VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
1-18. A summary restatement of the matters discussed from ch. viii. 1.
A shadow (skian). The emphasis is on this thought. The legal system was a shadow. Skia is a rude outline, an adumbration, contrasted with eijkwn, the archetypal or ideal pattern. Skia does not accurately exhibit the figure itself. Comp. ch. viii. 5.
Of good things to come (twn mellontwn agaqwn). From the point of view of the law.
The very image of the things (authn thn eikona twn pragmatwn) For eijkwn image, see on Apoc. xiii. 14; Philip. ii. 7. Pragmatwn things expresses a little more distinctly than mellontwn the idea of facts and realities.
Can (dunatai). Dunatai might be expected with oJ nomov the law as the subject. If dunatai, the plural, is retained, the clause the law - image of the things must be taken absolutely, the construction of the sentence breaking off suddenly, and the subject being changed from the law to the priests: "The priests can never," etc. It is better to read dunatai in the singular, with Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort, and Weiss.
Continually (eiv to dihnekev). See on ch. vii. 3, and comp. vers. 12, 14. Const. with offer.
Sacrifice and offering (qusian kai prosforan). The animal-offering and the meal-offering.
Introducing a partial repetition of the quotation.
Removes that which God does not will, the animal sacrifice, that he may establish that which God does will, the offering of an obedient will.
We are sanctified (hgiasmenoi). Lit. we are having been sanctified; that is, in a sanctified state, as having become partakers of the spirit of Christ. This is the work of the eternal spirit, whose will is the very will of God. It draws men into its own sphere, and makes them partakers of its holiness (Heb. xii. 10).
Once for all (efapax). Const. with are sanctified. The sanctification of the Levitical offerings was only temporary, and had to be repeated. Christ's one offering "perfected forever them that are sanctified" (ver. 14). This thought is elaborated in vers. 11-14.
Daily - often - the same. The wearisome round of daily offerings, always the same, contrasted with the one offering, once for all. Take away (perielein). Only here in connection with sin. See on 2 Corinthians iii. 16. The verb literally means to strip off all round. See Gen. xli. 42 (of a ring): Gen. xxxviii. 14; Deut. xxi. 13 (of clothes). Comp. eujperistatov, Heb. xii. 1, see note, and perikeitai ajsqeneian is compassed about with weakness, Heb. v. 2. See also clothed with shame, and with cursing, Psalm xxxv. 26; cix. 18.
15-17. Repetition of the passage already cited from Jer. in ch. viii. 10-12. The nerve of the citation is ver. 17.
By the blood (en tw aimati). Lit. "in the blood": in the power or virtue of.
Through the veil (dia tou katapetasmatov). The veil of the holy of holies is rent. Christ's work does not stop short of the believer's complete access to God himself.
That is to say his flesh (tout estin thv sarkov autou). Const. with veil: the veil which consisted in his flesh. His flesh was the state through which he had to pass before he entered heaven for us. See ch. ii. 9-18; v. 7-9; x. 5. When he put off that state, the veil of the temple was rent. He passed through humanity to glory as the forerunner of his people, ch. vi. 20.
House of God (oikon tou qeou). In the Gospels always of the temple. Not found in Paul. Once in the Pastorals, of the church, 1 Tim. iii. 15, and so 1 Pet. iv. 17. Here the whole Christian family. Comp. 1 Corinthians iii. 16, 17; 2 Cor. vi. 16; Eph. ii. 22.
With a true heart (meta alhqinhv kardiav). A right and genuine inward attitude toward God. For the phrase comp. LXX, Isa. xxxviii. 3. N.T.o . For ajlhqinhv see on John i. 9, and comp. Heb. viii. 2; ix. 24. A true heart is required to enter the true sanctuary. The phrase means more than in sincerity. Sincerity is included, but with it all that enters into a right attitude toward God as revealed in our Great High Priest, - gladness, freedom, enthusiasm, bold appropriation of all the privileges of sonship. In full assurance of faith (en plhroforia pistewv). Full conviction engendered by faith. See on ch. vi. 11. Faith ii the basis of all right relation to God.
