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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Hebrews: Chapter 9)



9:1 {Even the first covenant} (kai hˆ pr“tˆ). Kai (even) is doubtful. No word for covenant with pr“te (cf. 8:7).
{Had} (eiche). Imperfect active, used to have.
{Ordinances} (dikai“mata). Regulations (from dikaio“) as in Lu 1:6; Ro 5:16.
{Of divine service} (latreias). No word for "divine," though worship is meant as in Ro 9:4; Php 3:3. Genitive case. {And its sanctuary, a sanctuary of this world} (to te hagion kosmikon). By to hagion the author describes the whole sanctuary (Ex 36:3; Nu 3:38) like t“n hagi“n in 8:2. Kosmikon is a late adjective (Aristotle, Plutarch) from kosmos, relating to this world, like epi gˆs (upon earth) of 8:4. It is in the predicate position, not attributive.

9:2 {A tabernacle the first} (skˆnˆ hˆ pr“tˆ). See 8:2 for skˆnˆ. Large tents usually had two divisions (the outer and the inner or the first and the second). Note pr“tˆ for the first of two as with the first covenant (8:7,13; 9:1). The large outer tent was entered first and was called Hagia (Holy), the first division of the tabernacle. The two divisions are here termed two tabernacles.
{Was prepared} (kateskeuasthˆ). First aorist passive of kataskeuaz“. See 3:3. For the furniture see Ex 25; 26. Three items are named here: the candlestick (hˆ luchnia, late word for luchnion) or lampstand, necessary since there were no windows (Ex 25:31-39); the table (hˆ trapeza, old word, Mt 15:27) for the bread (Ex 25:23-30; Le 24:6 of pure gold); the shewbread (hˆ prothesis t“n art“n) as in Ex 25:30; 40:23; Le 24:5-9. Probably a hendiadys for the table with the loaves of God's Presence.

9:3 {After the second veil} (meta to deuteron katapetasma). The first veil opened from outside into the Holy Place, the second veil opened from the Holy Place into the Holy of Holies (Hagia Hagi“n). The word katapetasma is from katapetannumi, to spread down, and we have already had it in 6:19. Cf. also Mt 27:51.

9:4 {Having a golden censer} (chrusoun echousa thumiatˆrion). The present active participle echousa (feminine singular) agrees with skˆnˆ (the Holy of Holies). It is not certain whether thumiatˆrion here means censer or altar of incense. In the LXX (2Ch 26:19; Ex 8:11; IV Macc. 7:11) it means censer and apparently so in the inscriptions and papyri. But in Philo and Josephus it means altar of incense for which the LXX has thusiastˆrion tou thumiatos (Ex 30:1-10). Apparently the altar of incense was in the Holy Place, though in Ex 30:1-10 it is left quite vague. B puts it in verse 2. So we leave the discrepancy unsettled. At any rate the altar of incense was used for the Holy of Holies ("its ritual associations," Dods).
{The ark of the covenant} (tˆn kib“ton tˆs diathˆkˆs). A box or chest four feet long, two and a half broad and high (Ex 25:10f.). The Scotch have a "meal-ark."
{Wherein} (en hˆi). In the ark. There were three treasures in the ark of the covenant (a pot of manna, Aaron's rod, the tables of the covenant). For the pot of manna (golden added in the LXX) see Ex 16:32-34. For Aaron's rod that budded (hˆ blastˆsasa, first aorist active participle of blastan“) see Nu 17:1-11. For the tables of the covenant see Ex 25:16f.; 31:18; De 9:9; 10:5. Not definitely clear about these items in the ark, but on front, except that 1Ki 8:9 states that it did contain the tables of the covenant. For plakes (tables) see 2Co 3:3 (only other N.T. example).

