- The Verb.
hamartano = to miss the mark or aim; then,
to miss or wander from the right path; to go, or do, wrong.
- The Noun.
- hamartia = a failing to hit the mark; aberration
from prescribed law (connected with and resulting from the above).
In N.T. always in a moral sense = a sin, whether by omission or commission,
in thought, word, or deed. Also used in connection with the sin-offering
(Heb. 10:6, 8, 18; 13:11, as in Ps. 40:6, cp. Lev. 5:8).
- hamartema = the actual sin. The evil principle
in action; the sinful act or deed.
- paraptoma = a falling aside, when one should
have stood upright. Hence (morally) a fall, a falling aside from
truth and equity; a fault, or trespass.
In Romans 5:12, No. 1 entered the world. The disobedience of Adam
(vv. 15, 17, 18) was No. 3, and the law entered that No. 3 which
before was error, might become criminal in the knowledge of the sinner.
After this, where No. 1 abounded, grace did much more abound.
- poneria = depravity; iniquity, the wicked acting
of the evil nature. See No. III. 1 below.
- kakia = depravity, the vicious disposition and
desires, rather than the active exercise of them, which is No. 1 (poneria).
III. EVIL (Adj. and Noun).
- poneros = full of labors and pains in working
mischief; evil intent (Matt. 12:39. Luke 11:29);
grudging, in connection with the idea expressed in the "evil eye" (Matt.
6:23; 20:15. See the context, and cp. Luke 11:13).
- kakos = depraved, bad in nature. Cp. No.
- anomos = lawless, contempt of law.
- anomia = lawlessness.
- athesmos = breaking through all restraints of
ordinances or institutes, divine or human, to gratify one's lusts.
Occurs only in 2Pet. 2:7; 3:17.
- asebeia = impiety, absence of "the fear of God", having
no reverence for sacred things; irreligious. Sept. for pasha'.
Ap. 44. ix.
V. DISOBEDIENCE, ETC.
- apeitheia = unwillingness to be persuaded, leading
- parakoe = unwillingness to hear, disobedient.
VI. TRANSGRESS, TRANSGRESSOR.
- parabaino = to step on one side, overstep, go
aside from, violate, transgress.
- parerchomai = to go past, pass by, neglect.
- parabates, one who steps aside, or oversteps.
- adikia = unrighteousness, wrongdoing.
- adikema = a wrong done.
- paranomia = acting contrary to law or custom.
Occ. only in 2Pet. 2:16.
VIII. ERR, ERROR
- planao = to cause to wander or go astray; used
of doctrinal error and religious deceit. Cp. planos
1Tim. 4:1, "seducing").
- apoplanao. No. 1 with apo = away
from, prefixed (Ap. 104. iv). In Pass., to go astray from, swerve.
Occ. only in Mark 13:22 and 1Tim. 6:10.
- astocheo = to deviate from. Occ. only in
1Tim. 1:6; 6:21. 2Tim. 2:18.
- hettema = a diminishing of that which should have been
rendered in full measure; diminution, decrease. Occ. in Rom. 11:12
and 1Cor. 6:7.