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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 4)

4:1 {I charge thee} (diamarturomai). Rather, "I testify." See 1Th 4:6. See 1Ti 5:21 for this verb and appeal to God and Christ.
{Who shall judge} (tou mellontos krinein). "The one going or about to judge" (regular idiom with mellō). The quick and the dead (zōntas kai nekrous). "Living and dead." See 1Th 4:16f.
{And by his appearing} (kai tēn epiphaneian). Accusative of conjuration (verbs of swearing), after diamarturomai as is basileian (by his kingdom). See 1Th 5:27. For epiphaneian, see 1:10; Tit 2:13; 1Ti 6:14; 2Th 2:8.

4:2 {Preach the word} (kēruxon ton logon). First aorist active imperative of kērussō. For "the word" used absolutely, see 1Th 1:6; Ga 6:6.
{Be instant in season, out of season} (epistēthi eukairōs akairōs). Second aorist (ingressive) active imperative of ephistēmi (intransitive use), "take a stand," "stand upon it or up to it," "carry on," "stick to it." The Vulgate has ""insta"." The two adverbs are like a proverb or a play (pun) on the word kairos. There are all sorts of seasons (kairoi), some difficult (chalepoi, 3:1), some easy (eukairēi, 1Co 16:12).
{Reprove} (elegxon). First aorist active imperative of elegchō. "Bring to proof." Eph 5:11.
{Rebuke} (epitimēson). First aorist active imperative of epitimaō, to give honour (or blame) to, to chide. Common in the Gospels (Lu 17:3).
{Exhort} (parakaleson). First aorist active imperative of parakaleō, common Pauline word.

4:3 {A time when} (kairos hote). One of the akairōs (out of season) times.
{Will not endure} (ouk anexontai). Future middle (direct) of anechō. "Will not hold themselves back from" (Col. 3:13). Having itching ears (knēthomenoi tēn akoēn). Present middle (causative) participle of knēthō, late and rare form of the Attic knaō, to scratch, to tickle, here only in N.T. "Getting the ears (the hearing, tēn akoēn) tickled." The Vulgate has prurientes. Cf. the Athenians (Ac 17:21). Clement of Alexandria tells of speakers tickling (knēthontes) the ears of those who want to be tickled. This is the temptation of the merely "popular" preacher, to furnish the latest tickle.

4:4 {Will turn away their ears} (tēn akoēn apostrepsousin). Future active of old verb apostrephō. See 1Co 12:17 for this use of akoē. The people stopped their ears and rushed at Stephen in Ac 7:57.
{Will turn aside} (ektrapēsontai). Second future passive of ektrepō. They prefer "myths" to "the truth" as some today turn away to "humanism," "bolshevism," "new thought" or any other fad that will give a new momentary thrill to their itching ears and morbid minds.

4:5 {But be thou sober} (su de nēphe). Present active imperative of nēphō, for which see 1Th 5:6,8. "Be sober in thy head."
{Suffer hardship} (kakopathēson). See 2:9.
{Do the work of an evangelist} (ergon poiēson euaggelistou). See 1Co 1:17; Eph 4:11 for euaggelistēs, gospelizer.
{Fulfil} (plērophorēson). First aorist active imperative of plērophoreō, for which see Col 4:12. In Col 4:17 Paul uses plēroō to Archippus about his ministry as he here employs plērophoreō. Both verbs mean to fill full.

4:6 {I am already being offered} (ēdē spendomai). Present (progressive) passive indicative of spendō, old verb, to pour out a libation or drink offering. In N.T. only here and Php 2:17. "What was then a possibility is now a certainty" (Parry). The sacrifice of Paul's life-blood has begun.
{Of my departure} (tēs analuseōs mou). Our very word "analysis." Old word from analuō, to loosen up or back, to unloose. Only here in N.T., though analusai for death is used by Paul in Php 1:23 which see for the metaphor.
{Is come} (ephestēken). Perfect active indicative of ephistēmi (intransitive use). See 1Th 5:3; Lu 21:34. The hour has struck. The time has come.

