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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Revelation: Chapter 19)

19:1 {After these things} (meta tauta). Often when a turn comes in this book. But Beckwith is probably correct in seeing in 19:1-5 the climax of chapter Re 18. This first voice (verses 1,2) h“s ph“nˆn megalˆn ouchlou pollou (as it were great voice of much multitude) is probably the response of the angelic host (Re 5:11; Heb 12:22). There is responsive singing (grand chorus) as in chapters Re 4; 5.
{Saying} (legont“n). Present active participle of leg“, genitive plural, though ochlou is genitive singular (collective substantive, agreement in sense). {Hallelujah} (Allˆlouia). Transliteration of the Hebrew seen often in the Psalms (LXX) and in III. Macc. 7:13, in N.T. only in Re 19:1,3,4,6. It means, "Praise ye the Lord." Fifteen of the Psalms begin or end with this word. The Great Hallel (a title for Ps 104-109) is sung chiefly at the feasts of the passover and tabernacles. This psalm of praise uses language already in 12:10.

19:2 {For} (hoti). Because. The reason for God's judgments is given in 15:3; 16:7. The doom of Babylon seen in 14:7 is now realized.
{For} (hoti). Second use of hoti, explaining the first.
{He hath judged} (ekrinen). First aorist (prophetic and climacteric, effective) active indicative of krin“.
{Which} (hˆtis). The very one which.
{Did corrupt} (ephtheiren). This is the terrible fact. First aorist active indicative of phtheir“. Cf. 11:18; 14:8; 17:2; 18:3.
{And he hath avenged} (kai exedikˆsen). God has exacted vengeance for the blood of his servants from (ek) her. Prophetic aorist again of ekdike“ with accusative and ek with ablative as in 6:10.

19:3 {A second time} (deuteron). Adverbial accusative, a heavenly encore.
{They say} (eirˆkan). Perfect active indicative of eipon. "They have said," not an "aoristic" perfect for "they say," but vivid dramatic perfect as in 5:7 and the form in -an instead of -asin as in 18:3; 21:6. {Goeth up} (anabainei). Linear present active indicative of anabain“, "keeps on going up," "a last touch to the description already given (18:21ff.) of Babylon's utter collapse" (Swete). The smoke of the city's ruin (14:11; 18:8f.,18) instead of incense (8:4). Cf. Isa 34:9f.

19:4 {Fell down and worshipped God} (epesan kai prosekunˆsan t“i the“i). Precisely as in 7:11, which see. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures take up the antiphonal chorus of the angels.

19:5 {A voice from the throne} (ph“nˆ apo tou thronou). Not the voice of God, nor of the Lamb, nor ek tou naou (16:17), but from an angel of the Presence. This angel summons all the servants of God to join in the antiphonal praise to God.
{Give praise to our God} (aineite t“i the“i hˆm“n). Present active imperative of aine“, old verb, with the accusative elsewhere in N.T., but here with the dative as occasionally in the LXX (1Ch 16:36, etc.).

19:6 {As it were the voice} (h“s ph“nˆn). Used here three times, as once in verse 1: once of a second great multitude (ochlou pollou), not of angels as in verse 1, but the innumerable multitude of the redeemed of 7:9; then "of many waters" (hudat“n poll“n) as in 1:15; 14:2 like "the roar of a cataract" (Swete); and once more "the voice of mighty thunders" (bront“n ischur“n) as in 6:1; 10:3ff.
{Saying} (legont“n). The best attested reading, genitive plural of leg“, agreeing with ochlou (genitive singular), for roll of the waters and the roar of the thunders were not articulate. Some MSS. have legontes (nominative plural) referring also to ochlou, though nominative instead of genitive. The fourth "Hallelujah" comes from this vast multitude.
{The Lord our God, the Almighty} (Kurios, ho theos, ho pantokrat“r). For this designation of God see also 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:15; 21:22. Cf. "deus et dominus noster" used of the Roman emperor.
{Reigneth} (ebasileusen). First aorist active of basileu“. Probably ingressive prophetic aorist, "God became king" in fulness of power on earth with the fall of the world power.

