VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
1-11. Compare Matt. xxi. 33-46.
Wine fat (upolhnion). Rev., wine-press. Only here in New Testament. The wine-press was constructed in the side of a sloping rock, in which a trough was excavated, which was the wine press proper. Underneath this was dug another trough, with openings communicating with the trough above, into which the juice ran from the press. This was called by the Rom. lacus, or the lake. The word here used for the whole structure strictly means this trough underneath (upo) the press (lhnov). This is the explanation of Wyc.'s translation, dalf (delved), a lake.
Went into a far country (apedhmhsen). But this is too strong. The word means simply went abroad. So Wyc., went forth in pilgrimage; and Tynd., into a strange country. Rev., another country. See on Matt. xxv. 14. Of the fruits. Or, literally, from (apo) the fruits, showing that the rent was to be paid in kind.
Therefore. The best texts omit. Last. Mark only.
Those husbandmen. Lit., they the husbandmen. Wyc., tenants.
Scripture (grafhn). A passage of scripture: hence frequently this scripture; another scripture; the same scripture. Luke iv. 21; John xix. 37; Acts i. 16.
The Lord's doing (para kuriou). Lit., from the Lord.
13-17. Compare Matt. xxii. 15-22.
Catch (agreuswsin). From agra, hunting, the chase. Hence the picture in the word is that of hunting, while that in Matthew's word, pagideuswsin, is that of catching in a trap. See on Matt. xxii. 15.
Tribute. See on Matt. xxii. 19.
Person (proswpon). Lit., face.
Shall we give, etc. A touch peculiar to Mark.
Penny. See on Matt. xx. 2.
Image and superscription. See on Matt. xxii. 20.
They marvelled (exeqaumazon). The preposition ejx, out of, indicates great astonishment. They marvelled out of measure. Hence Rev., marvelled greatly. The A.V. follows another reading, with the simple verb ejqaumazon. The imperfect denotes continuance: they stood wondering.
Who (oitinev). This pronoun marks the Sadducees as a class: of that party characterized by their denial of the resurrection. Asked (ephrwtwn). Stronger. They questioned.
Therefore (dia touto). A rendering which obscures the meaning. The words point forward to the next two clauses. The reason of your error is your ignorance of the scriptures and the power of God. Hence Rev., correctly, Is it not for this cause that ye err?
Err (planasqe). Lit., wander out of the way. Compare Latin errare. Of the wandering sheep, Matt. xviii. 12; 1 Pet. ii. 25. Of the martyrs wandering in the deserts, Heb. xi. 38. Often rendered in the New Testament deceive. See Mark xiii. 5, 6. Compare ajsterev planhtai, wandering stars (Jude 13), from which our word planet.
How in the bush God spake. An utterly wrong rendering. In the bush (epi tou batou), refers to a particular section in the Pentateuch, Exodus iii. 2-6. The Jews were accustomed to designate portions of scripture by the most noteworthy thing contained in them. Therefore Rev., rightly, in the place concerning the bush. Wyc., in the book of Moses on the bush. The article refers to it as something familiar. Compare Rom. xi. 2, ejn jHlia; i.e., in the section of scripture which tells of Elijah. There, however, the Rev. retains the A.V. of Elijah, and puts in in the margin.
Ye do greatly err. An emphatic close, peculiar to Mark.
Well (kalwv). Lit., beautifully, finely, admirably. What (poia). Rather, of what nature.
With all thy heart (ex olhv thv kardiav sou). Lit., out of thy whole heart. The heart, not only as the seat of the affections, but as the center of our complex being - physical, moral, spiritual, and intellectual. Soul (yuchv). The word is often used in the New Testament in its original meaning of life. See Matt. ii. 20; xx. 28; Acts xx. 10; Romans xi. 3; John x. 11. Hence, as an emphatic designation of the man himself. See Matt. xii. 18; Heb. x. 38; Luke xxi. 19. So that the word denotes "life in the distinctness of individual existence" (Cremer). See farther on yucikov, spiritual, 1 Cor. xv. 44.
Mind (dianoiav). The faculty of thought: understanding, especially the moral understanding.
Neighbor. See on Matt. v. 43.
32-34. Peculiar to Mark.
Well, Master, thou hast said the truth; for there is one God. All the best texts omit God.
Well (kalwv). Exclamatory, as one says good! on hearing something which he approves.
The truth (ep alhqeiav). Incorrect. The phrase is adverbial; of a truth, in truth, truthfully, and qualifies the succeeding verb, thou hast said. For (oti). The A.V. begins a new and explanatory sentence with this word; but it is better with Rev. to translate that, and make the whole sentence continuous: Thou hast truthfully said that he is one.
Understanding (sunesewv). A different word from that in verse 30. From sunihmi, to send or bring together. Hence sunesiv is a union or bringing together of the mind with an object, and so used to denote the faculty of quick comprehension, intelligence, sagacity. Compare on sunetwn, the prudent, Matt. xi. 25
Discreetly (nounecwv). From nouv, mind, and ecw, to have. Having his mind in possession: "having his wits about him." The word occurs only here in the New Testament.
The common people (o poluv oclov). Not indicating a social distinction, but the great mass of the people: the crowd at large.
Desire (qelontwn). See on Matt. i. 19.
Uppermost rooms (prwtoklisiav). More correctly, the chief couches. So Rev., chief places.
Widows' houses. People often left their whole fortune to the temple, and a good deal of the temple-money went, in the end, to the Scribes and Pharisees. The Scribes were universally employed in making wills and conveyances of property. They may have abused their influence with widows.
The treasury. In the Court of the Women, which covered a space of two hundred feet square. All round it ran a colonnade, and within it, against the wall, were the thirteen chests or "trumpets" for charitable contributions. These chests were narrow at the mouth and wide at the bottom, shaped like trumpets, whence their name. Their specific objects were carefully marked on them. Nine were for the receipt of what was legally due by worshippers, the other four for strictly voluntary gifts. See Edersheim, "The Temple."
Beheld (eqewrei). Observed thoughtfully.
Cast. Note the graphic present tense: are casting.
Money (calkon). Lit., copper, which most of the people gave.
Cast in (eballon). Imperfect tense: were casting in as he looked.
Much (polla). Lit., many things; possibly many pieces of current copper coin.
A certain (mia). Not a good translation. Lit., one as distinguished from the many rich. Better, simply the indefinite article, as Rev. Poor (ptwch). See on Matt. v. 3.
Mites (lepta). From leptov, peeled, husked; and thence thin or fine. Therefore of a very small or thin coin.
Farthing (kodranthv). A Latin word, quadrans, or a quarter of a Roman as; quadrans meaning a forth, as farthing is fourthing.
This poor widow (h chra auth h ptwch). The Greek order is very suggestive, forming a kind of climax: this widow, the poor one, or and she poor.
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