The Berean Expositor
Volume 37 - Page 205 of 208
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Truth in the Balance.
The Testimony of the Types.
pp. 157 - 160
Among the fruitful studies of Scripture, the study of the types, with their
corresponding antitypes must be given a place in any series that looks at truth in the
balance. The word tupos has passed into our language, and means something that is
symbolized or figured. The Greek word is derived from tupto "I strike or beat" and tupos
means, first "a blow", as tupis means "a hammer", then the mark or impression produced
by the blow or the impression of a seal, the stamp of a coin, the trace of a footstep, and so
a form, figure, image, pattern, model, example, emblem or type. So antitype, antitupos,
meant originally in classical Greek something that repelled or hit back, tupos antitupos
meant the "blow against blow" of the hammer and the anvil, and so the word came to
mean a copy, an impression, or the thing prefigured by the type. The O.T. abounds with
types. Not only are there such obvious types as the Passover Lamb, but there are typical
men, like Adam or Joseph, and typical events like the Flood and the Six days Creation.
We are told in I Cor. 10: 6 and 11, that the wilderness wanderings of Israel, with their
murmurings and experiences "happened unto them for ensamples" (I Cor. 10: 11). Both
"ensample" and "example" are used in this chapter to translate the Greek word tupos.
Ensample is obsolete, example is from ex+emere to take out, exempt, and means
"something taken out, a sample". This, however, is only part of the intention of tupos,
for tupos is not only an example, it is a figure which demands an antitype to make its
purpose complete.
We are told, positively in the N.T. that the following were types. Adam, "who is the
figure of Him that was to come" (Rom. 5: 14). The teaching of I Cor. 15: concerning
the first and the last Adam is fundamental. It involves the Headship of Christ, His
resurrection and the deliverance of His people, His future domain when all things shall be
put under His feet, all of which find their anticipatory type in the creation, position and
expressed intention at the creation of Adam. Peter uses the Ark and its deliverance from
the waters of the flood as a figure of salvation when writing to the dispersion, saying:
"The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us" (I Pet. 3: 21).
This passage literally rendered reads:
"Which (i.e. water; the relative, being neuter, can only refer to the word `water')
being antitypical (Gk. antitupos)" ("Companion Bible").
The apostle, writing to the Hebrews concerning the tabernacle and its antitype heaven,
"For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures
(antitypes) of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for
us" (Heb. 9: 24).