VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
Trespasses - sins (paraptwmasin - amartiaiv). See on Matthew i. 21; vi. 14. Trespasses, special acts. Sins, all forms and phases of sin: more general.
Power (exousiav). Collective, the whole empire of evil spirits.
The air. According to Paul's usage, in the simple physical sense. See Acts xxii. 23; 1 Cor. ix. 26; 1 Thess. iv. 17; Apoc. xvi. 17. The air is regarded as the region of the demons' might.
The spirit. See on 1 Cor. ii. 12. The term designates the power over which Satan rules, on the side of its operation in men's hearts.
Now. With an implied reference to its former working in his readers. Compare once, ver. 3 Children of disobedience (uioiv thv apeiqeiav). Compare ch. v. 6. A Hebraistic expression. Compare son of perdition, John xvii. 12; children of obedience, 1 Pet. i. 14; children of cursing, 2 Pet. ii. 14. Rev., correctly, sons of disobedience: belonging to disobedience as sons to a parent.
Fulfilling (poiountev). Rev., doing. The verb implies carrying out or accomplishing, so that the A.V. is more nearly correct. See on Romans vii. 15; John iii. 21.
Desires (qelhmata). Lit., willings. See on Col. iii. 12.
Mind (dianoiwn). More strictly, thoughts. See on Mark xii. 30; Luke i. 51.
By nature children of wrath. See on ver. 2. Children (tekna) emphasizes the connection by birth; see on John i. 12. Wrath (orghv) is God's holy hatred of sin; His essential, necessary antagonism to everything evil, Rom. i. 18. By nature (fusei) accords with children, implying what; is innate. That man is born with a sinful nature, and that God and sin are essentially antagonistic, are conceded on all hands: but that unconscious human beings come into the world under the blaze of God's indignation, hardly consists with Christ's assertion that to little children belongs the kingdom of heaven. It is true that there is a birth-principle of evil, which, if suffered to develop, will bring upon itself the wrath of God. Whether Paul means more than this I do not know. 167 Others (oi loipoi). Rev., correctly, the rest.
For His great love (dia). For the sake of, in order to satisfy His love. Quickened us together. Spiritually. Compare Col. ii. 13; Romans vi. 11-14; viii. 10, 11 "What God wrought in Christ He wrought, ipso facto, in all who are united with Him" (Ellicott).
Made us sit together (sunekaqisen). Compare set Him, ch. i. 20.
Together is ambiguous. Render with Him, as Rev. "Even now we sit there in Him, and shall sit with Him in the end" (Andrews, cited by Ellicott). Compare Rom. viii. 30; Apoc. iii. 21. Meyer renders hath given us joint seat.
In Christ Jesus. Connect with raised up, made us sit, and in heavenly places. Resurrection, enthronement, heaven, all are in Christ.
He might show (endeixhtai). The middle voice denotes for His own glory. See on Col. i. 6.
In kindness (en crhstothti). See on easy, Matt. xi. 30. The grace of God is to be displayed in His actual benefits.
Of God. Emphatic. Of God is it the gift.
Created (ktisqentev). See on John i. 3. The verb originally means to make habitable, to people. Hence to found. God is called ktisthv creator, 1 Pet. iv. 19, and oJ ktisav he that created, Rom. i. 25. Compare Apoc. iv. 11. Ktisiv is used of the whole sum of created things, Mark x. 6; Rom. viii. 22.
Afore prepared (prohtoimasen). Rev, more correctly, prepared. Made ready beforehand. God prearranged a sphere of moral action for us to walk in. Not only are works the necessary outcome of faith, but the character and direction of the works are made ready by God.
That we should walk. In order that; to the end that.
Which is called. Notice the irony, giving back the called of the circumcised.
Israel. Selecting the most honorable title to describe the Jew. See on Acts iii. 12. The reference is to the spiritual rather than to the national distinction. In being separated from Christ, they were separated from that commonwealth in which, according to the promise, Christ would have been to them, as to the faithful Israelites, the object of their faith and the ground of their salvation.
Covenants. The several renewals of God's covenant with the patriarchs.
Of promise (thv epaggeliav). Better, the promise. The messianic promise, which was the basis of all the covenants.
Without God (aqeoi). God-forsaken. It might also mean godless or impious. The gentile gods were no gods.
Both (ta amfotera). Lit., the both. The neuter gender shows that Jews and Gentiles are conceived by the writer merely as two facts. The masculine is used in vers. 15, 16.
Hath broken down (lusav). Lit, loosened or dissolved. Rev., giving the force of the aorist tense, brake down. The participle has an explanatory force, in that He brake down.
The middle-wall of partition (to mesotoicon tou fragmou). Lit., the middle wall of the fence or hedge. The wall which pertained to the fence; the fact of separation being emphasized in wall, and the instrument of separation in fence. The hedge was the whole Mosaic economy which separated Jew from Gentile. Some suppose a reference to the stone screen which bounded the court of the Gentiles in the temple.
The law of commandments contained in ordinances (ton nomon twn entolwn en dogmasin). The law, etc., depends in construction on having abolished, and is not in apposition with the enmity, as A.V. The middle wall of partition, the enmity, was dissolved by the abolition of the law of commandments. Construe in His flesh with having abolished. Law is general, and its contents are defined by commandments, special injunctions, which injunctions in turn were formulated in definite decrees. Render the entire passage: brake down the middle-wall of partition, even the enmity, by abolishing in His flesh the law of commandments contained in ordinances.
For to make (ina ktish). Rev., that He might create. See on created, ver.
In Himself. As the medium of reconciliation.
Of the twain one new man (touv duo eiv ena kainon anqrwpon). The Greek is livelier: make the two into one new man. Kainon new, emphasizes the new quality; not newness in point of time. See on Matt. xxvi. 29.
Thereby (en autw). Or upon it - the cross.
Them that were nigh. Jews. See on Rom. iii. 30. As children of the messianic covenant. See on ver. 12. Compare Isa. lvii. 9, where the Septuagint reads, peace upon peace to those who are far and to those who are near.
Prophets are New-Testament prophets. See ch. iii. 5; iv. 11. See on 1 Corinthians xii. 10.
Chief corner-stone (akrogwniaou). Only here and 1 Pet. ii. 6.
Temple (naon). Sanctuary. See on Matt. iv. 5. The more sacred portion of the structure is chosen for the figure.
Habitation (katoikhthrion). Answering to temple. Only here and Apoc. xviii. 2. Indicating a permanent dwelling. See on dwell, Luke xi. 26; Acts ii. 5; Mark v. 3. In marked contrast with sojourners, ver. 19. Through the Spirit (en). Better, as Rev., in. In the fellowship of the indwelling Spirit.