19:7 {Let us rejoice and be exceeding glad} (chair“men kai agalli“men). Present active subjunctive (volitive) of chair“ and agallia“ (elsewhere in N.T. in the middle except Lu 1:47; 1Pe 1:8). For both verbs together see Mt 5:12.
{Let us give} (d“men). Second aorist active subjunctive of did“mi, but A reads d“somen (future active) and P d“s“men. If the future indicative is read, the tone is changed from exhortation to declaration (we shall give glory unto him).
{The marriage of the Lamb} (ho gamos tou arniou). In the O.T. God is the Bridegroom of Israel (Hos 2:16; Isa 54:6; Eze 16:7ff.). In the N.T. Christ is the Bridegroom of the Kingdom (the universal spiritual church as seen by Paul, 2Co 11:2; Eph 5:25ff., and by John in Re 3:20; 19:7,9; 21:2,9; 22:17). In the Gospels Christ appears as the Bridegroom (Mr 2:19f.; Mt 9:15; Lu 5:34f.; Joh 3:29). The figure of gamos occurs in Mt 22:2-14. Three metaphors of women appear in the Apocalypse (the Mother in chapter Re 12, the Harlot in Re 17-19, and the Bride of Christ here to the end). "The first and third present the Church under two different aspects of her life, while the second answers to her great rival and enemy" (Swete).
{Is come} (ˆlthen). Prophetic aorist, come at last.
{Made herself ready} (hˆtoimasen heautˆn). First aorist active indicative of hetoimaz“ and the reflexive pronoun. See 22:2 for hˆtoimasmenˆn h“s numphˆn (prepared as a bride). There is something for her to do (1Jo 3:3; Jude 1:21; 2Co 7:1), but the chief preparation is the act of Christ (Eph 5:25ff.).

19:8 {That she should array herself} (hina peribalˆtai). Sub-final object clause subject of edothˆ (was given to her) with hina and the second aorist middle (direct) of periball“ to fling around. This bridal dress is a gift from Christ. This form, edothˆ (it was given), occurs some 20 times in this book. {In fine linen, bright and pure} (bussinon lampron katharon). See 19:14 for the same raiment on those accompanying "The Word of God" and for the seven angels in 15:6. See by contrast the garments of the harlot (17:4; 18:16). For bussinon see 18:16.
{The righteous acts of the saints} (ta dikai“mata t“n hagi“n). This is the explanation (gar) of the bridal dress and explains why there is work for the Bride as well as for Christ (Php 2:12f.). See 15:4 for dikai“ma (also Ro 5:18).

19:9 {Write} (Grapson). First aorist active imperative of graph“ as in 1:11; 14:13. The speaker may be the angel guide of 17:1.
{It is another beatitude} (makarioi, Blessed) like that in 14:13 (fourth of the seven in the book).
{They which are bidden} (hoi keklˆmenoi). Articular perfect passive participle of kale“, like Mt 22:3; Lu 14:17. Cf. Re 17:14. This beatitude reminds us of that in Lu 14:15. (Cf. Mt 8:11; 26:29.) {These are true words of God} (Houtoi hoi logoi alˆthinoi tou theou eisin). Undoubtedly, but one should bear in mind that apocalyptic symbolism "has its own methods and laws of interpretation, and by these the student must be guided" (Swete).

19:10 {To worship him} (proskunˆsai aut“i). First aorist active infinitive of purpose. John either felt that the angel represented God or he was beside himself with excitement over the glorious consummation. He was tempted to worship an angel (Col 2:18).
{See thou do it not} (hora mˆ). Repeated in 22:9. Here there is no verb after (ellipse of poiˆsˆis touto) as in Mr 1:44; 1Th 5:15, the aorist subjunctive of negative purpose with after hora (present active imperative of hora“), a common enough idiom.
{Fellow-servant} (sundoulos). The angel refuses worship from John on this ground. All Christians are sundouloi (fellow-servants) as Christ taught (Mt 18:28ff.; 24:49) and as Paul (Col 1:7; 4:7) and John (Re 6:11) taught. Angels are God's servants also (Heb 1:4-14). For "the testimony of Jesus see 1:2,9; 6:9; 12:17; 22:4.
{Worship God} (t“i the“i proskunˆson). And Christ, who is the Son of God (5:13f.).
{The spirit of prophecy} (to pneuma tˆs prophˆteias). Explanatory use of gar (for) here as in 8. The possession of the prophetic spirit shows itself in witness to Jesus. In illustration see Mr 1:10; Mt 3:16; Lu 3:21; Joh 1:51; Re 4:1; 10:1; 11:19; 14:17; 15:5; 18:1; 19:1,7-9.

19:11 {The heaven opened} (ton ouranon ˆne“igmenon). Perfect passive participle (triple reduplication) of anoig“. Accusative case after eidon. So Ezekiel (1:1) begins his prophecy. See also the baptism of Jesus (Mt 3:16; Lu 3:21, but schizomenous in Mr 1:10). Jesus predicted the opened heavens to Nathanael (Joh 1:51). In Re 4:1 a door is opened in heaven, the sanctuary is opened (11:19; 15:5), angels come out of heaven (10:1; 14:17; 18:1), and sounds come from heaven (19:1). {Behold, a white horse} (idou hippos leukos). Nominative case because of idou, not eidon. Cf. 6:2 for hippos leukos. The emblem of victory in both cases, but the riders are very different. Here it is the Messiah who is the Warrior, as is made plain by "Faithful and True" (pistos kai alˆthinos), epithets already applied to Christ (1:5; 3:7,14). Cf. also 22:6.
{In righteousness he doth judge and make war} (en dikaiosunˆi krinei kai polemei). See Isa 11:3ff. The Messiah is both Judge and Warrior, but he does both in righteousness (15:3; 16:5,7; 19:2). He passes judgment on the beast (antichrist) and makes war on him. Satan had offered Christ a victory of compromise which was rejected.

