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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 9)



9:1 {Superfluous} (perisson). All the same he does write. "The writing" (to graphein) ought to be superfluous.

9:2 {I glory} (kauchōmai). Present middle indicative. I still am glorying, in spite of the poor performance of the Corinthians. {Hath been prepared} (pareskeuastai). Perfect passive indicative of paraskeuazō, to make ready, "stands prepared." {Stirred up} (ērethise). First aorist active indicative of erethizō (from erethō, to excite), to excite in a good sense here, in a bad sense in Col 3:21, the only N.T. examples.
{Very many of them} (tous pleionas). The more, the majority.

9:3 {I sent} (epempsa). Not literary plural with this epistolary aorist as in 18,22.
{That ye may be prepared} (hina pareskeuasmenoi ēte). Perfect passive subjunctive in the final clause, "that ye may really be prepared," "as I said" (kathōs elegon) and not just say that ye are prepared. Paul's very syntax tells against them.

9:4 {If there come with me any of Macedonia and find you unprepared} (ean elthōsin sun emoi Makedones kai heurōsin humas aparaskeuastous). Condition of third class (undetermined, but stated as a lively possibility) with ean and the second aorist active subjunctive (elthōsin, heurōsin), a bold and daring challenge. Aparaskeuastos is a late and rare verbal adjective from paraskeuazō with a privative, only here in the N.T. {Lest by any means we should be put to shame} (mē pōs kataischunthōmen hēmeis). Negative purpose with first aorist passive subjunctive of kataischunō (see on »7:14) in the literary plural.
{That we say not, ye} (hina mē legōmen humeis). A delicate syntactical turn for what he really has in mind. He does wish that they become ashamed of not paying their pledges.
{Confidence} (hupostasei). This word, common from Aristotle on, comes from huphistēmi, to place under. It always has the notion of substratum or foundation as here; 11:17; Heb 1:3. The papyri give numerous examples (Moulton and Milligan's "Vocabulary") of the word for "property" in various aspects. So in Heb 11:1 "faith is the title-deed of things hoped for." In the LXX it represents fifteen different Hebrew words.

9:5 {I thought} (hegēsamēn). Epistolary aorist again. See Php 2:25 for the expression here.
{Go before} (proelthōsin). Second aorist active of proerchomai. Go to you before I come. {Make up beforehand} (prokatartisōsi). Late and rare double compound verb prokatartizō (in Hippocrates). Only here in N.T. See katartizō in 1Co 1:10.
{Your afore-promised bounty} (tēn proepēggelmenēn eulogian humōn). "Blessing" (eulogia) literally, but applied to good deeds also as well as good words (Ge 33:11). Note third use of "pro" before. He literally rubs it in that the pledge was overdue.
{That the same might be ready} (tautēn hetoimēn einai). Here the infinitive alone (einai) is used to express purpose without hōste or eis to or pros to with the accusative of general reference (tautēn). The feminine form hetoimēn is regular (1Pe 1:5) though hetoimos also occurs with the feminine like the masculine (Mt 25:10).
{And not of extortion} (kai mē hōs pleonexian). "And not as covetousness." Some offerings exhibit covetousness on the part of the giver by their very niggardliness.

9:6 {Sparingly} (pheidomenōs). Late and rare adverb made from the present middle participle pheidomenos from pheidomai, to spare. It occurs in Plutarch (Alex. 25).

9:7 {He hath purposed} (proēirētai). Perfect middle indicative of proaireomai, to choose beforehand, old verb, here only in N.T. Permanent purpose also.
{Not grudgingly} (mē ek lupēs). The use of rather than ou shows that the imperative poieitō (do) or didotō (give) is to be supplied. Not give as out of sorrow.
{Or of necessity} (ē ex anagkēs). As if it were like pulling eye-teeth.
{For God loveth a cheerful giver} (hilaron gar dotēn agapāi ho theos). Our word "hilarious" comes from hilaron which is from hilaos (propitious), an old and common adjective, only here in N.T.

9:8 {Is able} (dunatei). Late verb, not found except here; 13:3; Ro 14:4. So far a Pauline word made from dunatos, able. {All sufficiency} (pāsan autarkeian). Old word from autarkēs (Php 4:11), common word, in N.T. only here and 1Ti 6:6). The use of this word shows Paul's acquaintance with Stoicism. Paul takes this word of Greek philosophy and applies it to the Christian view of life as independent of circumstances. But he does not accept the view of the Cynics in the avoidance of society. Note threefold use of "all" here (en panti, pantote, pāsan, in everything, always, all sufficiency).