9:5 {Above it} (huperan“ autˆs). Up above, in local sense as in Eph 4:10, with ablative case autˆs (it, the ark).
{Cherubim of glory} (Cheroubein doxˆs). Hebrew word (dual form), two in number, made of gold (Ex 25:18-22). They are called z“a (living creatures) in the LXX (Isa 6:2f.; Eze 1:5-10; 10:5-20). {Overshadowing} (kataskiazonta). Present active participle of kataskiaz“, old verb to shadow down on, cover with shade, only here in the N.T.
{The mercy seat} (to hilastˆrion). The pinions of the Cherubim spread over the rectangular gold slab on top of the ark termed the mercy seat. Here the adjective hilastˆrios has to mean mercy seat, the place, not the propitiatory gift or propitiation, as in Ro 3:25 (Deissmann, "Bible Studies", pp. 124-35).
{Severally} (kata meros). In detail, distributive use of kata with meros (part).

9:6 {These things having been thus prepared} (tout“n hout“s kateskeuasmen“n). Genitive absolute with the perfect passive participle of kataskeuaz“ for which verb see verse 2. A mere summary has been made of the furniture.
{Go in} (eisiasin). Present active indicative of eiseimi, to go in, old verb, in N.T. only here, Ac 3:3; 21:18,26.
{Accomplishing} (epitelountes). Present active participle of epitele“ for which see 8:5.

9:7 {Alone} (monos). Predicate adjective with ho archiereus. {Once in the year} (hapax tou eniautou). Once for each year (not pote, at any time) with genitive of time.
{Not without blood} (ou ch“ris haimatos). According to Le 16:14f. Not even he could enter the second tent (Holy of Holies) without blood. {The errors of the people} (t“n tou laou agnoˆmat“n). Late word from agnoe“, not to know (5:2), only here in the N.T., but in LXX, papyri, and inscriptions where a distinction is drawn between errors (agnoˆmata) and crimes (harmartˆmata). In Ge 43:12 agnoˆma is "an oversight." But these sins of ignorance (agnoˆmata) were sins and called for atonement. See Heb 10:26 for wilful sinning.

9:8 {The Holy Ghost this signifying} (touto dˆlountos tou pneumatos tou hagiou). Genitive absolute with present active participle of dˆlo“, to make plain. Used as in 12:27.
{The way into the Holy place} (tˆn t“n hagi“n hodon). Here as in verses 12,25 t“n hagi“n is used for the very Presence of God as in 8:2 and is in the objective genitive. Hodon is the accusative of general reference with the infinitive.
{Hath not yet been made manifest} (mˆp“ pephaner“sthai). Perfect passive infinitive of phanero“, to make plain (phaneros) in indirect discourse after dˆlountos with negative mˆp“.
{While as the first tabernacle is yet standing} (eti tˆs pr“tˆs skˆnˆs echousˆs stasin). Another genitive absolute with present active participle of ech“ (having standing stasin), "the first tabernacle still having a place." The veil at the entrance kept the people out of the first tent as the second veil (verse 3) kept the priests out of the Holy of Holies (the very Presence of God).

9:9 {Which} (hˆtis). "Which very thing," the first tent (tˆs pr“tˆs skˆnˆs, division of the tabernacle), a parenthesis and explanation.
{A parable} (parabolˆ). Only in the Synoptic Gospels in the N.T. and Heb 9:9; 11:19. See on »Mt 13:3 for the word (from paraball“, to place alongside). Here like tupos (type or shadow of "the heavenly reality," Moffatt).
{For the time now present} (eis ton kairon ton enestˆkota). "For the present crisis " (kairon, not ai“na, age, not chronon, time). Perfect active articular (repeated article) participle of enistˆmi (intransitive), the age in which they lived, not the past, not the future. See 1Co 3:22; Ro 8:38 for contrast between enest“ta and mellonta. This age of crisis, foreshadowed by the old tabernacle, pointed on to the richer fulfilment still to come.
{According to which} (kath' hˆn). Here the relative refers to parabolˆ just mentioned, not to skˆnˆs. See 5:1; 8:3.
{As touching the conscience} (kata suneidˆsin). For suneidˆsis see 1Co 8:10; 10:17; Ro 2:15. This was the real failure of animal sacrifice (10:1-4).
{Make the worshipper perfect} (telei“sai ton latreuonta). First aorist active infinitive (2:10). At best it was only ritual or ceremonial purification (7:11), that called for endless repetition (10:1-4).

