VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Joy and crown (cara kai stefanov). Nearly the same phrase occurs 1 Thessalonians ii. 19. The Philippian converts are his chaplet of victory, showing that he has not run in vain, ch. ii. 16. For crown, see on Revelation iv. 4; 1 Pet. v. 4.
So stand fast. As I have exhorted, and have borne myself in the conflict which you saw and heard to be in me, ch. i. 30.
To be of the same mind (to auto fronein). The same expression as in ch ii. 2, see note. Compare Rom. xii. 16. The verb fronew to be minded, occurs eleven times in this epistle, and but seventeen times in the rest of the New Testament.
Which labored with me (aitinev sunhqlhsan moi). The double relative explains and classifies: for they belonged to the number of those who labored. Rev., for they labored. Labored, lit., strove as athletes, as ch. i. 27. Compare Sophocles: "These girls preserve me, these my nurses, these who are men, not women, in laboring with me" ("Oedipus at Colonus," 1367-8).
Clement. Supposed by some to be Clement the Bishop of Rome. Origen identifies them, saying: "Clement to whom Paul bears Testimony in Philip. iv. 3." So also Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Jerome. Chrysostom speaks of Clement as the constant companion of Paul in all his travels. Irenaeus, on the contrary, who mentions him as the pupil of an apostle, says nothing of his connection with Paul, by name, and would not have been likely to pass over this identity in silence had he been aware of it. Clement was a member of the Roman church, and the name was a very common one. A Roman consul, Flavius Clemens, was sentenced to death by Domitian on account of atheism, which was the common pagan designation of Christianity. The Roman catacombs furnish evidence that Christianity had penetrated into the Flavian family, so that there may have been two prominent Christians in Rome of the same name. The identity of Clement of Rome with the Clement of this epistle has been very generally abandoned. The latter was probably a Philippian.
Other (twn loipwn). Rev., correctly, the rest.
Book of life. The phrase occurs seven times in Revelation. Compare Luke x. 20; Heb. xii. 23, and see on Apoc. iii. 5. The figure is founded on the register of the covenant people. Isa. iv. 3; Ezek. xiii. 9; Exod. xxxii. 32; Psalm lxix. 28; Dan. xii. 1. The phrase was also used by the Rabbins. Thus in the Targum 184 on Ezek. xiii. 9: "In the book of eternal life which has been written for the just of the house of Israel, they shall not be written." God is described as "the king, sitting upon the judgment-seat, with the books of the living and the books of the dead open before Him."
Moderation (to epieikev). Wrong. Rev., correctly, forbearance. See on gentle, 1 Pet. ii. 18.
The Lord is at hand. See on 1 Cor. xvi. 22.
Prayer and supplication. General and special. See on Luke v. 33; viii. 38. Proseuch prayer, only of prayer to God. The two words often occur together, as Eph. vi. 18; 1 Tim. ii. 1; v. 5.
Requests (aithmata). Specific details of supplication.
Unto God (prov ton Qeon). The force of prov is rather in your intercourse with God. See on with God, John i. 1.
Which passeth all understanding (h uperecousa panta noun). Either, which passes all power of comprehension, compare Ephesians iii. 20; or, better, which surpasses every (human) reason, in its power to relieve anxiety. Compare Matt. vi. 31, 32. For understanding, see on Rom. vii. 23.
Shall keep (frourhsei). Lit., guard, as Rev., or mount guard over. God's peace, like a sentinel, patrols before the heart. Compare Tennyson:
"Love is and was my King and Lord, And will be, though as yet I keep Within his court on earth, and sleep Encompassed by his faithful guard, And hear at times a sentinel Who moves about from place to place, And whispers to the worlds of space, In the deep night, that all is well." "In Memoriam."
Gurnall. a little differently: "The peace of God is said to garrison the believer's heart and mind. He is surrounded with such blessed privileges that he is as safe as one in an impregnable castle" ("Christian in Complete Armor," p. 419).
Hearts - minds (kardiav - nohmata). For hearts, see on Romans i. 21. For minds, Rev., thoughts, on 2 Cor. iii. 14. The guardianship is over the source and the issues of thought and will. "Your hearts and their fruits" (Alford).
Pure (agna). See on 1 John iii. 3.
Lovely (prosfilh). Only here in the New Testament. Adapted to excite love, and to endear him who does such things.
Of good report (eufhma). Only here in the New Testament. Lit., sounding well. The kindred verb is commonly used in an active sense. Hence not well spoken of, but fairspeaking, and so winning, gracious (Rev., in margin).
Virtue (areth). With this exception the word occurs only in Peter's epistles; 1 Pet. ii. 9; 2 Pet. i. 3, 5; see notes on both.
Praise (epainov). Commendation corresponding to the moral value of the virtue. In the Septuagint, ajreth virtue is four times used to translate the Hebrew praise. The two ideas seem to be coordinated. Lightfoot remarks that Paul seems studiously to avoid this common heathen term for moral excellence, and his explanation is very suggestive: "Whatever value may reside in your old heathen conception of virtue, whatever consideration is due to the praise of men."
Wherein. The matter of my wants and sufferings. Implied in your care of me.
Ye were careful (efroneite). Rev., ye did take thought. Note the imperfect tense: ye were all along thoughtful.
To be full (cortazesqai). See on Matt. v. 6.
Strengtheneth (endunamounti). More literally, infuses strength into me, as the old verb inforce.
Odor of a sweet smell. See on 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. Frequent in Septuagint, of the odor of sacrifices.