dating of the point of contact can be demonstrated and maintained.
It is quite easy to say that this year of contact between the sacred
and profane history is 606 B.C. or 604 B.C., and from this we can reckon
"back to Adam and on to Christ".
But a question of paramount importance at once suggests itself, viz.
What is the datum, or foundation, or bench-mark date
from which the year, say 606 B.C., is obtained?
The answer usually received is "we determine it from (the date of) the
captivity of Zedekiah" (CLINTON). Or, "the agreement of leading chronologers
is a sufficient guarantee that David began to reign in 1056-1055 B.C.,
and, therefore, that all dates subsequent to that event can be definitely
fixed." Or else we are told that the Assyrian Cannon (and the "Monuments"
generally) "necessitate" the date of this year of contact as being 604
B.C. (PROFESSOR SAYCE).
- But all this is only begging the question. The argument
-- if mere ipse dixit assertions based on floating dates
and periods, as acknowledged by CENSORINUS and PTOLEMY, can be truly called
an argument -- when examined, is found to be quite unreliable; and, in
the engineering world would be described as "fudging the levels!"
This exactly describes the present case, because this
(i.e. 606 or 604 B.C.), so to speak, makes its appearance in the middle
of the supposed line (or, to be more accurate, towards the end of
it) without being referred back to datum, that one definite "fixed"
departure point or bench-mark at the teminus a quo from which
the years can alone be accurately reckoned.
- It is as though the engineer took a map showing the district
through which it was intended to construct the last 600 or 700 miles of
his line, and the proposed terminus, but without any absolute certainty
as to where the actual position of that terminus should be; and should
then say to himself, "from information received", and from the general
appearance and apparent scale of this map, I "determine" the highest point
of my line to be 606 miles from where I "conjecture" my terminus ad
quem ought to be! From this point therefore, 606 miles from our
supposed terminus, we will measure back 450 miles, and "fix" an
important station (David); and then, another 569 miles back from David,
we "determine" another important station (Exodus), and so on.
- This system of "measuring on the flat", to use a technical
engineering term, for fixing stations and important positions for his railway,
would be charmingly simple for the engineer -- on paper. But
"The Standing Orders" of the joint Committee of both Houses of Parliament
would shut out those said plans from receiving one moment's consideration.
It would be impossible to find an engineer who would be guilty of such
folly. He would accurately measure his distances from a fixed point
at the terminus a quo, referring everything back to that,
and using his datum line to check his levels, otherwise he might as easily
find himself 100 miles or more out.
- To apply this :--
In the chronology of the Bible we have given to us one primal fixed
point (or bench-mark) and one only, from which every distance-point
on the line of time, so to speak, must be measured, and to which
everything must be referred back as datum!
That datum-point, or bench-mark, is the creation of Adam, and
is represented by the datum-mark 0 (nought) or zero. And as
the unit of measurement, in the illustration suggested above, is one mile
(*11), so the unit of measurement in the chronology of the Bible is one
year (whether sidereal or lunar matters not for the sake of the argument).
- Working therefore from our datum-point of first bench-mark
0 (zero), which represents the creation of Adam, we measure
off 130 years on our line and reach the first station, so to speak, SETH.
This gives us a second bench-mark from which to measure on to ENOS.
Thus, by measuring onward, but always checking by referring back to datum,
which is the primal station, we are able to mark off and locate exactly
the various stations and junctions (junctures) all down the line, from
the terminus a quo until we reach a point which some of the later
stations themselves will indicate as being the exact position for the
terminus ad quem. This may be either the Incarnation or the
Crucifixion and Resurrection of our Lord.
If Holy Scripture had definitely stated the exact period in years between
the creation of "the First Man Adam", and "the Last Adam", or had given
us the exact date of the Incarnation or Resurrection of Christ, we should
then have been justified in reckoning back from this fixed date
as from the known and authoritative terminus ad quem.
But this is not the case, although we believe the period is clearly
inferred and indicated, as the Charts in Ap. 50 show, which thus agree
with USSHER'S conclusions, although not reaching them by USSHER'S
methods, or figures. (*12)
We have therefore no alternative. We must make our measurements,
i.e. reckon our years, from the only terminus we possess, viz. the
start-point or bench-mark laid down for us in "the Scriptures of
truth", that is, the creation of Adam.
- This is the principle adopted in the chronology of The
Companion Bible : and, on this principle alone all the important
"stations" on the chronological line have been laid down, or "determined"
(to borrow CLINTON'S word), not by Astronomical or Assyrian Canons, but
on the authority of the Biblical Cannon alone.
