Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT


vers 1.
Speak thou (lalei). See on Matt. xxviii. 18; John viii. 26. Become (prepei). Originally, to stand out; be conspicuous. Thus Homer, Od. viii. 172: meta de prepei ajgromenoisin he is conspicuous among those who are assembled. Eurip. Hel. 215; Zeuv prepwn dij aijqerov Zeus shining clearly through the aether. Hence, to become conspicuously fit; to become; beseem. In N.T. in the impersonal forms prepon ejstin it is becoming (Matt. iii. 15); prepei it becometh (Eph. v. 3); eprepen it became (Heb. ii. 10). With a subject nominative, 1 Timothy ii. 10; Heb. vii. 26.

vers 2.
Aged men (presbutav). Only here, Luke i. 18; Philemon 9. To be understood of natural age, not of ecclesiastical position. Note that 1 Timothy 3, in treating of church officers, deals only with Bishops and Deacons. Nothing is said of Presbyters until chapter verse, where Timothy's relations to individual members of the church are prescribed. These church members are classified in this and the following verses as old men, old women, younger men, servants. In LXX presbuthv is occasionally interchanged with presbeuthv ambassador. See 2 Chronicles xxxii. 31; 1 Macc. xiii. :21; xiv. :21, 22; 2 Macc. xi. 34.

vers 3.
Aged women (presbutidav). N.T.o . See on presbuterai, 1 Tim. v. 2.

Behavior (katasthmati). N.T.o . See on katastolh apparel, 1 Timothy ii. 9. It means, primarily, condition or state.Once in LXX, 3 Macc v. 45, katasthma maniwdev the maddened state into which the war-elephants were excited. Hence the state in which one habitually bears himself - his deportment or demeanor.

As becometh holiness (ieroprepeiv). N.T.o . LXX, 4 Macc. ix. 25; xi. 20. In the Theages (wrongly ascribed to Plato), tw uiJei to onoma eqou kai iJeroprepev you have given your son (Theages) an honorable and reverend name (122 D). It means beseeming a sacred place, person, or matter. Thus Athenaeus, seven, of one who had given a sacred banquet, says that the table was ornamented iJeroprepestata in a manner most appropriate to the sacred circumstances. The meaning here is becoming those who are engaged in sacred service. This is the more striking if, as there is reason to believe, the presbutidev represented a quasi-official position in the church. See on 1 Tim. v. 3, and comp. 1 Tim. ii. 10; Eph. v. 3. 151 False accusers (diabolouv). Better, slanderers. See on Matt. iv. 1, and 1 Tim. iii. 6,11.

Given to much wine (oinw pollw dedoulwmenav). More correctly, enslaved to much wine. The verb only here in Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy iii. 8.

Teachers of good things (kalodidaskalouv). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class.

vers 4.
They may teach (swfronizwsi). Better, school or train. N.T.o . o LXX. The verb means to make sane or sober-minded; to recall a person to his senses; hence, to moderate, chasten, discipline.

To love their husbands, to love their children (filandrouv einai, filoteknouv). Lit. to be husband-lovers, children-lovers. Both adjectives N.T.o . o LXX. Filandrov in Class. not in this sense, but loving men or masculine habits; lewd. In the better sense often in epitaphs. An inscription at Pergamum has the following: Iouliov Bassov Otakilia Pwllh th glukutath gunaiki, filandrw kai filoteknw sumbiwsash ajmemptwv eth l, Julius Bassus to Otacilia Polla my sweetest wife, who loved her husband and children and lived with me blamelessly for thirty years.

vers 5.
Keepers at home (oikourgouv). Wrong. Rend. workers at home. N.T.o . o LXX, o Class.

Good (agaqav). Not attributive of workers at home, but independent. Rend. kindly. The mistress of the house is to add to her thrift, energy, and strict discipline, benign, gracious, heartily kind demeanor. Comp. Matthew xx. 15; 1 Pet. ii. 18; Acts ix. 36. See on Acts xi. 24; Rom. v. 7. 153 Obedient (upotassomenav). Better, subject or in subjection. Frequent in Paul, but not often in the active voice. See on James. iv. 7; Rom. viii. 7; Philip. iii. 21; and comp. 1 Cor. xiv. 34; Eph. v. 22; Col. iii. 18.

vers 7.
In all things (peri panta). Lit. concerning all things. The exact phrase, N.T.o . For analogous use of peri comp. Luke x. 40, 41; Acts xix. 25; 1 Tim. i. 19; vi. 4, 21; 2 Tim. iii. 8.