19:12 {A flame of fire} (phlox puros). As in the opening vision of Christ in 1:14 (2:18).
{Many diadems} (diadˆmata polla). A new feature, but the dragon has a diadem on each of his seven heads (12:3) and the first beast one upon each of his ten horns (13:1). So the victorious Messiah will wear many royal diadems and not mere crowns, because he is King of kings (19:16).
{And he hath} (kai ech“n). Nominative active present participle of ech“ either used absolutely as an independent verb (like indicative) or in an anacoluthon, though autou (his) is genitive.
{A name written} (onoma gegrammenon). Perfect passive participle of graph“ as in 2:17 (cf. 3:12).
{But he himself} (ei mˆ autos). "Except himself" (common ellipsis of the verb after ei mˆ, "if not"). See 2:17; 3:12 for the new name there described. See 14:1 for the name of Christ on the forehead of the 144,000, and 17:5 for the name on the forehead of the harlot. This word here supplements what Jesus says in Mt 11:27.

19:13 {Arrayed} (peribeblˆmenos). Perfect passive participle of periball“, to clothe, often in this book.
{In a garment} (himation). Accusative case after the passive participle peribeblˆmenos.
{Sprinkled} (rerantismenon). Perfect passive participle of rantiz“, in the predicate accusative case agreeing with himation. A Q here read bebammenon (perfect passive participle of bapt“, to dip). Probably rerantismenon (sprinkled) is correct, because the picture comes from Isa 63:3, where Aquila and Symmachus use rantiz“. The use of bebammenon (dipped) is a bolder figure and Charles considers it correct. In either case it is the blood of Christ's enemies with which his raiment (himation, perhaps a chlamus Mt 27:28,31) is sprinkled or dipped as the case may be, not his own blood on Calvary (1:5; 5:9; 7:14; 12:11), but proleptically and prophetically the blood of Christ's enemies. Haimati can be either locative case with bebammenon (dipped in blood) or instrumental with rerantismenon (sprinkled with blood).
{The Word of God} (ho Logos tou theou). Some scholars hold this addition inconsistent with verse 12, but it may be merely the explanation of the secret name or still another name besides that known only to himself. The personal use of the Logos applied to Christ occurs only in the Johannine writings unless that is the idea in Heb 4:12. In Joh 1:1,14 it is merely ho Logos (the Word), in 1Jo 1:1 ho Logos tˆs z“ˆs (the Word of Life), while here it is ho Logos tou theou (the Word of God), one of the strongest arguments for identity of authorship. The idiom here is one common in Luke and Paul for the teaching of Christ (Lu 5:1; 8:11, etc.; 1Co 14:36; 2Co 2:17, etc.). Jesus is himself the final and perfect revelation of God to men (Heb 1:1f.).

19:14 {The armies which are in heaven} (ta strateumata ta en t“i ouran“i). See 12:7 for Michael and angels warring with the dragon, and also Mt 26:53 for the angels at Christ's call, not to say Heb 1:6f.,14; Mt 13:41; Re 5:11f.
{Followed} (ˆkolouthei). Imperfect active and singular (strateumata, neuter plural) of akolouthe“, graphic picture of the celestial Warrior with his angelic hosts "upon white horses" (eph' hippois leukois) like the Leader and, like him "clothed in fine linen white and pure" (endedumenoi bussinon leukon katharon) like the Leader again (19:8). Note endedumenoi here as in 1:13; 15:6.

19:15 {A sharp sword} (romphaia oxeia). As in 1:16; 2:12,15. {That he should smite} (hina pataxˆi). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of patass“, old verb already in 11:6 and like Isa 11:4, a figure here for forensic and judicial condemnation.
{And he shall rule them} (kai autos poimanei). Emphatic use of autos twice (he himself). Future active of poimain“, to shepherd as in 2:27; 12:5 "with a rod of iron" (en rabd“i sidˆrƒi) as there. See 1Pe 2:25; Heb 13:20 for Christ as Shepherd.
{And he treadeth} (kai autos patei). Change to present tense of pate“, to tread (here transitive), with solemn repetition of kai autos.
{The winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God} (tˆn lˆnon tou oinou tou thumou tˆs orgˆs tou theou tou pantokratoros). Literally, "the winepress of the wine of the wrath of the anger of God the Almighty" (four genitives dependent on one another and on lˆnon). These images are here combined from 14:8,10,19f.; 16:19. The fact is already in 19:13 after Isa 63:1ff.