4:7 {I have fought the good fight} (ton kalon agōna ēgōnismai). Perfect middle indicative of agōnizomai, a favourite figure with Paul (1Co 9:25; Col 1:29), with the cognate accusative agōna (Php 1:27,30, etc.). The "fight" is the athletic contest of his struggle for Christ.
{I have finished the course} (ton dromon teteleka). Perfect active indicative of teleō. He had used this metaphor also of himself to the elders at Ephesus (Ac 20:24). Then the "course" was ahead of him. Now it is behind him.
{I have kept the faith} (tēn pistin tetērēka). Perfect active indicative again of tēreō. Paul has not deserted. He has kept faith with Christ. For this phrase, see Re 14:12. Deissmann ("Light, etc.", p. 309) gives inscriptions in Ephesus of a man who says: "I have kept faith" (tēn pistin etērēsa) and another of a man of whom it is said: "He fought three fights, and twice was crowned."

4:8 {Henceforth} (loipon). Accusative case, "for the rest." {There is laid up for me} (apokeitai moi). Present passive of apokeimai, old verb, to be laid away. See Col 1:5 for the hope laid away. Paul's "crown of righteousness" (ho tēs dikaiosunēs stephanos, genitive of apposition, the crown that consists in righteousness and is also the reward for righteousness, the victor's crown as in 1Co 9:25 which see) "is laid away" for him.
{At that day} (en ekeinēi tēi hēmerāi). That great and blessed day (1:12,18).
{The righteous judge} (ho dikaios kritēs). "The just judge," the umpire who makes no mistakes who judges us all (2Co 5:10).
{Shall give me} (apodōsei moi). Future active of apodidōmi. "Will give back" as in Ro 2:6 and in full.
{But also to all them that have loved his appearing} (alla pāsin tois ēgapēkosin tēn epiphaneian autou). Dative case of the perfect active participle of agapaō, to love, who have loved and still love his second coming. Epiphaneia here can as in 1:10 be interpreted of Christ's Incarnation.

4:9 {Shortly} (tacheōs). In verse 21 he more definitely says "before winter." Apparently the trial might drag on through its various stages.

4:10 {Forsook me} (me egkateleipen). Imperfect (MSS. also have aorist, egkatelipen) active of the old double compound verb egkataleipō, for which see Ro 9:29. Clearly in contrast to verse 9 and in the sense of 1Ti 6:17, wilful desertion. Only mentioned elsewhere in Col 4:14.
{Crescens} (Krēskēs). No other mention of him.
{Titus to Dalmatia} (Titos eis Dalmatian). Titus had been asked to rejoin Paul in Nicopolis where he was to winter, probably the winter previous to this one (Tit 3:12). He came and has been with Paul.

4:11 {Only Luke is with me} (Loukas estin monos met' emou). Luke is with Paul now in Rome as during the first Roman imprisonment (Phm 1:24; Col 4:14).
{Take Mark} (Markon analabōn). Second aorist active participle of analambanō, old verb, to pick up, as in Eph 6:13,16. "Pick up Mark."
{He is useful to me} (estin moi euchrēstos). See 2:21 for euchrēstos. Paul had long ago changed his opinion of Mark (Col 4:10) because Mark had changed his conduct and had made good in his ministry. Now Paul longs to have the man that he once scornfully rejected (Ac 15:37ff.).

4:12 {Tychicus I sent to Ephesus} (Tuchikon apesteila eis Epheson). Perhaps Paul had sent him on before he came to Rome. He may have been still on the way to Ephesus.

4:13 {The cloke} (tēn phelonēn). More common form pheilonē. By metathesis for phainolē, Latin "paenula", though which language transliterated the word into the other is not known. The meaning is also uncertain, though probably "cloke" as there are so many papyri examples in that sense (Moulton and Milligan, "Vocabulary"). Milligan (N.T. "Documents", p. 20) had previously urged "book wrap" as probable but he changed his mind and rightly so.
{With Carpus} (para Karpōi). "Beside Carpus," at his house. Not mentioned elsewhere. Probably a visit to Troas after Paul's return from Crete.
{The books} (ta biblia). Probably papyrus rolls. One can only guess what rolls the old preacher longs to have with him, probably copies of Old Testament books, possibly copies of his own letters, and other books used and loved. The old preacher can be happy with his books.
{Especially the parchments} (malista tas membranas). Latin "membrana". The dressed skins were first made at Pergamum and so termed "parchments." These in particular would likely be copies of Old Testament books, parchment being more expensive than papyrus, possibly even copies of Christ's sayings (Lu 1:1-4). We recall that in Ac 26:24 Festus referred to Paul's learning (ta grammata). He would not waste his time in prison.