Acting on this principle we recognize the fact that ST. PAUL'S period,
from the Exodus to the Temple, is the real period of 573
years; while the 479 (480th) years of 1Kings 6:1 are to be taken as according
to Anno DEI reckoning. Thus, by accepting this, and admitting,
instead of omitting, the "gaps" so clearly indicated in the line of the
later kings of Judah, it will appear that the important chronological contact-point
between sacred and secular history, which Scripture calls "THE FOURTH YEAR
OF JEHOIAKIM and THE FIRST YEAR OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR", is to be dated 496
B.C., instead of the usually "received" date of 606 B.C., or thereabout.
(*1) The uncertainty of the three years here is "necessitated",
as Professor SAYCE says in another connection, by the absolute impossibility
of avoiding overlapping owing to the use of both cardinal and ordinal numbers
throughout in the successions of the kings.
(*2) Fasti Hellenici, Scripture Chronology, I, p. 313.
(*3) e.g. in The Variorum Aids to Bible Students
told by Professor SAYCE, in a special head-note to his article
and the Monuments, that the dates he gives throughout are necessitated
by the Assyrian Canon (p. 78).
(*4) CLINTON, apparently in these two passages, speaks of the
400 years as being a round number; meaning that is was about
400 years from MALACHI to the birth of JOHN THE BAPTIST, and therefore
A reference to Ap. 50. VII, p. 67, VII (6), p. 69,
and Ap. 58, p. 84, will show that the 400 years he speaks of are not a round number, but the actual number of years that elapsed between the prediction
of MALACHI -- "the seal of the prophets" -- and the coming of "My messenger"
(John the Baptist) followed by "the Messenger of the Covenant", 3:1 (Jesus
Christ). From its internal evidence it is perfectly clear that the
prophecy of Malachi -- "the burden of Jehovah" -- must be dated several
years after the Restoration, and the Dedication of the Temple of Zerubbabel.
From the first Passover in Nisan 404 B.C. -- following
immediately after the Dedication -- to the birth of John the Baptist in
the spring of the year 4 B.C. was four hundred years (10 x 40),
the Incarnation being six months later in the same year.
But the ministries of both the Baptist and Christ
began thirty years later; i.e. in 26 A.D.
Four hundred years back from this date gives us
374 B.C., and 374 B.C. is of course thirty years after the recommencement
of the Mosaic ritual dating from the Passover in Nisan 404 B.C.
It is therefore a fair inference that the "seal
of the prophets" should have been affixed thirty years after the Restoration
of the Temple services, and exactly four hundred years before the
fulfillment (Matt. 3:1-3. Mk. 1:2, 3. Lk. 3:2-6. John
1:6-23) of Malachi's prediction in 3:1.
The language used by Malachi describes a condition
of things that could not well have been reached under twenty or thirty years.
On the other hand the period could not have been
longer. See Ap. 77, p. 113, and the notes on Malachi.
Another illustration of the principle of Anno
DEI reckoning should be noted here.
The fourth year of JEHOIAKIM and first of NEBUCHADNEZZAR
is dated 496 B.C. : that is, 492 years from the Nativity.
The Babylonian servitude, seventy years, and the
succeeding twenty-two years, from the decree of Cyrus (426 B.C.) to the
First Passover after the Dedication of the Temple (404 B.C.), are together
ninety-two years. If this, the Great Lo-Ammi period (corresponding
to the ninety-three Lo-Ammi years in Judges), is deducted
we get again 400 years (496 - 92 - 4 = 400). Thus we have the scriptural
Great number of probation (10 x 40 = 400) significantly connected with this fourth
year of JEHOIAKIM. Cp. also Gen. 21:10. Acts 7:6; and see Ap.
50, pp. 51-53. There are other examples in the Scriptures.
(*5) See note on 2Kings 15:27.
(*6) His authority for this date is given in the following sentences
"The first Olympiad is placed by CENSORINUS (c.
21) in the 1014th year before the consulship of ULPIUS and PONTIANUS in
A.D. 238 = 776 B.C. ... If the 207th games were celebrated in July, A.D.
49, 206 Olympiads, or 824 years had elapsed, and the first games were celebrated
in July, 776 B.C." That is to say, a date is taken, supposed to be
A.D. 49 (Fasti Hellenici, Vol. I, Tables, p. 150), on testimony
quoted from another ancient writer (SOLINUS, cent. 3 A.D.), that in that
year the 207th Olympic games were held; and, as 206 Olympiads = 824 years,
therefore the first games were celebrated in 776 B.C. This year 776
B.C. therefore has become the pivot upon which all chronology has
been made to depend, and Scripture events to "fit" in!
(*7) HERODOTUS was in the same boat with CENSORINUS and PTOLEMY.
See. p. 123.
(*8) No complete list is yet known.
(*9) See note on 2Kings 15:27.
(*10) And for comparison with the 4,000 years in question.
(*11) Of course, the real unit is one inch; but, for convenience,
the mile is considered as the unit in such a case.
(*12) See his Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti (1650-1654).
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