VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Receive ye (proslambanesqe). Into fellowship. See on Matt. xvi. 22. Doubtful disputations (diakriseiv dialogismwn). Lit., judgings of thoughts. The primary meaning of dialogismov is a thinking-through or over. Hence of those speculations or reasonings in one's mind which take the form of scruples. See on Mark vii. 21. Diakrisiv has the same sense as in the other two passages where it occurs (1 Cor. xii. 10; Hebrews v. 14); discerning with a view to forming a judgment. Hence the meaning is, "receive these weak brethren, but not for the purpose of passing judgment upon their scruples."
Herbs (lacana). From lacainw to dig. Herbs grown on land cultivated by digging: garden-herbs, vegetables. See on Mark iv. 32; Luke xii. 42.
Judge (krinetw). Judgment is assigned to the weak brother, contempt to the stronger. Censoriousness is the peculiar error of the ascetic, contemptuousness of the liberal. A distinguished minister once remarked: "The weak brother is the biggest bully in the universe!" Both extremes are allied to spiritual pride.
Hath received (proselabeto). The aorist points to a definite time - when he believed on Christ, though there is still a reference to his present relation to God as determined by the fact of his reception then, which may warrant the rendering by the perfect.
Servant (oikethn). Strictly, household servant. See on 1 Pet. ii. 18. He is a servant in Christ s household. Hence not another man's, as A.V., but the servant of another, as Rev. Allotrion of another is an adjective.
He shall be holden up (staqhsetai). Rev., shall be made to stand; better, both because the rendering is more truthful, and because it corresponds with the kindred verb stand - he standeth, make him stand.
Is able (dunatei). Stronger than dunatai can. The sense is, is mighty. Hence Rev., hath power.
Be fully persuaded (plhroforeisqw). Better, Rev., assured. See on most surely believed, Luke i. 1.
In his own mind. "As a boat may pursue its course uninjured either in a narrow canal or in a spacious lake" (Bengel).
Judgment seat of Christ (tw bhmati tou Cristou). The best texts read Qeou of God So Rev. For judgment-seat, see on to set his foot on, Acts vii. 5.
Shall confess (exomologhsetai). Primarily, to acknowledge, confess, or profess from (ex) the heart. To make a confession to one's honor; thence to praise. So Luke x. 21 (Rev., in margin, praise for thank); Rom. xv. 9. Here, as Rev. in margin, shall give praise. See on Matt. xi. 25.
Unclean (koinon). Lit., common. In the Levitical sense, as opposed to holy or pure. Compare Mark vii. 2, "With defiled (koinaiv common), that is to say, with unwashen hands." See Acts x. 14.
Meat (brwma). A general term for food.
Charitably (kata agaphn). Lit., according to love. Rev. in love. See on 2 Peter i. 6.
Him (ekeinon). The pronoun has a strongly defining force, explained by the following phrase.
Meat and drink (brwsiv kai posiv). Rev., eating and drinking. Both words, however, occur frequently in the sense of A.V. Meat (brwma), that which is eaten, occurs in ver. 15. The corresponding word for that which is drunk (pwma) is not found in the New Testament, though poma drink occurs 1 Cor. x. 4; Heb. ix. 10, and both in classical and New-Testament Greek, posiv the act of drinking is used also for that which is drunk. See John vi. 55. A somewhat similar interchange of meaning appears in the popular expression, such a thing is good eating; also in the use of living for that by which one lives.
Righteousness (dikaiosunh). On its practical, ethical side, as shown in moral rectitude toward men.
Peace (eirhnh). Not peace with God, reconciliation, as ch. v. 1, but mutual concord among Christians.
Joy (cara). Common joy, arising out of the prevalence of rectitude and concord in the Church. The whole chapter is concerned with the mutual relations of Christians, rather than with their relations to God In the Holy Ghost. Most commentators construe this with joy only.
Meyer says it forms one phrase. Compare 1 Thess. i. 6 While this may be correct, I see no objection to construing the words with all these terms. So Godet: "It is this divine guest who, by His presence, produces them in the Church."
One another (thv eiv allhlouv). The Greek phrase has a defining force which is lost in the translations. Lit., things of edification, that, namely, which is with reference to one another. The definite article thus points Paul's reference to individuals rather than to the Church as a whole.
Work of God. The christian brother, whose christian personality is God's work. See 2 Cor. v. 17; Eph. ii. 10; Jas. i. 18.
With offense (dia proskommatov). Against his own conscientious scruple. Lit., through or amidst offense.
Condemneth not himself (krinwn). Rev., better, judgeth. Who, in settled conviction of the rightness of his action, subjects himself to no self-judgment after it.
Alloweth (dokimazei). Rev., approveth. See on 1 Pet. i. 7. "Christian practice ought to be out of the sphere of morbid introspection."
Some authorities insert here the doxology at ch. xvi. 25-27. According to some, the Epistle to the Rom. closed with this chapter. Chapter 16 was a list of disciples resident at different points on the route, who were to be greeted. Phoebe is first named because Cenchreae would be the first stage. Ephesus would be the next stage, where Aquila and Priscilla would be found. Chapter 15 was a sort of private missive to be communicated to all whom the messengers should visit on the way. The question seems to be almost wholly due to the mention of Aquila and Priscilla in ch. 16, and to the fact that there is no account of their migration from Ephesus to Rome, and of an after-migration again to Ephesus (2 Tim. iv. 19). But see on ch. xvi. 14.
Others claim that chs. 1-11, 16. were the original epistle; that Phoebe's journey was delayed, and that, in the interval, news from Rome led Paul to add 12-15.
Others again, that ch. 16 was written from Rome to Ephesus.
Against these theories is the stubborn fact that of the known extant MSS. of Paul (about three hundred) all the MSS. hitherto collated, including all the most important, give these chapters in the received connection and order, with the exception of the doxology. See on the doxology, ch. 16.