4:14 {Alexander the coppersmith} (Alexandros ho chalkeus). Old word, only here in N.T., for metal-worker (copper, iron, gold, etc.). Possibly the one in 1:20, but not the one in Ac 19:33f. unless he afterwards became a Christian.
{Did me much evil} (moi kaka enedeixato). Evidently he had some personal dislike towards Paul and possibly also he was a Gnostic.
{Will render} (apodōsei). Future active of the same verb used in verse 8, but with a very different atmosphere.

4:15 {Be thou ware also} (kai su phulassou). Present middle (direct) imperative of phulassō, "from whom keep thyself away." {Withstood} (antestē). Second aorist active indicative of anthistēmi, "stood against my words." See 3:8; Ga 2:11.

4:16 {At my first defence} (en tēi prōtēi apologiāi). Original sense of "apology" as in Php 1:7,16. Either the first stage in this trial or the previous trial and acquittal at the end of the first Roman imprisonment. Probably the first view is correct, though really there is no way to decide.
{No one took my part} (oudeis moi paregeneto). "No one came by my side" (second aorist middle indicative of paraginomai). See 1Co 16:3.
{But all forsook me} (alla pantes me egkateleipon). Same verb and tense used of Demas above (verse 10), "But all were forsaking me" (one by one) or, if aorist egkatelipon, "all at once left me."
{May it not be laid to their account} (mē autois logistheiē). First aorist passive optative in future wish with negative . Common Pauline verb logizomai (1Co 13:5; Ro 4:3,5).

4:17 {But the Lord stood by me} (ho de kurios moi parestē). Second aorist active of paristēmi (intransitive use), "took his stand by my side." See Ro 16:2. Clearly Jesus appeared to Paul now at this crisis and climax as he had done so many times before.
{Strengthened me} (enedunamōsen me). "Poured power into me." See Php 4:13.
{That through me the message might be fully proclaimed} (hina di' emou to kērugma plērophorēthēi). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of plērophoreō (see verse 5). Either to the rulers in Rome now or, if the first imprisonment, by his release and going to Spain. {And that all the Gentiles might hear} (kai akousōsin panta ta ethnē). Continuation of the purpose with the aorist active subjunctive of akouō.
{I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion} (erusthēn ek stomatos leontos). First aorist passive indicative of ruomai (1Th 1:10). A proverb, but not certain what the application is whether to Nero or to Satan (1Th 2:18) or to the lion in the arena where Paul could not be sent because a Roman citizen.

4:18 {Will deliver me} (rusetai me). Future middle. Recall the Lord's Prayer. Paul is not afraid of death. He will find his triumph in death (Php 1:21f.).
{Unto his heavenly kingdom} (eis tēn basileian autou tēn epouranion). The future life of glory as in 1Co 15:24,50. He will save (sōsei, effective future) me there finally and free from all evil.
{To whom be the glory} (hōi hē doxa). No verb in the Greek. Paul's final doxology, his Swan Song, to Christ as in Ro 9:5; 16:27.

4:19 {Prisca and Aquila} (Priscan kai Akulan). Paul's friends now back in Ephesus, no longer in Rome (Rom 16:3). See 1:16 for the house of Onesiphorus.

4:20 {Erastus} (Erastos). See Ac 19:22; Ro 16:23.
{Trophimus} (Trophimon). A native of Ephesus and with Paul in Jerusalem (Ac 20:4; 21:29).
{At Miletus sick} (en Milētōi asthenounta). Present active participle of astheneō, to be weak. Probably on Paul's return from Crete.

4:21 {Before winter} (pro cheimōnos). Pathetic item if Paul was now in the Mamertine Dungeon in Rome with winter coming on and without his cloak for which he asked. How long he had been in prison this time we do not know. He may even have spent the previous winter or part of it here. Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia are all unknown otherwise. Irenaeus does speak of Linus. {The Lord be with thy Spirit} (ho kurios meta tou pneumatos sou). Let us hope that Timothy and Mark reached Paul before winter, before the end came, with the cloak and with the books. Our hero, we may be sure, met the end nobly. He is already more than conqueror in Christ who is by his side and who will welcome him to heaven and give him his crown. Luke, Timothy, Mark will do all that mortal hands can do to cheer the heart of Paul with human comfort. He already had the comfort of Christ in full measure.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 4)

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