9:10 {Only with meats and drinks and divers washings} (monon epi br“masin kai pomasin kai diaphorois baptismois). The parenthesis of the Revised Version here is unnecessary. The use of epi here with the locative case is regular, "in the matter of" (Lu 12:52; Joh 12:16; Ac 21:24). What ritual value these Levitical sacrifices had was confined to minute regulations about diet and ceremonial cleansing (clean and unclean). For "divers" (diaphorois, late adjective, in N.T. only in Heb 1:4; 8:6; 9:10; Ro 12:6) say "different" or "various." Baptismois is, of course, the Jewish ceremonial immersions (cf. Mr 7:4; Ex 29:4; Le 11:25,28f.; Nu 8:7; Re 6:2).
{Carnal ordinances} (dikai“masin sarkos). But the correct text is undoubtedly simply dikai“mata sarkos (nominative case), in apposition with d“ra te kai thusiai (gifts and sacrifices). See 9:1 for dikai“mata.
{Imposed} (epikeimena). Present middle or passive participle of epikeimai, old verb to lie upon (be laid upon). Cf. 1Co 9:16.
{Until a time of reformation} (mechri kairou diorth“se“s). Definite statement of the temporary nature of the Levitical system already stated in 7:10-17; 8:13 and argued clearly by Paul in Ga 3:15-22. Diorth“sis is a late word, here alone in N.T. (from diortho“, to set right or straight), used by Hippocrates for making straight misshapen limbs like anortho“ in Heb 12:12. Here for reformation like diorth“ma (reform) in Ac 24:2f. Christianity itself is the great Reformation of the current Judaism (Pharisaism) and the spiritual Judaism foreshadowed by the old Abrahamic promise (see Ga 3; Ro 9).

9:11 {Having come} (paragenomenos). Second aorist middle participle of paraginomai. This is the great historic event that is the crux of history. "Christ came on the scene, and all was changed" (Moffatt).
{Of the good things to come} (t“n mellont“n agath“n). But B D read genomen“n (that are come). It is a nice question which is the true text. Both aspects are true, for Christ is High Priest of good things that have already come as well as of the glorious future of hope. Westcott prefers genomen“n, Moffatt mellont“n.
{Through the greater and more perfect tabernacle} (dia tˆs meizonos kai teleioteras skˆnˆs). Probably the instrumental use of dia (2Co 2:4; Ro 2:27; 14:20) as accompaniment, not the local idea (4:14; 10:20). Christ as High Priest employed in his work the heavenly tabernacle (8:2) after which the earthly was patterned (9:24).
{Not made with hands} (ou cheiropoiˆtou). Old compound verbal for which see Mr 14:58; Ac 7:48; 17:24. Cf. Heb 8:2. Here in the predicate position.
{Not of this creation} (ou tautˆs tˆs ktise“s). Explanation of ou chieropoiˆtou. For ktisis see 2Co 5:17; Ro 8:19. For the idea see 2Co 4:18; Heb 8:2. This greater and more perfect tabernacle is heaven itself (9:24).

