170. THE SYNONYMOUS WORDS
There are three principal words translated "LIFE". Their shades
of meaning are to be distinguished as follows : --
- zoe = life in all its manifestations;
from the life of God down to the lowest vegetable. It is life in
activity, and thus especially is the opposite of death. It involves
resurrection life and eternal life; and hence, as such, is the "gift
of God" (Rom. 6:23. 1John 5:12). For the same reason its verb
is frequently used of, and put for, resurrection life (Matt. 9:18.
Mark 16:11. Luke 24:5, 23. John 11:25, 26. Acts 1:3;
9:41; 25:19. Rom. 6:10; 14:9. 2Cor. 13:4.
Rev. 1:18; 2:8; 13:14; 20:4, 5).
- bios = life, as lived, manner of life;
life as led, &c.; zoe being life as one experiences it; bios
as others see it. This is used therefore, only of mankind, who not
only live but lead lives. Hence the differences between ZO-ology
and BIO-graphy. Zoe is life in its principle; bios
is life in its manifestations (Luke 8:14). Bios is also put
by Fig. Metonymy (of Adjunct.), Ap. 6, for livelihood, or that which
supports animal life (Luke 8:43). It occurs eleven times (Mark 12:44.
Luke 8:14, 43; 15:12, 30; 21:4. 1Tim. 2:2. 2Tim.
2:4. 1Pet. 4:3. 1John 2:16; 3:17).
- psuche = the breath of animal life; one
of the manifestations of zoe, common to all living animals.
In one passage (Isa. 10:18, the Heb. nepesh (Ap. 13), Gr. psuche)
is applied to vegetable life. It is used of the living individual
as such. For its various renderings and usages, see Ap. 110.
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