9:9 {As it is written} (kathōs gegraptai). Ps 92:3,9. Picture of the beneficent man.
{He hath scattered abroad} (eskorpisen). First aorist active indicative of skorpizō, to scatter, "Koinē" verb for skedannumi of the Attic. Probably akin to skorpios (scorpion) from root skarp, to cut asunder. See on »Mt 12:30. It is like sowing seed.
{To the poor} (tois penēsin). Old word from penamai, to work for one's living. Latin "penuria" and Greek peinaō, to be hungry, are kin to it. Only N.T. instance and to be distinguished from ptōchos, beggar, abjectly poor.

9:10 {Supplieth} (epichorēgōn). Late "Koinē" compound verb from epi and chorēgeō, just below (1Pe 4:11). Chorēgos is old word for leader of a chorus (choros, hēgeomai) or chorus-leader. The verb means to furnish a chorus at one's own expense, then to supply in general. N.T. examples of epichorēgeō are 2Co 9:10; Ga 3:15; Col 2:19; 2Pe 1:5.
{Shall multiply} (plēthunei). Future active indicative of plēthunō, old verb from plēthus, fulness. Cf. Ac 6:1.
{Fruits} (genēmata). Correct reading (from ginomai, to become) and not gennēmata (from gennaō, to beget). This spelling is supported by LXX where Thackeray shows that genēmata in LXX refers to vegetables and gennēmata to animals. The papyri support this distinction (Moulton and Milligan's "Vocabulary").

9:11 {Enriched} (ploutizomenoi). Present passive participle of ploutizō for which see on »1Co 1:5; 2Co 6:10 only other N.T. examples.
{Liberality} (haplotēta). See on »8:2. Anacoluthon with nominative participle too far from perisseuēte for agreement. More like the independent use of the participle.

9:12 {Service} (leitourgias). Old word from leōs (people, laos), leitos like dēmosios, public, and ergon, work. So public service either in worship to God (Lu 1:23) or benefaction to others (2Co 9:12; Php 2:30). Our word liturgy is this word.
{Filleth up} (estin prosanaplērousa). Present active periphrastic indicative of double compound verb prosanaplēroō, "Koinē" word, here and 11:9 only in N.T., to fill up by adding to. The Corinthians simply added to the total from others.
{Unto God} (tōi theōi). Dative case and with a certain suddenness as at close of verse 11, really a parenthesis between in the somewhat tangled sentence.

9:13 {Seeing that they glorify God} (doxazontes ton theon). Anacoluthon again. The nominative participle used independently like ploutizomenoi in verse 11.
{Obedience} (hupotagēi). Late and rare word from hupotassō, to subject, middle to obey. Only in Paul in N.T.
{Of your confession} (tēs homologias humōn). Old word from homologeō (homologos, homou, legō), to say together. It is either to profess (Latin "profiteor", to declare openly) or to confess (Latin "confiteor", to declare fully, to say the same thing as another). Both confess and profess are used to translate the verb and each idea is present in the substantive. Only the context can decide. Actions speak louder than words. The brethren in Jerusalem will know by this collection that Gentiles make as good Christians as Jews.
{For the liberality of your contribution} (haplotēti tēs koinōnias). This is the point that matters just now. Paul drives it home. On this use of koinōnia see on »8:4.

9:14 {While they themselves long after you} (autōn epipothountōn). Genitive absolute of present active participle of epipotheō (5:2).
{In you} (eph' humin). Upon you.

9:15 {Thanks be to God} (charis tōi theōi). Third time (verses 11,12,15).
{For his unspeakable gift} (epi tēi anekdiēgētōi autou dōreāi). One of Paul's gems flashed out after the somewhat tangled sentence (verses 10-14) like a gleam of light that clears the air. Words fail Paul to describe the gift of Christ to and for us. He may have coined this word as it is not found elsewhere except in ecclesiastical writers save as a variant (B L) for adiēgēton in Aristeas 99 (thaumasmon anekdiēgēton, "wonder beyond description," Moulton and Milligan's "Vocabulary"). See similar word in Ro 11:33 (anexichniasta, unsearchable) and Eph 3:8.


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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 9)



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