Shewing thyself (seauton parecomenov). See on 1 Tim. i. 4. The phrase N.T.o . but occurs in Class., as, to show one's self holy or righteous; wise or skillful; parecein to make himself scarce. 154 Incorruptness (afqorian). Const. with shewing. N.T.o . o Class. LXX once, Haggi ii. 18. Omit sincerity.

vers 8.
Sound speech (logon ugih). Ugihv sound, only here in Pastorals. The usual form is the participle, as uJgiainontwn logwn, 2 Tim. i. 13; uJgiainousi logoiv, 1 Tim. vi. 3.

That cannot, be condemned (akatagnwston). N.T.o . o Class. See 2 Macc. iv. 47.

He that is of the contrary part (o ex enantiav). The phrase N.T.o . See Mark. xv. 39. The heathen opposer is meant. Comp. blasphemed, verse 5, and 1 Tim. vi. 1. Enantiov contrary, in Paul only 1 Thessalonians ii. 15.

May be ashamed (entraph). Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians iv. 14; 2 Thess. iii. 14, see notes on both, and on Matt. xxi. 37.

Evil thing (faulon). Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Rom. ix. 11; 2 Corinthians v. 10. See on John iii. 20.

vers 9.
To please them well in all things (ejn pasin eujarestouv einai). Wrong. Const. in all things with to be in subjection. Note the position of ejn pasin in 1 Tim. iii. 11; iv. 15; 2 Tim. ii. 7; iv. 5, and comp. uJpakouein kata panta obey in all things, Col. iii. 20, 22; and uJpotassetai - ejn panti is subject in everything, Eph. v. 24. Euarestov well pleasing, only here in Pastorals. Almost exclusively in Paul. See also Hebrews. xiii. 21. Euarestwv acceptably, Hebrews. xii. 28.

vers 10.
Purloining (nosfizomenouv). Only here and Acts v. 2, 3. LXX, Josh. vii. 1; 2 Macc. iv. 32. Often in Class. From nosfi apart. The fundamental idea of the word is to put far away from another; to set apart for one's self; hence to purloin and appropriate to one's own use. Purloin is akin to prolong: prolongyn or purlongyn " to put fer awey." Old French porloignier or purloignier.

Shewing all good fidelity (pasan pistin endeiknomenov agaqhn). The phrase N.T.o . This is the only instance in N.T. of ajgaqov with pistiv.

Adorn the doctrine (thn didaskalian kosmwsin). The phrase N.T.o . For kosmwsin adorn, see on 1 Tim. ii. 9.

vers 11.
This teaching or doctrine which is to be adorned by the lives of God's servants - the teaching of the gospel - is now stated in vv. 11-15. The grace of God (h cariv tou qeou). A common Pauline phrase. The exact phrase only here in Pastorals. It is the ultimate ground of salvation. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 9; Eph. ii. 5, 8; Gal. i. 15.

That bringeth salvation (swthriov). Lit. saving. N.T.o . Const. with cariv grace. The saving grace of God.

Hath appeared (epefanh). Only in Pastorals, Luke, and Acts. In the active voice, to bring to light, show. See on ejpifaneia appearing, 1 Timothy vi. 14.

To all men. Const. with that bringeth salvation, not with hath appeared. The grace of God which is saving for all men. Comp. 1 Tim. ii. 4.

vers 12.
Teaching (paideuousa). Better, instructing or training. The saving economy of God is educative. Comp. Heb. xii. 4-11, and see on 1 Timothy i. 20.

Ungodliness (asebeian). In Pastorals only here and 2 Tim. ii. 16. The contrary of eujsebeia, for which see on 1 Tim. ii. 2. Worldly lusts (kosmikav epiqumiav). The phrase N.T.o . Kosmikov worldly, only here and Heb. ix. 1. On the ethical sense in kosmov the world, see on Acts xvii. 24, and John i. 9

vers 13.
Looking for (prosdecomenoi). In Pastorals only here. Comp. Mark. xv. 43; Luke ii. 25; xii. 36. In this sense not in Paul. Primarily, to receive to one's self, admit, accept. So Luke xv. 2; Rom. xvi. 2; Philip. ii. 29. That which is accepted in faith, is awaited expectantly.