Sprinkled from an evil conscience (rerantismenoi-apo suneidhsewv ponhrav). This qualification for a right approach to God is stated typologically. As the priests were sprinkled with the sacrificial blood and washed with water before ministering, so do you who have now the privilege and standing of priests in approaching God, draw near, priestlike, as sharers in an economy which purges the conscience (ch. ix. 14), having your consciences purged. Your own hearts must experience the effects of the great sacrifice of Christ, - pardon, moral renewal, deliverance from a legal spirit. On the priesthood of believers see 1 Peter ii. 5, 9; Exod. xix. 6; Isa. lxi. 6. This idea is dominated in our epistle by that of Christ's priesthood; but it is not excluded, and is implied throughout. See ch. xiii. 15. For sprinkled, see on 1 Pet. i. 2.
Bodies washed (lelousmenoi to swma). Also typological. Most, expositors refer to baptism. The most significant passage in that direction is 1 Pet. iii. 21; comp. Eph. v. 26; Tit. iii. 5. It may be, though I doubt if the idea is emphasized. I incline, with Dr. Bruce, to think that it indicates generally the thoroughness of the cleansing process undergone by one who surrenders himself, soul, body, and spirit, to God.
Without wavering (aklinh). N.T.o .
As the manner of some is (kaqwv eqov tisin). For manner rend. custom. Lit. as is custom unto some. Eqov mostly in Luke and Acts. Comp. Luke i. 9; John xix. 40.
Ye see the day approaching (blepete ejggizousan thn hJmeran). The day of Christ's second coming, bringing with it the judgment of Israel. He could say "ye see," because they were familiar with Christ's prophecy concerning the destruction of the temple; and they would see this crisis approaching in the disturbances which heralded the Jewish war.
The knowledge (epignwsin). Only here in Hebrews. Very common in Paul. For the word, and the phrase knowledge of the truth, see on 1 Timothy ii. 4. The truth is the revelation through Christ.
There remaineth no more sacrifice for sins (ouketi peri amartiwn apoleipetai qusia). Of course not. For the Levitical sacrifices are abolished. It is Christ's sacrifice or none.
Fiery indignation (purov zhlov). For zhlov see on Jas. iii. 14. The radical idea of the word is ferment of spirit (zein to boil; see Acts xviii. 25; Rom. xii. 11). This idea takes on different aspects in zhlov, as indignation, Acts v. 17; zeal, John ii. 17; Rom. x. 2; 2 Cor. vii. 7; xi. 2; Philip. iii. 6; envy, Rom. xiii. 13; 1 Cor. iii. 3; Galatians v. 20. In the last sense often with epiv strife. The phrase fiery indignation, lit. indignation of fire (N.T.o ) is an adaptation from Isa. xxvi. 11. The adversaries (touv upenantiouv). Only here and Col. ii. 14. Often in LXX.
Died (apoqnhskei). Lit. dieth. According to the ordinance as it now stands in the law.
Without mercy (cwriv oiktirmwn). The phrase N.T.o . For the noun see on 2 Cor. i. 3.
Under two or three witnesses (epi dusin h trisin martusin). As in LXX, Deut. xvii. 6. jEpi with dative signifying on condition of two or three witnesses testifying. Comp. 1 Tim. v. 17, where the same phrase occurs with the genitive, before, in the presence of. Comp. also Deut. xix. 15.
Punishment (timwriav). N.T.o . Occasionally in LXX, frequent in Class. Originally assistance; assistance to one who has been wronged; punishment. With no sense of chastisement. It is purely retributive. 221 Trodden under foot (katapathsav) Only here in Hebrews. o P. Frequent in LXX for spoiling, defeating, treating contemptuously. The strong term is purposely selected in order to convey the sense of the fearful outrage involved in forsaking Christ and returning to Judaism.