9:12 {Through his own blood} (dia tou idiou haimatos). This is the great distinction between Christ as High Priest and all other high priests. They offer blood (verse 7), but he offered his own blood. He is both victim and High Priest. See the same phrase in 13:12; Ac 20:28.
{Once for all} (ephapax). In contrast to the repeated (annual) entrances of the Levitical high priests (9:7).
{Into the holy place} (eis ta hagia). Here, as in verses 8,24 heaven itself.
{Having obtained} (heuramenos). First aorist middle (indirect) participle of heurisk“, simultaneous action with eisˆlthen, and by or of himself "as the issue of personal labour directed to this end" (Westcott). The value of Christ's offering consists in the fact that he is the Son of God as well as the Son of man, that he is sinless and so a perfect sacrifice with no need of an offering for himself, and that it is voluntary on his part (Joh 10:17). Lutr“sis (from lutro“) is a late word for the act of ransoming (cf. lutron, ransom), in O.T. only here and Lu 1:68; 2:38. But apolutr“sis elsewhere (as in Lu 21:28; Ro 3:24; Heb 9:15; 11:35). For "eternal" (ai“nian, here feminine form) see 6:2. The author now turns to discuss the better sacrifice (9:13-10:18) already introduced.

9:13 {Ashes} (spodos). Old word, in N. T. only here, Mt 11:21; Lu 10:13. Common in LXX.
{Of a heifer} (damale“s). Old word (damalis), a red heifer whose ashes mingled with water (meta hudatos, verse 19) were sprinkled (rantizousa, present active participle of rantiz“, in LXX, though rain“ more common) on the contaminated or defiled ones (Nu 19) as the blood of bulls and goats was offered for sins (Le 16). {Sanctify} (hagiazei). First-class condition, assumed as true. This ceremonial ritual does serve "for the cleansing (katharotˆta, old word here only in N.T.) of the flesh," but not for the conscience (verse 9). The cow was am“mon, the individual katharos.

9:14 {How much more} (pos“i mallon). Instrumental case, "by how much more," by the measure of the superiority of Christ's blood to that of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer.
{Through the eternal Spirit} (dia pneumatos ai“niou). Not the Holy Spirit, but Christ's own spirit which is eternal as he is. There is thus a moral quality in the blood of Christ not in that of other sacrifices.
{Offered himself} (heauton prosˆnegken). Second aorist active indicative of prospher“ (used so often as in 5:1,3; 8:3). The voluntary character of Christ's death is again emphasized.
{Without blemish} (am“mon). Old compound adjective (Col 1:22; 1Pe 1:19) as the sacrifice had to be (Ex 29:1; Le 1:3,10).
{Shall cleanse from conscience} (kathariei tˆn suneidˆsin hum“n). Future active indicative of kathariz“. Some MSS. have hˆm“n (our). The old Greek used kathair“, not kathariz“ (in inscriptions for ceremonial cleansing, Deissmann, "Bible Studies", pp. 216f.), for cleansing.
{From dead works} (apo nekr“n erg“n). As in 6:1. "A pause might be made before erg“n, from dead--(not bodies but) works."

9:15 {Mediator of a new covenant} (diathˆkˆs kainˆs mesitˆs). See 8:6 for this phrase with kreittonos instead of kainˆs. {A death having taken place} (thanatou genomenou). Genitive absolute, referring to Christ's death.
{For the redemption} (eis apolutr“sin).
{Of the transgressions} (t“n parabase“n). Really ablative case, "from the transgressions." See verse 12, lutr“sin.
{Under the first covenant} (epi tˆi pr“tˆi diathˆkˆi). Here there is a definite statement that the real value in the typical sacrifices under the Old Testament system was in the realization in the death of Christ. It is Christ's death that gives worth to the types that pointed to him. So then the atoning sacrifice of Christ is the basis of the salvation of all who are saved before the Cross and since.
{That they may receive} (hop“s lab“sin). Purpose clause (God's purpose in the rites and symbols) with hop“s and the second aorist active subjunctive of lamban“.