That blessed hope (thn makarian elpida). The phrase N.T.o .

Makariov blessed, very often in the Gospels. See on Matt. v. 3. In Pastorals, with the exception of this passage, always of God. In Paul, only of men, and so usually in the Gospels. Elpida hope, the object of hope. Why the hope is called blessed, appears from 2 Tim. iv. 8; Philippians iii. 20, etc. Comp. Jude 21, and 1 Pet. i. 13.

And the glorious appearing (kai epifaneian thv doxhv). Kai is explanatory, introducing the definition of the character of the thing hoped for. Looking for the object of hope, even the appearing, etc. Glorious appearing is a specimen of the vicious hendiadys by which the force of so many passages has been impaired or destroyed in translation. Rend. appearing of the glory.

Of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ (tou megalou qeou kai swthrov hmwn Cristou Ihsou). For Jesus Christ rend. Christ Jesus. Megav great with God, N.T.o , but often in LXX. According to A.V. two persons are indicated, God and Christ. Revelations with others rend. of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus, thus indicating one person, and asserting the deity of Christ. I adopt the latter, although the arguments and authorities in favor of the two renderings are very evenly balanced. 155

vers 14.
Gave himself for us (edwken eauton uper hmwn). See on 1 Timothy ii. 6, and comp. Gal. i. 4. Uper on behalf of; not instead of. Might redeem (lutrwshtai). Only here, Luke xxiv. 21; 1 Pet. i. 18. See on 1 Tim. ii. 6. Neither lutron ransom, lutrwsiv redemption, nor lutrwthv redeemer occur in Paul. He has the figure of purchase (ajgorazesqai, ejxagorazesqai), 1 Cor. vi. 20; vii. 23; Galatians iii. 13; iv. 5. Comp. Apoc. v. 9; xiv. 3, 4; 2 Pet. ii. 1.

Iniquity (anomiav). Only here in Pastorals. Lit. Lawlessness. See on 1 John iii. 4.

Might purify (kaqarish). In Pastorals only here. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels and Hebrews. In Paul, 2 Cor. vii. 1; Eph. v. 26. o Class. Often in LXX.

A peculiar people (laon periousion). Laov people only here in Pastorals. In Paul ten times, always in citations. Most frequently in Luke and Acts; often in Hebrews and Revelation. Periousiov N.T.o . A few times in LXX, always with laov. See Exod. xix. 5; xxiii. 22; Deuteronomy vii. 6; xiv. 2; xxvi. 18. The phrase was originally applied to the people of Israel, but is transferred here to believers in the Messiah - Jews and Gentiles. Comp. 1 Pet. ii. 10. Periousiov is from the participle of perieinai to be over and above: hence periousia abundance, plenty. Periousiov also means possessed over and above, that is, specially selected for one's own; exempt from ordinary laws of distribution. Hence correctly represented by peculiar, derived from peculium, a private purse, a special acquisition of a member of a family distinct from the property administered for the good of the whole family. Accordingly the sense is given in Eph. i. 14, where believers are said to have been sealed eijv ajpolutrwsin thv peripoihsewv with a view to redemption of possession, or redemption which will give possession, thus = acquisition. So 1 Pet. ii. 9, where Christians are styled laov eijv peripoihsin a people for acquisition, to be acquired by God as his peculiar possession. Comp. 1 Thess. v. 9; 2 Thess. ii. 14, and peripoieisqai to acquire, Acts xx. 28. The phrase kaqarizein laon to purify the people, in LXX, Nehemiah. xii. 30; Judith xvi. 18.

Zealous (zhlwthn). Lit. a zealot. Comp. Acts xxi. 20; xxii. 3; 1 Pet. iii. 13. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 12; Gal. i. 14. For the word as a title, see on the Canaanite, Matt. x. 4, and Mark. iii. 18. Authority (epitaghv). See on 1 Tim. i. 1.

Despise (perifroneitw). N.T.o . Occasionally in Class. From peri beyond, fronein to be minded. To set one's self in thought beyond; hence; contemn, despise. Comp. 1 Tim. iv. 12. The exhortation is connected with authority. Tit. is to claim respect for his office and for himself as bearing it.

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