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and looking for a city that was to be prepared for him, a city associated with a heavenly
country, and seen `afar off' (Heb. 11: 8-10, 13).
When we turn to Heb. 12:, and read of the two mountains, Sinai with its blackness
and darkness, its death and its terror, and Mount Sion, the city of the living God, the
heavenly Jerusalem, the parallel between this allegory and that of Gal. 4: is most
obvious. It is one of the many incidental evidences that the epistle to the Galatians was
the `covering letter' to that addressed to the Hebrews; such a covering letter would fully
explain the absence of Paul's name in the introduction of the epistle to the Hebrews as it
also explains the extraordinary omission of any reference to circumcision in that same
epistle. Moreover, the fact that both Galatians (Gal. 6: 11), and Hebrews (Heb. 13: 22)
at their close refer to the Apostle's writing with `large letters' and yet sending them an
exhortation in a letter of `few words' is readily understood if the two letters, the one to
the Galatians and the other to the Hebrews, accompanied each other.
It is beside the purpose of our present study to attempt a systematic examination of the
parallels that exist between these two epistles, or of the way in which the one epistle
supplements the other. This we may do at the close of the present exposition. What does
come before us with great force is that the emphasis in Heb. 11: and 12: concerning
Abraham's association by overcoming faith with the heavenly Jerusalem, unites this
epistle with that to the Galatians as entertaining a similar calling, for there not only are all
believers reckoned as Abraham's seed and heirs according to the promise, but Jerusalem
which is above and free, is their mother (Gal. 4: 26).
Gentile believers have no place in Israel's earthly inheritance except as proselytes or
subservient nations, but Gentile believers whose faith follows that of Abraham, who was
himself one of the Gentile nations and received the promises, being justified by faith
before receiving the sign of circumcision (Rom. 4: 9-14), such believing Gentiles have a
place in the second sphere of blessing, the heavenly calling of Heb. 3: 1, the heavenly
Jerusalem of Heb. 11: and 12:, for Jerusalem which is above is their `mother', the goal of
In Gal. 3: 8 and 22 the Scriptures are personified, being made to `foresee' and to
`conclude'. In Gal. 4: 22-31 the Apostle takes this personification a stage further,
lifting out the history of Sarah and Isaac, and of Hagar and Ishmael, allegorizing the
details, to enforce the essential differences between the two covenants.
The A.V. reads, `which things are an allegory', but Paul uses the verb allegoreo,
saying in effect `I am going to allegorize this piece of O.T. history, but would have you to
remember that the record in Genesis is no mere allegory, but a record of sober fact'.
"The modern and common usage of the word allegoria is thus quite different
from this Scriptural definition. According to the modern sense it is taken to
mean a fictitious narrative which has another and deeper meaning than that which
is expressed . . . . . Allegory is always stated in the past tense, and never in the
future. Allegory is thus distinguished from Prophecy. The Allegory brings other