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"sown". The reader will observe that the "soul-ical" condition is also linked with
corruption (42), "dishonour" and "weakness" (43). It is not a necessary, nor an
illuminating interpretation that makes the "sowing" to mean the burial of the dead. Dead
seed is not sown. The entry of man into this world is his "sowing". Since Adam's fall
that sowing has introduced his children into corruption, dishonour, and weakness. The
Apostle clinches his argument concerning the low estate of man by nature by referring to
Adam himself, and not to Adam fallen, but Adam as he left the hands of his Maker, "and
so it is written, the first man Adam was made a living soul, the last Adam a life-giving
spirit". The first man is also "earth" in contrast to the second man who is "heavenly".
After emphasizing the contrast between the "earthy" and the "heavenly", the Apostle
"And I say this, brethren, because flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God;
neither doth corruption inherit incorruption."
It will be observed that Adam, as created and unfallen, is unfit for the kingdom of
God. Man by nature is of the earth, independently of sin.
"The soul of the flesh is in the blood. . . . an atonement for your souls; for it is the
blood that maketh an atonement by reason of the soul" (Lev. 17: 11, R.V.).
It is clear from this inspired reasoning that the "soul" is linked to "flesh and blood",
and is in no sense "spiritual" in its nature. Indeed, "soul" is contrasted with "spirit".
Heb. 4: 12 distinguishes between the two, as does I Cor. 15: 44. The "natural" man
receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God (I Cor. 2: 14).
In James 3: 15 we have the word psuchikos translated "sensual". "This wisdom
descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, demonical." The whole of the
teaching of Scripture regarding the soul points to it as the sum of natural life. All that
goes to make up the individual feelings, desires, and experiences of each living being is
expressed under the Bible word "soul". Just as man became "a living soul", so he
becomes at death "a dead soul" (Num. 19: 11, margin). Hunger, and the pleasures and
functions of eating (Prov. 6: 30, 13: 25, 19: 15, 27: 7), and all the natural
enjoyments of this life (Eccles. 2: 24, margin, "delight his senses", Luke 12: 19) are
attributes of the soul. One of the strangest series of passages, and a series whose
testimony is as opposite to the ordinary conception of the soul as can be imagined, is that
in which the O.T. associates it with the various organs of the body, these organs as it
were in their functions making up the living soul. We will give a few examples:--
Gen. 49: 6.
"O my soul. . . . Mine liver" (A.V. "honour").
Psa. 16: 9.
"My hearth is glad, my liver (A.V. `glory') rejoiceth."
Psa. 31: 9.
"Mine eye. . . . yea, my soul and my belly."
Prov. 13: 25.
"Satisfying of his soul; but the belly of the wicked shall want."
Psa. 16: 7.
"My kidneys" (A.V. "reins", Jer. 17: 10).
The figurative use of the organs of the body are based upon a fact, namely, that the
combined organism is the soul.