Hath counted an unholy thing (koinon hghsamenov). JHgeisqai to count or deem means a conscious judgment resting on a deliberate weighing of the facts. See Rom. xii. 10; Philip. ii. 3. Here it implies a deliberate, contemptuous rejection of the gifts of the new covenant. The fundamental idea of koinov is shared by all, public. Thus Acts ii. 44; iv. 39; Tit. i. 4; Jude 3. Out of this grows the idea of not sacred; not set apart for particular uses by purification, and so (ceremonially) unclean or defiled, as Mark vii. 2, 5; Acts x. 14, 28; xi. 8. In these cases it is not implied that the thing is defiled or filthy in itself, but only unclean through the absence of that which would set it apart. Comp. Rom. xiv. 14. Here the word admits of two explanations:
(1) that Christ's blood was counted common, having no more sacred character or specific worth than the blood of any ordinary person;
(2) that in refusing to regard Christ's blood as that of an atoner and redeemer, it was implied that his blood was unclean as being that of a transgressor. The former seems preferable.
There was no specific virtue in Christ's blood as blood; but a peculiar and unique virtue attached to it as the offering of his eternal spirit (ch. ix. 14), as the blood shed in ratification of a sacred covenant established by God, and as having sanctifying virtue. This view is further justified by the combination of blood and spirit, as sources of sanctification allied in the writer's mind.
Hath done despite unto the spirit of grace (kai to pneuma thv caritov enubrisav). jEnubrizein to insult, N.T.o . The simple verb uJbrizein in Matthew, Luke, Acts, and Pastorals. It will be observed that the work of the Holy Spirit does not receive in this epistle the emphasis which marks it in some other portions of the N.T.
Vengeance (ekdikhsiv). An unfortunate translation, since it conveys the idea of vindictiveness which does not reside in the Greek word. It is the full meting out of justice to all parties. The quotation is an adaptation of the LXX of Deut. xxxii. 35. The second citation is literally from LXX of Deut. xxxii. 36.
Of the living God. The living God, revealed in the living Christ, will not suffer his sacrificial gift and his covenant to be slighted and insulted with impunity. See on ch. iii. 12.
A great fight (pollhn aqlhsin). Aqlhsiv N.T.o , o LXX. See on ajlqh strive, 2 Tim. ii. 5. See Introduction, on the allusions in the epistle to persecution.
Of them that were so used (twn outwv anastrfomenwn). Rend. "of them that fared thus." Others render "who conducted themselves thus"; endured their persecutions, so bravely. But the outwv can refer only to made a gazing-stock.
Took joyfully (meta carav prosedexasqe). The verb primarily to receive to one's self, accept, as here. Comp. Luke xv. 2; Philip. ii. 29. Mostly, in N.T. however, to wait for, expect, as Mark xv. 43; Luke ii. 25, 38; Acts xxiii. 21.
Spoiling (arpaghn). Only here Matt. xxiii. 25; Luke xi. 39. Allied with aJrpazein to snatch away.
Of your goods (twn uparcontwn umwn). The verb uJparceinmeans originally to begin, or begin to be; hence of anything that has begun to be, to come forth, be there; then simply to be. Accordingly the phrase uJparcei moi ti means there is something to me, I have something. See Acts iii. 6; iv. 37; xxviii. 7. Hence ta uJparconta things which are to one; possessions, goods. See Matt. xix. 21; xxiv. 27; Luke viii. 3; Acts iv. 32. 222 Knowing in yourselves that ye have, etc. (ginwskontev ecein eautouv). Rend. "knowing that ye yourselves have a better," etc. The A.V. follows T.R. ejn eJautoiv. 223 Ye yourselves in contrast with your spoilers.
Substance (uparxin). Only here and Acts ii. 45. Occasionally in LXX. Rend. possession.
He that shall come will come (o ercomenov hxei). Rend. "he that cometh will come." In the Hebrew (Hab. ii. 3) the subject of the sentence is the vision of the extermination of the Chaldees. "The vision - will surely come." As rendered in the LXX, either Jehovah or Messiah must be the subject. The passage was referred to Messiah by the later Jewish theologians, and is so taken by our writer, as is shown by the article before ejrcomenov. Comp. Matt. xi. 3; xxi. 9; John xi. 27. Similarly he refers hxei shall come to the final coming of Messiah to judge the world.
Unto perdition (eiv apwleian). Or destruction. Drawing back makes for and terminates in (eiv) destruction.
Of them that believe (pistewv). Rend. of faith. The phrase einai pistewv to be of faith, N.T.o .
Saving (peripoihsin). See on 1 Thess. v. 9.