thron. (kicce', a "seat" in 2Ki 4:10; a "royal seat" in Jon 3:6; thronos): Usually the symbol of kingly power and dignity. Solomon's throne was noted for its splendor and magnificence (1Ki 10:18-20; compare 2Ch 9:17-19). It symbolizes:

(1) The exalted position of earthly kings, rulers, judges, etc., their majesty and power (of kings: Ge 41:40; 1Ki 2:19; Job 36:7, etc.; denoting governing or judicial power: 2Sa 14:9; Ne 3:7; Ps 122:5, etc.; often equivalent to kingdom or reign: 1Sa 2:8; 1Ki 1:37,47, etc.; in this connection we note the expressions: "a man on the throne of Israel," 1Ki 2:4, etc.; "to sit upon a throne" 1Ki 1:13,17, etc.; Jer 13:13, etc.; "to set a person on a throne," 2Ki 10:3; "the throne of Israel," 1Ki 8:20, etc.; "the throne of David" 2Sa 3:10, etc.; of Solomon, 2Sa 7:13, etc.; of Joash, 2Ch 23:20, etc.). In Jer 17:12 it is equivalent to "temple" ("A glorious throne .... is the place of our sanctuary"); it symbolizes the power of the Gentiles being hostile to the people of Yahweh (Ps 94:20), and is used metaphorically in Isa 22:23 ("He (i.e. Eliakim) shall be for a throne of glory to his father's house").

(2) The majesty and power of Yahweh as the true king of Israel; He "is enthroned above the cherubim" (1Sa 4:4 the Revised Version margin; compare 2Sa 6:2; 2Ki 19:15; Solomon's throne is really Yahweh's throne (1Ch 29:23), and there shall come a time when Jerusalem shall be called "the throne of Yahweh" (Jer 3:17) and the enemies of Yahweh shall be judged by him ("I will set my throne in Elam," Jer 49:38). According to Eze 43:7, the Lord said of the future temple: "This is the place of my throne."

(3) The rule of the promised theocratic king (the Messiah), its everlasting glory and righteousness. He, too, is Yahweh's representative, inasmuch as He "shall rule upon his throne" (Zec 6:13). Thus, the permanence of the throne of David is warranted (Isa 9:7); eternal peace (1Ki 2:33), loving-kindness and justice (Isa 16:5) characterize his reign. The New Testament points to Jesus as this promised king (Lu 1:32; compare Ac 2:30; Heb 12:2); Christ Himself refers to His future state of glory (Mt 25:31) and guarantees His faithful disciples a similar distinction (Mt 19:28; compare Lu 22:30; Re 20:4).

(4) The matchless glory, the transcendent power and absolute sovereignty of God (and Christ); Micaiah "saw Yahweh sitting on his throne," etc. (1Ki 22:19; compare 2Ch 18:18); Isaiah and Ezekiel had similar visions (Isa 6:1; Eze 1:26); compare also Da 7:9 and Re 4:2 (and often); in trying to depict the incomparable greatness of the King of kings, the Bible tells us that His throne is in heaven (Ps 11:4, etc.) and, moreover, that heaven itself is His throne (Isa 66:1; Mt 5:34, etc.); His reign is founded on righteousness and justice (Ps 89:14; compare 97:2) and of eternal duration (Ps 45:6; compare Heb 1:8; La 5:19); He acts justly and kindly (Ps 9:4 and Ps 89:14); He defends His glory (Jer 14:21); He manifests His holiness (Ps 47:8) and His grace (Heb 4:16), and yet His dealings with us are not always fully understood by us (Job 26:9).

(5) Heavenly kingdoms or rulers (angels: Col 1:16).


William Baur

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