19:16 {And on his thigh} (kai epi ton mˆron autou). "Even upon his thigh." Old word, here alone in N.T.
{King of kings, and Lord of lords} (Basileus basile“n kai Kurios kuri“n). The title already given to the Lamb in 17:14, but in reverse order. See the same idea in 1Ti 6:15.

19:17 {An angel} (hena aggelon). Like heis in 18:21, just "an," not "one."
{Standing in the sun} (hest“ta en t“i hˆli“i). Second perfect active participle of histˆmi (intransitive). "Where all the birds of prey would behold him" (Beckwith). For orneois (birds) see 18:2 and for en mesouranˆmati (in mid heaven) see 18:13; 14:6.
{Come and be gathered together} (Deute sunachthˆte). Deute is the adverb deur“ (hither), used when two or more are addressed, possibly from deuro ite (come here). Asyndeton also without kai (and). First aorist passive imperative of sunag“. The metaphor is drawn from Eze 39:17.
{Unto the great supper of God} (eis to deipnon to mega tou theou). The habits of vultures are described by Christ in Mt 24:28. This is a bold and powerful picture of the battlefield after the victory of the Messiah, "a sacrificial feast spread on God's table for all the vultures of the sky" (Swete). Is this battle the same as that of Har Magedon (16:16) and that of Gog and Magog (20:8ff.) mentioned after the thousand years? The language in 20:8ff. seems like this derived from Eze 39:17ff., and "in the Apocalypse priority in the order of sequence does not always imply priority in time" (Swete). There seems no way to decide this point save that the end seems to be at hand.

19:18 {That ye may eat} (hina phagˆte). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of esthi“.
{The flesh of kings} (sarkas basile“n). "Pieces of flesh" (plural of sarx, flesh) and of all classes and conditions of men who fell in the battle (6:18; 11:13; 13:16; 19:5; 20:12). War is no respecter of persons.

19:19 {Gathered together} (sunˆgmena). Perfect passive participle of sunag“. In battle array.
{To make war against} (poiˆsai polemon meta). First aorist active infinitive of poie“, to express purpose. See poleme“ meta in 12:7 and the use of sunag“ eis polemon in 16:14; 20:8. The beast (for his army see 16:13f.) led a league of ten kings against Babylon in 17:16f., but with the purpose also of fighting the Lamb (17:14).

19:20 {Was taken} (epiasthˆ). First aorist (prophetic) passive indicative of the Doric piaz“ (Attic piez“). Cf. 2Th 2:8. {The false prophet} (ho pseudoprophˆtˆs). Possibly the second beast of 13:11-17; 16:13; 20:10. Charles takes him to be "the priesthood of the Imperial cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile men to worship the Beast."
{That wrought the signs in his sight} (ho poiesas ta sˆmeia en“pion autou). As in 13:14.
{Wherewith} (en hois). "In which" signs.
{He deceived} (eplanˆsen). First aorist active indicative of plana“. He was only able to deceive "them that had received" (tous labontas, articular second aorist active participle of lamban“, "those receiving")
"the mark of the beast" (13:16; 14:9ff.; 16:2; 20:4) "and them that worshipped his image" (tous proskunountas tˆi eikoni autou) as in 13:15. {They twain} (hoi duo). "The two."
{Were cast} (eblˆthˆsan). First aorist passive Indicative of ball“. They fall together as they fought together. "The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft" (Swete). {Alive} (z“ntes). Present active participle of za“, predicative nominative, "living."
{Into the lake of fire} (eis tˆn limnˆn tou puros). Genitive puros describes this limnˆn (lake, cf. Lu 5:1) as it does gehenna in Mt 5:22. See also 20:10; 21:8. It is a different figure from the "abyss" in 9:1ff; 20:1ff. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.
{That burneth with brimstone} (tˆs kaiomenˆs en thei“i). Note the genitive here in place of the accusative limnˆn, perhaps because of the intervening genitive puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in 21:8. For en thei“i (with brimstone) see 14:10; 20:10; 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Re 4; 5; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality.

19:21 {The rest} (hoi loipoi). Of the enemy (the kings and their hosts of verse 19).
{Were killed} (apektanthˆsan). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of apoktein“. Those affected by the Caesar-worship (14:9ff.) were not at once cast into the lake with the two beasts.
{Were filled} (echortasthˆsan). First aorist (effective) passive of chortaz“. As they had been invited to do in verse 17.

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