9:16 {A testament} (diathˆkˆ). The same word occurs for covenant (verse 15) and will (verse 16). This double sense of the word is played upon also by Paul in Ga 3:15f. We say today "The New Testament" ("Novum Testamentum") rather than " The New Covenant." Both terms are pertinent.
{That made it} (tou diathemenou). Genitive of the articular second aorist middle participle of diatithˆmi from which diathˆkˆ comes. The notion of will here falls in with klˆronomia (inheritance, 1Pe 1:4) as well as with thanatos (death).
{Of force} (bebaia). Stable, firm as in 3:6,14.
{Where there hath been death} (epi nekrois). "In the case of dead people." A will is only operative then.
{For doth it ever avail while he that made it liveth?} (epei mˆ pote ischuei hote zˆi ho diathemenos;). This is a possible punctuation with mˆ pote in a question (Joh 7:26). Without the question mark, it is a positive statement of fact. Aleph and D read tote (then) instead of pote. The use of in a causal sentence is allowable (Joh 3:18, hoti mˆ).

9:18 {The first covenant} (hˆ pr“tˆ). Supply diathˆkˆ as in 9:1.
{Has been dedicated} (enkekainistai). Stands dedicated. Perfect passive indicative of enkainizo, a late verb in LXX, one papyrus, and in N.T. only here and 10:20. It means to renew, to inaugurate (1Sa 11:14; 2Ch 15:8) and in 1Ki 8:63 to dedicate. Note ta enkainia (Joh 10:22) for the feast of dedication.

9:19 {When every commandment had been spoken} (lalˆtheisˆs). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle feminine singular of lale“. The author uses the account in Ex 24:3f. "with characteristic freedom" (Moffatt). There is nothing there about the water, the scarlet wool (erion, diminutive of eros, eiros, old word, here and in Re 1:14; for kokkinos see on »Mt 27:6,28), and hyssop (huss“pou, a plant mentioned in Joh 19:29). It had become the custom to mingle water with the blood and to use a wisp of wool or a stem of hyssop for sprinkling (Nu 10:2-10).
{Both the book itself} (auto te to biblion). There is nothing in Exodus about sprinkling the book of the covenant, though it may very well have been done. He omits the use of oil in Ex 40:9f.; Le 8:10f. and applies blood to all the details. {Sprinkled} (erantisen). First aorist active indicative from rantiz“ (from rantos and this from rain“), like baptiz“ from bapt“. Cf. Mr 7:4; Heb 10:22; Re 19:13.

9:20 {This is} (touto). Instead of idou of the LXX (Ex 24:8), just like our Lord's words in Mr 14:24, a possible reminiscence of the Master's words (Dods). The author also has eneteilato (he commanded) for dietheto of the LXX.

9:21 {In like manner with the blood} (t“i haimati homoi“s). Instrumental case of haima (blood). But the use of the article does not necessarily refer to the blood mentioned in verse 19. In Ex 40:9 Moses sprinkled the tabernacle with oil. It had not been erected at the time of Ex 24:5f. Josephus ("Ant". III. 8, 6) gives a tradition that blood was used also at this dedication. Blood was used annually in the cleansing rites on the day of atonement.

9:22 {I may almost say} (schedon). Old adverb, only three times in the N.T., here, Ac 13:44; 19:26. Here it qualifies the entire clause, not just panta.
{With blood} (en haimati). In blood. There were exceptions (Ex 19:10; 32:30f.; Le 5:11f.; 15:5; Nu 16:46f.; 31:23f., etc.).
{Apart from shedding of blood} (ch“ris haimatekchusias). A double compound first found here (coined by the writer) and later in ecclesiastical writers (haima, blood, ek, out, che“, to pour, like ekchusis haimatos 1Ki 18:28). "Pouring out of blood." The author seems to have in mind Christ's words in Mt 26:28: "This is my blood of the covenant which is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins." The blood is the vital principle and is efficacious as an atonement. The blood of Christ sets aside all other plans for pardon.

9:23 {The copies} (ta hupodeigmata). See 8:5 for this word, the earthly (8:4; 9:1) tabernacle.
{With these} (toutois). Instrumental case of houtos, like the rites above described (verse 19), perhaps with some disparagement.
{Themselves} (auta). The heavenly realities (8:2,5; 9:11f.).
{With better sacrifices} (kreittosin thusiais). Instrumental case again. Point of this section (9:13-10:18).
{Than these} (para tautas). Use of para and the accusative case after a comparative as in 1:4,9. To us it seems a bit strained to speak of the ritual cleansing or dedication of heaven itself by the appearance of Christ as Priest-Victim. But the whole picture is highly mystical.

9:24 {Made with hands} (cheiropoiˆta). See verse 11 for this word.
{Like in pattern to the true} (antitupa t“n alˆthin“n). Late compound word, only twice in N.T. (here, 1Pe 3:21). Polybius uses antitupos for infantry "opposite" to the cavalry. In modern Greek it means a copy of a book. Here it is the "counterpart of reality" (Moffatt). Moses was shown a tupos (model) of the heavenly realities and he made an antitupon on that model, "answering to the type" (Dods) or model. In 1Pe 3:21 antitupos has the converse sense, "the reality of baptism which corresponds to or is the antitype of the deluge" (Dods). {Now to appear} (nun emphanisthˆnai). Purpose clause by the first aorist passive infinitive of emphaniz“ (Mt 27:53; Joh 14:21f.). For the phrase see Ps 42:3. For this work of Christ as our High Priest and Paraclete in heaven see Heb 7:25; Ro 8:34; 1Jo 2:1f.

9:25 {That he should offer himself often} (hina pollakis prospherˆi heauton). Purpose clause with hina and present active subjunctive of prospher“ (keep on offering himself, like 5:1,3).
{With blood not his own} (en haimati allotri“i). So-called instrumental use of en (accompaniment). allotrios means "belonging to another," "not one's own" (Lu 16:12).

9:26 {Else must he often have suffered} (epei edei auton pollakis pathein). A common elliptical use of epei after which one must supply "if that were true" or "in that case," a protasis of a condition of the second class assumed to be untrue. The conclusion with edei is without an (verbs of necessity, obligation, etc.). See Robertson, "Grammar", p. 963. The conclusion with an occurs in 10:2. See also 1Co 5:10. "Since, if that were true, it would be necessary for him to suffer often."
{Since the foundation of the world} (apo katabolˆs kosmou). See 4:3 for this phrase. The one sacrifice of Christ is of absolute and final value (1Pe 1:19f.; Re 13:8). {At the end} (epi sunteleiƒi). Consummation or completion as in Mt 13:39f. which see.
{Hath he been manifested} (pephaner“tai). Perfect passive indicative of phanero“, permanent state. See "the primitive hymn or confession of faith" (Moffatt) in 1Ti 3:16 and also 1Pe 1:20. Jesus came once for all (Heb 1:2).
{To put away sin} (eis athetˆsin tˆs hamartias). See 7:18 for the word athetˆsis. "The sacrifice of Christ dealt with sin as a principle: the Levitical sacrifices with individual transgressions" (Vincent).

9:27 {It is appointed} (apokeitai). Present middle (or passive) of apokeimai, "is laid away" for men. Cf. same verb in Lu 19:20; Col 1:5; 2Ti 4:8 (Paul's crown).
{Once to die} (hapax apothanein). Once for all to die, as once for all to live here. No reincarnation here.
{After this cometh judgement} (meta touto krisis). Death is not all. Man has to meet Christ as Judge as Jesus himself graphically pictures (Mt 25:31-46; Joh 5:25-29).

9:28 {Once} (hapax). "Once for all" (verse 26) as already stated.
{Shall appear a second time} (ek deuterou ophthˆsetai). Future passive indicative of hora“. Blessed assurance of the Second Coming of Christ, but this time "apart from sin" (ch“ris hamartias, no notion of a second chance then).
{Unto salvation} (eis s“tˆrian). Final and complete salvation for "them that wait for him" (tois auton apekdechomenois). Dative plural of the articular participle present middle of apekdechomai, the very verb used by Paul in Php 3:20 of waiting for the coming of Christ as Saviour.


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